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Polybius (iii. 76: coins, up. Sestini, pp. 132, 163; Num. 60th.). [1’. 8.] lA’DERA ('Istpm, Ptol. iii. 16. §10; 'ldficpa, Nicet. p. 348; ladem, l’lin. iii. 26; Iader, Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 13; Pent. Tub; Geog. Rain; on the orthography of the name see Tzchucke, ad Melam, 1.0. vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 275: Eth. Iadertinus, Hirt. B. A. 42; Zara), the capital of Liburnia in lilyricum. Under Augustus it was made a Roman colony. (“ Parens coloniae," [7160121111. I'hrlati, I llyr. Soon, vol. v. p. 3; comp. Ptol. l. c.) Afterwards it bore the name of Ditmomt. and paid a tribute of 110 pieces of gold to the Eastern emperors (Coust. l’orph. dc Adm. Imp. 30), until it was handed over, in the reign of Basil the Macedonian, to the Slavonic princes. Zara, the modern capital of Dalmatia, and well known for the famous siege it stood against the combined French and Venetians, at the beginning of the Fourth Crusade (Gibbon, c. lx.; Wilken, die Kreuzz. vol. v. p. 167), stands upon the site of laden. Little remains of the ancient city; the sea-gate called Porto di San Chrysogono is Roman, but it seems likely that it has been brought from .Acnona. The gate is a single arch with a Corinthian pilaster at each side supporting an cntablztture. Eckhcl (vol. ii. p. 152) doubts the evidence of

any coins of Iadera, though some have been attri- .

huted to it by other writers on numismatics. (Sir G. Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, Vol. i. p. 78,- J. F. Neigubaur, Die Sudsllwen, pp, 181— 191.) [1-1. B. J.]

IADO'NI, a people in the utreme NW. of Hispnnia Tarmconeusis, mentioned only by Pliny, who places them next to the Arrotrebae. (Plin. iv. 20. a. 34.) [1’. 8.] IAETA orIETAE (‘le'rai, Steph.B.: Elli. 'Ie-rai'or, Id.; but Diodorus has 'lourivos, and this is confirmed by coins, the legend of which is uniformly 'lru-rwwv, Eckhel, vol. i. p. 216: in Latin, Cicero has Ietini, but Pliny letenscs), a town of the interior of Sicily, in the NW. of the island, not very far from Panormus. It was mentioned by Philistus (ap. Steph. B. s. o.) as a fortress, and it is called by Thucydides also (if the reading 'le-rris be admitted, in vii. 2) a fortress of the Sicnlians (reixos 'n'w Ibrahim), which was taken by Gylippus on his march from l'limera through the interior of the island towards Syracuse. It first appears as an independent city in the time of Pyrrhus, and was attacked by that monarch on account of its strong position and the advantages it offered for operations against Panormus; but the inhabitants readily capitulated. (Diod. xxii. 10, p. 498.) In the First Punie War it was occupied by a Carthagininn garrison, but after the fall of Panormus drove out these troops and opened its gates to the Romans. (ld. xxiii. 18, p. 505.) Under the Roman government it. appears as a municipal town, but not one of much importance. The letini are only noticed in passing by Cicero among the towns whose lands had been utterly ruined by the exactions of Verres; and the lctenses are enumerated by Pliny among the “ populi stipendiarii" of the interior of Sicily. (Cic. Verr. iii. 43; l’liu. iii. 8. 5.14.) Many .1158. of Cicero read Letini, and it is probable that the A'Trrov of Ptolemy (iii. 4. § 15) is only a corruption of the same name.

The position of [sets is very obscurer intimated, but it appears from Diodorus that it was not very remote from Panormus, and that its site was one of great natural strength. Silius ltalicns also alludes to its elevated situation (“ celsua letas," xiv. 271).

