« السابقةمتابعة »
of Hatfinr-sclscleh. The more magnificent of the two stands upon the top of a sandy hill, and appears to have been a species of Pantheon, since, according to extant inscriptions, it was dedicated to Aroeres (Apollo) and the other deities of the Ombite nome by the soldiers quartered there. The smaller temple to the NW. was sacred to Isis. Both, indeed, are of an imposing architecture, and still retain the brilliant colours with which their builders adorned them. They are, however, of the Ptolemaic age, with the exception of a doorway of sandstone, built intoawall of brick. This was part. of a temple built by Thothmes Ill. in honour of the crocodileheaded god Sevak. The monarch is represented on the door-jambs, holding the measuring reed and chisel, the emblems of construction, and in the act. of dedicating the temple. The Ptolemaic portions of the larger temple present an exception to an almost universal rule in Aegyptian architecture. It has no propylon or dromos in front of it, and the portioo has an uneven number of columns, in all fifieen, arranged in a triple row. Of these columns thirteen are still erect. As there are two principal entrances, the temple would seem to be tws united in one, strengthening the supposition that it was the Pantheon of the Ombite nome. On a cornice above the doorway of one of the adyta is a Greek inscription, recording the erection, or perhaps the restoration of the sekns by Ptolemy Philometor and his sister-wife Cleopatra, n. 0. 180—145. The hill on which the Ombite temples stand has been considerably excavated at its base by the river, which here strongly inclines to the Arabian bank.
The crocodile was held in especial honour by the people of Ombi; and in the adjacent catacombs are occasionally found mummies of the sacred animal. Juvenal, in his 15th satire, has given a lively description of a fight, of which he was an eye-witness, between the Ombitae and the inhabitants of Tentyra, who were hunters of the crocodile. On this weasiou the men of Ombi had the worst of it; and one of their number, having stumbled in his flight, was caught and eaten by the Tentyrites. The sotirist, however, has represented Ombi as nearer to Tentyra than it actually is, these towns, in fact, being nearly 100 miles from each other. The Roman coins of the Ombite nome exhibit the crocodile and the effigy of the crocodile~headed god Sevak.
The modern hamlet of Koum-Ombos, or the hill of Ombos, covers part of the site of the ancient Ombi. The ruins have excited the attention of many distinguished modern travellers. Descriptions of them will be found in the following works:— Pococke, Travels, vol. iv. p. 186; Hamilton, Aegyptiaca, p. 84; Champollion, I‘Eyypto, vol. i. p. 167; Denon, Deecriptimz do I’Egyple, vol. i. oh. 4, p. I, fell; Burekhardt, Nubia, 4t0. p. 106; Belzoni, TraveLs, vol. ii. p. 314. On the opposite side of the Nile Was a suburb of Ombi, called Contm-Ombos. [W.B.D.]
OMBRIOS INS. [FORTUNATAE Ins]
OMBRO'NES ('Op.€pwvn, Ptol. iii. 5. § 21), a people of European Sarmatia, whose seat appears it», hm-e been on the flanks of the Cavpatln'am, about the sources of the Vie-lulu. Schafarik (Slav. All. vol, i. pp. 389—391, 407) considers them to be a Celtic people, grounding his arguments mainly upon the identity of their name with that of the Celtic » as he considers them to be—Umbrians, or the most ancient inhabitants of the Italian peninsula. Recent inquiry has thrown considerable doubt upon the derivation of the Umbrians from a Gaulish
D'Anvills (Notice, 41:.) ingeniously supposes that Onobrisattes ought to be Onobtisotes, which is the lcnst possible correction; and he thinks that he discovers the old name in the modern Nébouaan, the name of a canton on the left side of the Neste towards the lower part of its course. The Waste is one of the branches of the Garonne, and rises in the Pyrenees. [G. L.]
ONOCHO'NUS. [Oxcrrnsrcs, No. 2.]
ONUGNATHUS ('Ovou 7voi00s), “the jaw of an ass," the name of a peninsula and promontory in the south of Laconia, distant 200 stadia south of Asopus. It is now entirely surrounded with water, and is called Elafimisi; but it is in reality a peninsula, for the isthmus, by which it is connected with the mainland, is only barely covered with water. It contains a harbour, which Strabo mentions; and Pausanios saw a temple of Athena in ruins, and the sepulchre of Cinadus, the steersman of Moneluus. (Pans. iii. 22. § 10, iii. 28. § 1; Strab. viii. pp. 363, 364; Cnrtius, Peloponncsos, vol. ii. p. 295.)
