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on the E. crust of the Golden Chemonesus (in the neighbourhood of Malacca); Taools (perhaps Tami or Torrey); Triglypbon, in the district of the Cyrrhsdire, stthe mouth of the Brabmputra (now Tiperah or Trrjwra); and Cuttigm, the exact position of which has been much disputed among geographers, but. which Lassen has placed conjecturally in Borneo. Northwurd of Triglyphon are a. number of small districts, shout which nothing certain is known, as Chslcitis, Bssanarae, Csoobae, and Aminncbae, the lndrsprstbue, end Iberingae; and to the W., along the swamp-land at the foot of the Himdloya chain, are the Tiladne, Psssnlse,Corancali,nnd the Tscaraei. All the above nuy be considered as belonging to India extra Gauge";

Again. from the line of coast from E. to W., the first people along the western mouths of the Ganges are called the Gnngaridua, with their chief town Gauge (in the neighbourhood of the modern Calcutta); the Calingae, with their chief towns Parthzlis and Dandngula (the latter probably Culinapauuao, about halfway between Molldnadi and Gollrivan'); the Mnesoli and Macsolia, occupying nmrly the same range of coast as that now called the Cimara, with the capital Pitynda, and Cont» oossyls (Maulipaltano I) and Alusygnzr on the seaoout; W. of the Maesolus (Goda'vari), the Arvnrni, with the chief town Melange (probably Jilafldlk High, the present llddflll). Then follow the Soriugi and Haiti, till we come to the land of Psndion (Unilever pipe), which extends to the southern extremity of the peninsula of Hindluldn, and was a district of great wealth and importance at the time of the Periplus. (Peripl. pp. 31, 33.) There can be no doubt that the land of Pundion is the same as the Indian Primb'a, and its capital ltlodura the moon Muthnra. Within the same diell'itt were Argm (whence the S. Argtn'icus derives its name), the Cuci, Ind the Colchi. At the SW. end of the peninsula were Cottism (Cochin), and Comnrin, whence the promontory Comorin derives its name. Following the western coast, we arrive at Limyrica (Pfl'l'pl- pp. 30, 36), undoubtedly in the neighbourhood of Mangalore, with its chief towns Clmm (most likely Coimbatore, Where it great quantity of Row coins have been dug up during the last fifteen yum) and Tyndis (in the neighbourhood of Goa); turd then Musopslc, Nirrrm, and Mnndagnra; all places "11 the sea-coast, or at no grwt distance froln it, S°mwhat further inland, within the district known generically at the time of the I‘en'plus by the name of Duchinabmlcs (Dal-Itinabhrida, or Deccan), won the district of Ariaca (’Apt’alrar 2413311511, Ptol. vii. it 6, 82; cf. Peripl. p. 30), with its chief town Fill'lmul‘flfl'oadr‘ra or llydrabmi, if not, asliittcr has Imagined, the sea- port Mangalm-e) ; Bnetnna, Simyllx (on the (mat near Bauein), Oincnngam (undoubtedly the celebrated fortress Ahflwd-mgnr), and Tagnra (Pr'ipL p. 19), the present Deogltir. Further N.. the rich commercial state of Larice appears to have Extended from the Namndns (Nurmada' or New-Wflu) to Borygsza (Beroach) and the Gulf of 6M3]. Its chief town was, in Ptolemy's time, 015% (Orljein or Ufiayini), a place well known to the lntiqnnries of India for the vast numbers of the Qfliest Indian coinage constantly found among its ruins: hlinnsgom, the position of which is doubtful, and Barygus, the chief empOr-ium of the commerce 0f Weslem India North of Larice was Syrastrcne (Stumblraa), to the west of the Gill/'quantbay; Ill-i still further to the westward, at the mouths of

the Indus, Pattnlene (Lower Scimie, and the neighbourhood of Kurtichi), with its capital Puttlln (Pawn)

It is much more diflicnlt to determine the exact site of the various tribes and nations mentioned in ancient authors as existing in the interior of the country, than it is to ascertain the corresponding modern localities of those which occupied the seacoast, Some, however, of them can be made out with sufficient certainty, by comparison of their classical names with the Sonscrit records, and in some instances with the modern native appellations. Following, then, the course of the Indus northwards, we find, at least in the times of Ptolemy end of the Poriplus, n wide-spread race of Scythian origin, occupying both banks of the river, in a district callcd, from them, Ixno-Scrrrrm. The exact limits of their country cannot now be traced; but it is probable that they extended from Pattalcnc on the S. as far as the lower ranges of the HimIrt-Kuah,—-iu fact, that their empire swayed over the whole of modem Scilule and the Panjéb; a view which is home out by the extensive remains of their Topcs and coinage, which are found throughout these districts, and especially to the northward, near the head waters of the three western of the Five Rivers. A great change had no doubt taken place by the successful invasion of n great horde of Scythinns towards the close of the second century n. 0., as they are known to have overthrown the Greek kingdom of Bactn'ann, at the some time eti‘ncing many of the names of the tribes whom Alexander had met with two centuries before, such as the Aspusii, Assaceni, Mussiani, Hippasii; with the towns of Amdern, Daedsla, Missags, and Embolima, which are preserved in Arrian, and others of Alexander‘s historians.