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Fazello assures us that there was a mediaeval fortress called Info on the summit of a lofty mountain, about 15 miles from Palermo, and 12 N. of Entella, which was destroyed by Frederic 11. at the same time with the latter city; and this he supposes, probably enough, to be the site of Iaeta. He says the mountain was still called Monte di Ialo, though more commonly known as Monte di 5. Coxmano, from 1 church on its summit. (Fazell. x. p. 471; Amie. Lu. Top. Sic. vol. ii. p. 291.) The spot is not marked on any modem map, and does not appear to have been visited by any recent travellers. The position thus assigned to laeta agrees W911 with the statements of Diodorus, but is wholly irreconcilable with the admission of 'le'rrir into the text of 'l'hucydidcs (vii. 2): this reading, however, is a mere conjecture (see Arnold’s note), and must

probably be discarded as untenable. [E. H. 5.]

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JAEZER ('lag'np, LXX. ; 'Iafip and 'Atraip, Busch), a city of Gilead, assigned to the tribe of Gad by Moses. ln Numbers (xxxii. 1), “ the land of ancr" is mentioned as contiguous to “the land of Gilead, and suited to cattle." ln Jeremiah (slviii. 32), “ the sea of Jazer ” occurs in some versions, as in the English; but Roland (s. v. p. 825) justly remarks, that this is not certain, as the passage may be pointed after the word “ sea,” and “Jazer,” as a vocativc, commence the following clause. But as “ the land of Jazcr " is used for the country south of Gilead, so the Dead Sea may be designated “ the sea of ancr." Eusebius (Onmmut. a. v. 'Aoép) plum it 8 miles west of Philadelphia or Ammon; and elsewhere (.1. v. 'laa-hp), 10 miles west of Philadelphia, and [5 from Esbon (Heshbon). He adds, that a large river takes its rise there, which rims into the Jordan. In a situation nearly corresponding with this, between 8:412 and Esbru, Bunckhar'dt passed some ruins named Szy-r, where a valley named Wady Szyr takes its rise and runs into the Jordan. This is doubtless the modern representative of the ancient aner. “In two hours and a half (from Sm”) we passed, on our right, the Wady Szg/r. which has its source near the road, and falls into the Jordan. Above the source, on the declivity of the valley, are the ruins called (Syria, p. 364-) It is probably identical with the mger of Ptolemy which he reckons among the cities of Palestine 0!! the east of the Jordan (v. l6). [G. W.]

lA’LYSUS (Trim-cos, ’lriAmmor, or ’lfiltmnmi: Eth. demeanor), one of the three ancient Doric cities in the island of Rhodes, and one of the six towns constituting the Doric hexapolis. It was 5ituated only six studia to the south-west of the city of Rhodes, and it would seem that the rise of the latter city was the cause of the decay of Ialyfiuf‘; for in the time of Stmbo (xiv. p. 655) it existed only as a \illage. Pliny (v. 36) did not: consider it as an independent place at all, but imagined that Ialysus was the ancient name of Rhodes. Orychoms, the crtadel, was situated above lalysns, and still existedin the time of Straho. It is supposed by some ll!"

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aascamo (Vismch, near Udbina); Cumnraus (Gfar‘halz). _ B. l]

IAPY’GIA (’la-rrrryla), was the narrre given by the Grccks to the SE. portion of Italy, bordering on the Adriatic Sea, but the term was used with considerable vagueness, being sometimes restricted to the extreme SE. point or peninsula, called also Messapia, and by the Romans Calabria; at other times extended so as to include the whole of what the Romans termed Apulia Thus Scylax describes the whole coast. from annnia to the promontory of Driorr (Mt. Garganus) as comprised in Iapygia, and even includes under that appellation the cities of Mctupontum and Heraclea on the gulf of Tarentum, which are usually assigned to Lucania. Hence he states that their coast-line extended fora space of six days and nights' voyage. (Scyl. § 14. p. 5.) I’olybius at a later period used the name in an equally extended scnsc, so as to include the whole of Apulia (iii. 88), as well as the Messapinn peninsula; but he elsewhere appears to use the name of Iapygians as equivalent to the Roman term Apnlians, and distinguishes them from the Messapians 24). This is, however, certainly contrary to the usage of earlier Greek writers. Herodotus distinctly applies the term of Iapygia to the peninsula, and calls the Messnpians an Iapyginn tribe; though he evidently did not limit it to this portion of Italy, and must have extended it, at. all events, to the land of the Peucetians, if not of the Dannians also. (Herod. iv. 99, vii. I70.) Aristotle also clearly identifies the Iapygians with the Messapians (Pol. v. 3), though the limits within which he applies the name of lapygin (lb. vii. 10) cannot be defined. Indeed, the name of the Iapygian promontory (7‘1 hpa. i! ‘lturrryio), universally given to the headland which formed the extreme point of the peninsula, sufficiently proves that this was considered to belong to Inpygia. Strabo confines the term of Iapygin to the peninsula, and says that it was called by some Iapygia, by others hiessspia or Calabria. (Strab. vi. pp. 281, 282.) Appian and Dionysius I‘eriegctcs, on the contrary, follow Polybius in applying the name of Iapygia to the Roman Apulia, and the latter expressly says that the lapygian tribes extended as far as Hyrium on the N. side of Mt. Garganns. (Appian, Am. 45; Dionys. Per. 379.) Ptolemy, as usual, follows the Roman writers, and adopts the names then in use for the divisions of this part of Italy: hence he ignores altogether the name of Iapygia, which is not found in any Roman writer as a geographical appellation; though the Latin poets, as usual, adopted it from the Greeks. (Virg. Acn. xi. 247; Ovid, Met. xv. 703.)