ONU'PHIS ('Ovounprs, Herod. ii. 166; Staph. B. a. 11.; Ptol. iv. 5. 51 , 'l'lin. v. 9. s. 9: Elk. ’Ovoutpl-r-rls), was the chief town of the Nomos Onnphites, in the Aegyptian Delta. The exact POSliiun of this place is disputed by geographers. D'Anville believes it to have been on the site of the modem Banoub, on the western bank of the Sebennytic arm of the Nile. Mnnnert (vol. x. pt. i, p. 573) places it south of the modern Munsour. Belley (Mei-m. do Z'Acad. dos Iii-script. tom. xxviii. p. 543) identifies it with the present village of Nouph, in the centre of the Delta, in little to the E. of Buto, about lat. 31° N. Champolliou, however, regards the site of this name as altogether uncertain (l'Egg/ple sow lea Pharaohs, vol. ii. p.227). The Onuphite nome was one of those assigned to the Calosiriun division of the native Aegyptian army. Coins of Onuphis 01‘ the age of Hadrian—obverse a luureuted head of that emperor, reverse a female figure, probably Isis, with extended right hand—are described in Roselle R. Nam. [11. para posterior, s. tn). This town is mentioned by ecclesiastical writers, e. g. by Athanasius. (Athanas. Opera, tom. i. pt. ii. p. 776, ed. Paris, 1698; Le Quien, Om'em Christian. tom. ii. p. 526, Paris, 1740; comp. Pococke, Travels in the East, fol. vol. i. p. 423.) [W.B.l).]
Ol’HARUS, u small river of Sarrnatiu Asiaticn, mentioned by Pliny (vi. 7. s. 7) as a tributary of the Lagous, which flowed into the Palus Moeotis. Herodotus mentions two streams, which he Calls the Lyons and Ourus, which had the same course and direction (iv. 123, 124). It is likely that the rivers in Pliny and Herodotus are the same. It is not possible now to identify them with accu
vfioos, Ptol. iv. 5. §77) was probably the some with Ophiodes, and answers to the present Zamargat. The isle of Kamalra, opposite the headland of RnreLAnf, is, indeed, by some geographers supposed to be the true Ophiodes Insula. (Castro, Hist. Gen. den Voyages, vol. i. p. 205.) [W.B.D.]
OPHlONENSES or OPHIENSES. [AETOLIA, p. 65, a.
OPlllii (Oddiip; Otidtslp; Zompl'p; Zompeip; IMPI'P; Iwwd: Eli-"wad = Mood; IMWP; 'O1r¢eip ; 'Ihpelp, LXX. ; Joseph. Ant. viii. 6. § 4), a district, the name of which first occurs in the ethnographic table of Genen'l, x. 29. Solomon caused a fleet to be built in the Edomite ports of the Red Sea, and Hiram supplied him with Phoenician mariners well acquainted with navigation, and also Tyrian vessels, “ ships of Tarshish." (l Kinga, ix. 28; 2 Chron. viii. 18.) The articles of merchandise which were brought back once in three years from Ophir were gold, silver, red sandalwood (“almuggim," 1 Kings, x. ll; “ algummim," 2 Citron. ix. IO), precious stones, ivory, apea, (“ kophim”), and peacocks (“ thfikyim,” 1 Kings, x. 22; “ tht'ikyim," 1 Chron. ix. 21). The gold of Ophir was considered to be of the most precious quality. (Job, xx. 1], 24, xxviii. 16; Pa. xiv. 9; Isa. xiii. l2; Eccles. vii. 18). In Jer. x. 9, “ the gold from Uphaz," nml in Don. x. 5, “_ the fine gold of Uphaz," is, by a slight change of pronunciation, the same as that of Ophir.
Many elaborate treatises have been written upon the details of these voyages. The researches of Gescnius (Thesaur. Linguae Hebr. vol. i. p. HI; and in Ersch and Grfiber'a Encycl. art. Ophir), Benfcy (Indien, pp. 30—32) and Lassen (Ind. All. vol. i. pp. 537—539) have made it extremely probable that the W. shores of the Indian peninsula were visited by the Phoenicians, who, by their colonies in the Persian Gulf, and by their intercourse with the Gerrhaei, were early acquainted with the periodically blowing monsoons. In favour of this Indian hypothesis is the remarkable circumstance that the names by which the articles of merchandise are designated are not Hebrew but Sansorit. Tho peacock, too, is an exclusively Indian bird; although from their gradual extension to the W. they were often called by the Greeks “ Median and Persian birds;” the Samians even supposed them to have originally belonged to Samoa, as the bird was reared at first in the sanctuary dedicated to Hera in that island. Silks, also, which are first mentioned in Proverbs, xxxi. 22, could alone have been brought from India. Quatremere (Mém. do l‘Aoad. dea Imcr. vol. xv. pt. ii. 1845, pp. 349—402) agrees with Heeren (Researches, VOl- ii. pp. 73, 74, trans), who places Ophir on the E. coast of Africa, and explains “ thukyim " to mean not peacocks, but par. rota or guinea-fowls. Ptolemy (vi. 7. § 41) speaks of a SAPHARA (Id-roam) as a metropolis of Arabia, and again of a Sonrana (Ion-ripe, vii. 1. § 6) in India, on the Barygazenus Sinus, or Gulf of Cambay. a name which in Sanscrit signifies “ fair-shore." (Lassen, Diuert. do Taprobane Im. p, 18; comp, Ind. Alt. vol. i. p. 537.) Sofala, on the E. coast of Africa, opposite to the island of liladagrucar (London Geog. Joum. vol. ii. p. 207), is described by Edrisi (ed. Juubert, vol. i. p. 67) as a country rich in gold, and subsequently by the Portuguese, after Game's voyage of discovery. The letters r and! so frequently interchanged make the name of the African Sofalo equivalent for that of
Sopham, which is used in the Septuagint with several other forms for the Ophir of Solomon's and Hiram's fleet Ptolemy, it has been seen, has a &pharn in Arabia and a Soupara in India The significant Snnscrit names of the mother-country had been repeated or reflected on neighbouring or opposite coasts, as in the present day occurs in many instances in the English and Spanish Amerim. The range of the trade to Ophir might thus be extended over a wide space, just us a Phoenician voyage to Tunessus might include touching It Cyrene and Carthage, Gudeim and Come. (Humboldt, Com, vol. ii. pp. 132, 133, notes 179—182, trans.) [B.B J.]
OPHIS ("095), a river of Pontns, the mouth of which was 90 stadia to the east of port Hyssus,and which separated Colchis from the country of the Thianni. (Arrian, Pen‘pl. Pont. Eur. p. 6; Anonym. Peripl. p. 14, where it is called 'Opwin.)
the river Tigris flowed by it. Xenophon, in the Retreat of the Ten Thousand, speaks of it as a large city situated upon the Physcus (now Adhem), and apparently at some distance from its junction with the Tigris. Arrian, describing the return of Alexander from the Eat, states that he sailed up the Tigris to Opis, destroying on his way the dams which (it wu said) the Persians had placed across the river to prevent any naval force ascending the stream. At Opis he is said to have held a great assembly of all his troops. and to have sent home those who were no longer fit toserve. (Anab. vi. 7.) Strnbo speaks of it as in his time a small village, but places it, like Herodotus and Arrian, upon the Tigris (ii. p. 80, xi. p. 529, xvi. p. 739). Captain Lynch, in his account of the Tigris between Baghdn'd and Sims-mkoonsiders that some extensive ruins he met with near the angle formed by the A dilem and Tigris, and the remains of the Nahr-awa'n canal, marl: the site of Opis. But the change in the course of the Tigris there observable has led to the deltrnction of great part of the ancient city. (Lynch, Geoerow-n. ix. p. 472 ; comp. Bawlinson, Geogr. Jonm. x. p. 95. V.