We have no clue to the origin or meaning of the name of Iapygians, which was undoubtedly given to the people (lam'oes, 'Iémryes) before it was applied to the country which tlrcy inhabited. Niebulrr (vol. i. p.146) considers it as etymologically connected with the Latin Apulus, but this is very doubtful. The mine appears to have been a general one, including several tribes or nations, among which were the Mmsapians, Sallcntini, and Peacetians: hencc Herodotus calls the Mcssapians, Iapygians (’lwirrrryu Meorrdmor, vii. 170); and the two names are frequently interchanged. The Greek mythographers, as usual, derived the name from a hero, Iapyx, whom they represented as a son of Lycaon, a descent probably intended to indicate the Pehszic origin of the Iapyginns. (Anton. Liberal. 3!; Plin. iii. ll 3. 16.) For a further account of

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the national affinities of the difl'erent tribes in this part of Italy, as well as for a description of its physical geography, see the articles Arm.“ and GALA— rmra. [F.. H. B.]

IAI’Y'GIUM PROMONTO’RIUM ('Axpa “Ian:'yla: Capo Sta. Moria di Leuca), a headland which forms the extreme SE. point of Italy, as well as the extremity of the long peninsula or promontory that divides the gulf of Tarentum from the Adriatic sea. It is this long projecting strip of land, commonly termed the heel of Italy, and designated by the Romans as Calabria, that was usually termed by the Greeks Iapygia, whence the name of the promontory in question. The latter is well described by Strabo as a rocky point extending far out to scat towards the SE., but inclining a little towards the Lacinian promontory, which rises opposite to it, and together with it encloses the gulf of Tarcntum. He states the interval between these two lreadlonds, and consequently the width of the 'l'arentine gulf, at its entrance, at about 700 stadia (70 G. miles). which slightly exceeds the truth. I’Iiny calls the same distance 100 M. P. or 800 stadia; but the MI distance does not exceed 66 G. miles or 660 stadia. (Strab. vi. pp. 258, 281; Plin. iii. 11.8.16; I’M. iii. 1. § 13; Polyb. x. l.)

The same point was also not unfrequently termed the Salcntine promontory (Paomoxromvar Sam» TINUM, Mel. ii. 4. § 8; Ptol. I. 0.), from the people of that name who inhabited the country immediately adjoining. Snllust applies the same name to the whole of the Calabrian or Mcssapian peninsula. (Sall. a1). Sore. ad Am. iii. 400.) Its modern name is derived from the ancient church of Sta. Maria (11' Leuca, situated close to the headland, and which has preserved the name of the ancient town and port of Leuca; the latter was situated immediately on the W. of the promontory, and afi'orded tolerable shelter for vessels. [Leucm] Hence we find the Athenian fleet, in B. c. 415, on its way to Sicily, touching at the Irrpygian promontory after crossing .fmm Corcyra (Thnc. vi. 30, 44); and there can be no doubt that this was the customary course in proceeding from Greece to Sicily. H. 13.]