OPlTE'RGIUM ('Onn’p'yrov: Elk. Opiterginus: Oder"). a city of Venetin, situated about 24 miles from the sea, midway between the rivers Pluvis (Place) and Liquentia (Livenza), on a small stream (now called the Fratta) flowing into the latter. No mention of it is found before the Roman conquest of Venetia ; but it appears to have under their rule become a considerable municipal town, and is Mfifined by Strabo as a flourishing place, though not a city of the first class. (Strab. v. p. 214.) In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey :1 body of troops furnished by the Opitergini is mentioned ” di-‘Plli'iflg the most heroic valour, and ofi'ering a memorable example of self-devotion, in a naval combat between the fleets of the two parties. (Liv. Ep. cx-i Flor. iv. 2. § 33; Lucan, iv. 462—571.) Tacitus also notices it as one of the more considerable towns in this part of Italy which were occupied bythe generals of Vespasian, Primus, and Varus. (Fae. IIilL iii. 6.) It is mentioned by all the geonephew, I: well as in the Itineraries ; and though Animianus tells us it was taken and destroyed by In rrruption of the andi and Marcomanni in A. n. 372, it certainly recovered this blow, and was still a considerable town under the Lombards. (Plin. iii. 19. l~ 23; Ptol. iii. l.§ 30; Itin- Ant. p. 280; Tab. PM; Ammian. xxix. 6. § 1; P. Diac. iv. 40.) In an inscription of the reign of Alexander Soverus, Opilergium bears the title of a Colonia; as it is not "mini such either by Pliny or Tacitus, it probably obtained that rank under Trajan. (Orell. laser. 72; 111mm, the Colon. p. 402.) It was destroyed by the Lombard king Rotharis in A. n. 641, and again, in less than 30 years afterwards, by Griinoaldus (P. Dine. iv. 47, v. 28); but seems to have risen again from its mine in the middle ages, and is still a considerable town and an episcopal see.
Opitergium itself stood quite in the plain ; but its "trim. which must have been extensive, comFind a considerable range of the adjoining Alps' “3 Pliny Splits of the river Liquentia as rising "ex montibus Opiterginis" (Plin. iii. 18. s. 22). The Itinerary gives a line of cross-road which proceeded from Opitergium by Feltria (Feltre) and a" V"! swam: to 'l'ridentum (Trent)- (llifl. AMp. 280.) [E. H. B.]
U‘Plb'S (’Ornoiis), a small port-town on the coast
of Pontus, probably on or near the mouth of the river Ophis. (Ptol. v. 6. §6; Tab. Peuting.) It is placed 120 stadia west of the river Rhizius, although its name seems to indicate that it was situated further wait, near the river Ophis. [L. S.]
OPO'NE ('Owrs’ivvy; 'Oi'n’um r'y'lrdptov, Ptol. iv. 7. § ll; Peripl. Mar. Erythr. p. 9), the modern Hafoon or Afdn, was a town situated upon the eastern coast of Africa, immediately N. of the region called Azania (Khauiyin), lat. 9° N. The author of the Periplus, in his account of this coast, says that Opone stood at the commencement of the highland called by the ancients Mount Elcphas. He further defines its position by adding that since there was only an open roadstead at the Aromntum Emporium—the cape Guardafm' ur Jerdafioon of modern charts—ships in bad weather ran down to stae for shelter,—the promontory now known as Rae Earmah, where stood the town called by Ptolemy (i. 17. § 8, iv. 7. § 11) 11:2va mop/r1, the Hannah of the Arabians. From thence a voyage of 400 stadia round a sharply projecting peninsula terminated at the emporium of Opone. Here ended to S. the Regio Aromata of the ancients.
Opone was evidently a place of some commercial importance. The region in which it stood was from remotest ages the scat- of the spice trade of Libya. Throughout the range of Mount Elephas the valleys that slope seawards produce frankincense, while inland the casein or cinnamon of the ancients at< tained perfection. But the Greeks, until a comparatively lute period, were unacquainted with this coast, and derived from the Arabians its distinctive local appellations. Opone, which doubtless occupied the site, probably, therefore, represents also the Arabic name of a town called A or llafoon, i. e. Afaon, fragrant gums and spices; which, again, is nearly equivalent to the Greek designation of the spice-land of Eastern Libya—AromntrL And this derivation is rendered the more probable, when taken in connection with the neighbouring bluti‘ or headland of Guardafai or Jera‘rrfl'oon, since 11er enters into the composition of both names, and Jerd or Guard resembles the Panic word Kartha, n headland. Thus Jerd-Afl'oon is the promontory of Opone. Ptolemy (iv. 7. § 11) places Opone too far S. of cape Jerdafl‘oon. The author of the Periplus more correctly sets its degree further N., six days' voyage from a river which runs at the southern base of Wady Ilalfa, or Mount Elephas. The characteristics of the entire tract, of which Opone formed one extremity, are those of an elevated ridge lying between two seas,—the Red Sea and the ocean,—and which, from its elevation and exposure to the NE. monsoon, is humid and fertile,afl'ording a marked contrast to the generally sterile and arid shore above and below the highland of Elephas. S. of Opone there is no trace of ancient commerce. The articles of export from this emporium were, according to the author of the Periplns, cinnamon, distinguished as “native,” aroma, fragrant gums generally, moth, or cinnamon of inferior quality; slaves of a superior kind (onAnrd xpcirmoya), principally for the Aegyptian market; and tortoise- shell of a superior quality and in great abundance. (See Vincent, Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients. vol. ii. p. 152-157.) [w. s. 1).]
OPPIDUM NOVUM (“'Oirmdov Ne'ov, Ptol. iv. 2- § 25), a town of Mnuretnnia, colonised in the reign of the emperor Claudius, by the veterans (Plin.
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO “BRA RY
Manliana, and the Antonina Itinerary 18 M. P. to the W.; Ptolemy’s position agrees with the Sim!!!) of Shaw (Ta-av. p. 58). where that. traveller found ruins on the W. bank of the Chinnlaph. The town of the Itinerary corresponds with El Kbddaralz, the “ Chadra " of Edrisi (Geoy. Nab. p. 81), situated on a rising ground, on the brink of the same river, where there are also ruins. B. J.]
OPPIDUM NOVUM, of Aquitania in Gallia, is placed by the Antonine Itin. on the road from Aquae anbellicae (Doc) to Tolosa (Toulouse), and between Benehannum and Aqua Convenarum. [llan'nnAnNtm; AQUAE Convaxanunrj D’Anville has fixed Oppidum Novum at Nag/e, the chief reason for which is some resemblance of name. [G. L.]
Ol’SlCELLA, a town mentioned only by Strabo (iii. p. 157), and said to have been founded by one of the companions of Anterior, in the territory of the Cantabri. [T. H. 1).]
0PTATIANA. [Dacua Vol. I. p. 744, b.]
OPU'NTIUS SINUS. [Orus]
OPUS ('Ovroiis, contr. of 'O‘rrdelr, 11. ii. 531 : Elk. ’Oirmirnur), the chief town of a tribe of the Locri, who were called from this place the Locri Opuntii. It stood at the head of the Opuntian gulf (d ‘Oirolivnos K6)\1I'0$, Strub. ix. p. 425; Opuntius Sinus, Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Mela, ii. 3. § 6), a little inland, being 15 Studio. from the shore according to Strabo (I. c.), or only a mile according to Livy (xxviii. 6). Opus was believed to be one of the most ancient towns in Greece. It was said to have been founded by Opus, :1 son of Locrus and Protogcncia; and in its neighbourhood Deucalion and l’yrrha were reported to have resided. (Pind. OI. ix. 62, 87; Schol. ad loo.) It was the native city of Patroclus. (110m. Il. xvii. 326), and it is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue as one of the Locrian towns subject to Ajax, son of Oilcus ([1. ii. 531). During the flourishing period of Grecian history, it was regarded as the chief city of the eastern Locrians, for the distinction between the Opuntii and Epicnemidii is not made either by Herodotus, Thucydides, or Polybius. Even Strabo, from whom the distinction is chiefly derived, in one place describes Opus as the capital of the Epicnemidii (ix. p. 4l6); and the same is confirmed by l’liny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Stephanns (s. v. 