IA'RI)ANUS ('ldpfims), a river on the N. coast of Crete, near the banks of which the Cydonians dwelt. (Hour. 011. iii. 292.) It is identified with the rapid stream of the Platam'a', which rises in the White Mountains, and, after flowing between the Rhizite villages of Thérho and Ldki or Lo'kua, runs through a valley formed by low hills, and filled with lofty platanes; from Which it obtains its name. The river of Platonid falls into the sea, nearly oppoaiw the islet of Hzighios Thco'dhoros, where there is good anchorage. (Pashley, Trav. vol. ii. p. 22 : Hock, Kreta, vol. i. pp. 23, 384.) [E. B. J.]

lARDANUS, a river of Elis. [1)!“st

JARZETHA. [Liam]

IASI. [IASSIL]

JASO'NIUM ('Iamilnor Ptol. vi. 10. 3), MD"! in Margiarrn, at the junction of the Margus (Margitrib) and some small streams which flow into it. (Cialso Ammian. xxiii. 6.)

JASO'NIUM (1'6 ’laodmov, Ptol. vi. 2. § 4 ; Strab. xi. p. 526), a mountain in Media, which extended in 8 NW. direction from the M. l’arachoatras (M. Elwood), forming the connecting link between the Taurus and the outlying spurs of the Antitaurns. It is placed by Ptolemy between the Orontcs and the Coronas. [V

JASO’NIUM ('Iatrdmov), a promontory on the coast of Ptntus, 130 studio to the north-east of P0lcmonium; it is the most projecting cape on that coast, and forms the terminating point of the chain of Mount Paryadres. it was believed to have received its name from the fact that Jason had landed there. (Strab. xii. p. 548; Arrian, Peripl. p. 17; Aaonym. Pcripl. p. 11; Pm]. v. 6. § 4 ; Xenoph. AMl'. vi. 2.§ 1, who calls it 'Itwovia dtrrfi.) it still hean the name Jaaoon, though it is more commonly called Cape Bonn or Vona, from a town of the same name. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 269.) The Aaineia, called a Greek acropolis by Srylax (p. 33), is probably no other than the Juannium. EL. 5.]

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IASPlS. [Conrasrnxm]

IASSlI ('ldaatoi), mentioned by Ptolemy as s [optilation of Upper Parmonia (ii. 14. § 2). Pliny‘s form of the name 25) is loaf. He places them on the Drove. [11. G. L.]

IASSUS, or IASUS (Indoor, or 'Iaaas: Etb. ’lomm'm), a town of Carin, situated on a small i~land close to the north coast of the Iasian bay, which derives its name from Issue. The town is said to have been founded at an unknown period by Argive colonists ; but as they had sustained severe losses in a war with the native Carians, they invited the son of Nclcus, who had previously founded Milctus, to come to their assistance. The town appears on that occasion to have received additional settlers. (l’olyb. xvi. 12.) The town, which appears to have occupied the whole of the little island, had only ten studio in circumference; but it nevertheless acquired {mat wuilth (Thncyd. viii. 28). from its fisheries and trade in fish (Strab. xiv. p. 658). After the Sicilian expedition of the Athenians, during the Peloponnesian war, lassns was attacked by the Lacedaemonians and their allies; it was governed at the time by Amorges, a Persian chief, who had rcvolted from Darius. It was taken by the Lucedaemoniuns, who captured Amorges, and delivered him up to Tissaphernes. The town itself was destroyed on that Occasion; but must have been rebuilt, for we afterwards find it besieged by the last Philip of Macedonia, who, however, was compelled by the Romans to restore it to Ptolemy of Egypt. (Polyb. xvii. 2; Liv. “xii. 33; comp. Ptol. v. 2.§ 9; Plin. v. 29; Stall. Mo- Mm §§ 274, 275; time]. p. 689.) The mountains in the neighbourhood of lassus furnished l beautiful kind of marble, of a blood-red and livid White colour, which was, used by the ancients for ornamental purposes. (Paul. Silent. quhr. S. Soph. 11.213.) Neu- the town was a sanctuary of Hestias, fith a statue of the goddess, which, though standmg in the open air, was believed never to be touched by the rain. (Polyb. xvi. 12.) The same story is "mad, by Strabo, of a temple of Artemis in the time neighbourhood. Iassus, u a celebrated fish"1! place, is alluded to by Athenaeus (iii. p. 105, xiii. p. 606). The place is still existing, under the name of Arkem or my» Kalem'. Chandler (Tflk "I! in Ar. Min. p. 226) relates that the island on 'llich the town was built is new united to the main

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land by a small isthmus. Part of the city walls still exist, and are of a regular, solid, and handsome structure. In the side of the rock a theatre with many rows of seats still remains, and several inscriptions and coins have been found there. (Comp. Spon and Wholer, Voyages, vol. i. p. 361.)

A second town of the name of lassus existed in Cappadocia or Armcnia Minor (Ptol. v. 7.§ 6), 0n the north-east of Zoropassus. L. S.

IASTAE ('lirrm, l’tol. vi. 12), a Scythian tribe, whose position must be sought for in the neighbourhood of the river lnstus. LE. B. J.]

IASTUS ('lwror), a river which, according to Ptolemy (vi. 12), was, like the Polytimetus (Kalli/c), an afliuent of the Csspian basin, and should in fact be considered as such in the sense given to a denomination which at that time embraced a vast and complicated hydraulic system. [Jaxan'rm] Von Humboldt (Asia Centrule, vol. ii. p. 263) has identified it with the Kizil-Dcria, the dry bed of which may be traced on the barren wastes of Kieil Kotm in W. Turkistan. It is no unusual circumstance in the sandy stems of N. Asia for rivers to change their course, or even entirely to disappear. Thus the Kt'zil-Derih, which was known to geographers till the commencement of this century, no longer exists. (Comp. Levchine, Hordes ct Steppes (lea Kirghiz Kazaka, p. 456.) B. J.]

IASTUS, a river mentioned by Ptolemy (vi. l4. §2) as falling into the Caspian between the Jaik and the Oxus. It is only safe to call it one of the numerous rivers of Independent Tartary. [R. G. L.]

IASUS. OEUMJ

IA’TlI (Ta-riot, Ptol. vi. 12. §4), a people in the northern part of Sogdianu. They are nlso mentioned by Pliny (vi. 16. s. 18); but nothing certain is known of their real position.

IATINUM ('lé-rtvov), according to Ptolemy (ii. 8.§ 15) the city of the bleldi, a people of Gallia Lugrlunensis. It. is supposed to be the same place as the Fixtuinnm of the Table [F lXTUlNL'M], and to be represented by the town of Mean: on the Home. Walckenaer, who trusts more to the accuracy of the distances in the Table than we safely can do, says that the place Fixtuinum has not in the Table the usual mark which designates a capital town, and that the measures do not carry the position of F ixtuinum as far as Mcaw', but only as far as Alontbout. He conjectures that the word Fixtuinum may be a corruption of Pines Iatinorum, and accordingly must be a place on the boundary of the little community of the Meldi. This conjecture might be good, if the name of the people was latini, and not hieldi. [G. L]

JATRIPPA. [LA-ritmrmJ

IATRA or IATRUM ('larpdv), a town in Maggi, situated at the point where the river latrus or Iantrus empties itself into the Danube, afew miles to the east of Ad Novas. (Procop. dc Aed. iv. 7 ; Theophylnct. vii. 2 ; Notit. Imp. 29, where ,it is erroneoust called Latra ; Geogr. an.. iv. 7, where, as in the Pearl. Tab., it bears the name Laton.) [L 5.]

iATRUS (in the Pent. Tab. ins-mus), a river traversing the central part of Mocsia. it has its sources in Mount Hacmus, and, having in its course to the north received the waters of several tributaries, falls into the Danube close by the town of latra. (Plin. iii. 29, where the common reading is Ieterus ; Jornand. Get. 18; Geogr. Rav. iv. 7.) it is probably the some as the Athrys ('AGpus) mentioned by He. rodotns (iv. 49). Its modern name is Iantm. [LS]

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