'Omietr; from Leake, Now/1m; Greece, vol. ii. p. 181.) The ()puntii joined Leonidas with all their forces at Thermopylne, and sent seven ships to the Grecian fleet at Artemisium. (Herod. vii. 203, viii 1.) Subsequently they belonged to the anti-Athenian party in Greece. Accordingly, after the conquest of Boeotia by the Athenians, which followed the battle of Oenophyta, n. c. 456, the Athenians carried off 100 of the richest Opuntians as hostages. (Thuc. i. 108.) In the Peloponnesinn War the Opnntian privateers annoyed the Athenian trade, and it was in order to check them that. the Athenians fortified the small island of Atalanta olf the Opuntian coast. (Thut; ii. 32.) In the war betwucn Antigonus and Gassunder, Opus espoused the cause of the latter, and was therefore besieged by Ptolemy, the general of Autigonus. (Diod. xix. 78.) I
The position of Opus is a disputed point. Meletius has fitllcu into the error of identifying it with Pumlonilza, which is in the territory of the Epicne
midi, Many modern writers place Opus at 7lilarida, ’
where are several Hellenic remains; but Lake obgervcs that the distance of T a'lqrula from the sea is much too great to ceneapond with the testimony of Strabo and Livy. Accmlingly Leake places Opus
at Karrlhcnilza, a village situated an hour to the south-eastward of Tlilflfldtl, at a distance from the sea corresponding to the 15 studio of Strabo, and where exist the remains of an ancient city. (Ntn'ihern Greece, vol. ii. p. 173,
2. A town in the mountainous district of Acrorcia in Elia, taken by the Spartans, when they invaded Elis at the close of the Peloponnmisn War. The Schulth on Pindar mentions a river Opus in Elis. The site of the town is perhaps represented by the Hellenic ruins at. Skirida, and the river Opus may be the stream which there flows from s-small lake into the Peneius. (Diod. xiv. 17; Staph. B. a. n; Strab. ix. p. 425; Schol. nd’Pind. 0L ix. 6%; Leake, Pelaponmsiaca, p. 220; Curtius, Peloponnem, vol. i. p. 41.)
ORA ('0pu), a place mentioned by Ptolemy (vi. 8. § 14) in Carmania, but apparently an the confines of Gedrosia. It seems not. improbable that he has confounded it with Orae, or Oraea, which was certainly in the latter province. Strabo (xv. p. 723) and Arrian (vi. 24) both apparently quoting from the same authority, speak of a place of this name in Gedrosia,—the capital, probably, of the Oritae.
ORA (1d 'Opa), a town in the NW. part of india, apparently at. no great distance from the Ka'bul river, of which Arrian describes the capture by Alexander the Great, on his march toward: the Panjéb (iv. e. 27). It does not appear to have bet! identified with any existing ruins; but it must have been situated, according to Arrinn's notice, between the Guraei (Hours) and the celebrated Mk Aomos. [V.]
ORAE ('npar, Arrian, vi. 22, 28), the chief town, in all probability, of the people who are generally called Oritae, though their name is written in diii‘erent ways. It was situated in Gedrosia, and is most likely the same as is called in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, the Emporium Oraea (c. 37, ed. Muller)- The neighbouring country was rich in corn, wine, barley, and dates. [V.]
ORATHA ('Opada), a city described by Stephenus B. (0. c.), as in the district of Mesene, on the Tigris. As he does not state in which Meseae he supposes it to have been, it is impossible now to identify it. Some commentators have supposed that it is the same as “ Ur of the Chnldecs." it is, howeYer. more likely that it is “Ur castcllnm Peraarum" (Amm. Marc. nxv. 8), now believed to be represented by the ruins of Al-IIaUm"; or, perhaps, the Ura of Pliny (v. 24. s. 21). V- n
OliB'ELUS ('Opg'qkos, Herod. v. 16; Strab. \‘u. p. 329; Diodor. xx. 19; Arrian, 141mb. i. l.§5; Ptol. iii. 9. § 1, iii. 11. § 1,- Pomp. tan, ii. 2. §2: Plin iv. U), the great mountain on the frontiers of Thrace and Macedonia, which, beginning at the Strymonic plain and lake, extends towards the sources of the Strymon, where it unites with the summit called Scomius, in which the river had its origin. The amphibious inhabitants of lake Prams procured their planks and piles, on which they constructed their dwellings, from this mountain. (Hemil. c.) Cassander, after having insisted Audoleon, king of Paeonia, against the Illyrisn Antariatati and having conquered them, transported 20,000 men, women, and children to Mt. Orbelus. (Diodor. l. r.) The epitomiscr of Strabo (l. c.). who lived not long before the commencement of the llth century, spplios this name to the ridge of Uztcrnus and Rhodcpe: Gattcrer (Comment. Soc. Gut. vol. iv. p. 99, vol. v1