Further N., along the bases of the I’itropnmisus, Imuns, and Emodus, in the direction from W. to E., we find mention of the Sampntae, the district Suastene (now Sewad), and Goryaea, with the towns Gorys and Dinnysopolis, or Nngm‘n (now Hagar); and further E., between the Suastns and the lndus, the Gandarne (one, doubtless, of the ori~ ginal seats of the Grmrlka'ra-r). Following the mountainmnge to the 15., we come to Cmpiris (now Cashmr'r, in earlier times known, as we have soon, to Herodotus, under the name of Caspstyrns). Southward of Cashmt'r was the territory of Varsa, with its capital Taxila, a place of importance so early as the time of Alexander (Arrinn, v. 8), and probably iridicntcd now by the extensive remains of Manilcyrila (Burncs, Travels, \‘01. i. p. 65), if, indeed, these are not too much to the eastward. A little further S. was the land of Pandous (Huddou xépa, doubtless the rcprcscntative of one of the Panduvn dynasties of wly Hindri history), during the time of Alexander the territory of the king Porus. Further ens-twnrd were the state Cylindrino, with the sources of tho Sulledge, Jurnnu, and Ganges; and the Gnnp‘mii, whose territory extended into the highest range of the Himalaya.

Many small states and towns are mentioned in the historians of Alexander's campaigns along the upper Pary'a'b, which we cannot here do more than glance at, rm l’cucelsotis (Pusl-Jarlévatt), Nicaea,l3ncepbuln the Glancanitac, mid the Sibne or Sibi. Following next the course of the Ganges, we meet with the Ductichae, tho Nanicbae, l‘rasinca; and the Mnndnlae, with its celebrated capital l’nlibotlirs(bcyond all doubt the present

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the Erannoboas (Hiranjdvalra) and the Gangs; with some smaller states, as the Sumsenae, and the towns Methora and Clisobra, which were subject to the Prasii. Sonthward from Palibothra, in the interior of the plain country, dwelt the Cooeonagas, on the banks of the Adams, the Sabfirae, the Salaceni, the Drillophyllitae, the Adeisathri, with their capital Sagida (probably the present Sakagpur), situated on the northern spurs of the Vindhga, at no great distance from the sources of the Bonus. Between the Sonus and the Ganges were the Bolingse. In a NW. direction, beyond the Sonus and the Vindhya, we find a territory called Sandrabatis, and the Gymnosophistae, who appear to have occupied the country now called Sir-kind, as far as the river Sutledge. The Caspeiraci (at least in the time of Ptolemy; see Ptol. vii. I. § 47) seem to have extended over a considerable breadth of country, as their sacred town Modura (Mdoovpa 1'; 1511 tbeév) was situated, apparently, at no great distance from the Nev-bruins, though its exact position has not been identified. The difficulty of identification is much, indeed, increased by the error of reckoning which prevails throughout Ptolemy, who held that the coast of India towards the Indian Ocean was in a straight line E. and W. from Taprobane and the Indus, thereby placing Nanaguna and the Namadus in the same parallel of latitude. 0n the southern spurs of the Vindhga, between the Namadus and Nanagnns, on the edge of the Deccan, were the Phyllitne and Gondsli; and to the E. of them, between the Bittigo M. and the riverChaberus (Ca'oeri), the nomad Some (215me vupdbrr), With a chief town Sora, at the eastern end of M. Bittigo. To the southward of these, on the Chaberus and Solon, were several smaller tribes, the Brachmani Magi, the Ambsstae, Bettigi or Bitti, and the Tabassi.

All the above-mentioned districts and towns of any importance are more fully described under their respective names.

The ancients appear to have known but little of the islands which are now considered to form part of the East Indies, with the exception of Taprobane or Ceylon, of which Pliny and Ptolemy have lefi. some considerable notices. The reason is, that it was not till a much later period of the world's history that the Indian Archipelago was fully opened out by its commercial resources to scientific inquiry. Besides Ceylon, however, Ptolemy mentions, in its neighbourhood, a remarkable cluster of small islands, doubtless (as we have remarked before) those now known as the Laccadives and Maklioes; the island of Iabadius (Java), below the Chersonesus Aurel,and the Satyroruin Insulae, on the same parallel with the S. end of this Chersonesus, which may perhaps answer to the Anamba or Nature islands.

01' the government of India, considered as a. whole, comparatively little was known to the Greek writers; indeed, with the exception of occasional names of kings, it may be asserted that they knew nothing E. of Palibnthra. Nor is this strange; direct connection with the interior of the country ceased with the fall of the Graeco-Bact-rian empire; from that period almost all the information about India which found its way to the notions of the West was derived from the merchants and others, who made voyages to the different out-ports of the country. It may be worth while to state briefly here some of the principal rulers mentioned by the Greek and Roman writers; promising that, previous to the advauoe of Alexander, history is on these subjects



silent. Previous, indeed, to Alexander, we have nothing on which we can rely. There is no evidence that Darius himself invaded any part of India, though a portion of the NW. provinces of Bactria may have paid him tribute, as stated by Herodotus. The expeditions of Dionysus and Hercules, and the wars of Sesostris and Semiramis in India, can be considered as nothing more than' fables too credulously recorded by Ctesias. At the time of the invasion of Alexnnder the Great, there can be no doubt that there was a settled monarchy in the western part of India, and his dealings with it are very clearly to be made out. In the north of the Panja'b was the town or district Taxila (probably Manqur/dla, or very near it), which was ,ruled by a king named Taxiles; it being a froqumt Indian custom to name the king from the plam he ruled over. His name in Diodorus is Mophis (xvii. 86), and in Cnrtius, Omphia (viii. 12), which was probably the real one, and is itself of Indian origin. It appears that Alexander left his country as he found it. (Strab. xv. pp. 698, 699, 716.) ,' The name of Taxiles is not mentioned in any Ind n author. The next ruler Alexander met with Porus (probably Paw-ova Sanscr., a change wh".h Strabo indicates in that of Aaptll'm' into A v), with whom Taxiles had been at war. (Arrian, v. 21.) Alexander appears tohave succeeded in reconciling them, and to have increased the empire of Porus, so as to make his rule compro— hcnd the whole country between the Hydaspes and Acesines. (Arrian, v. 20, 21, 29.) His country is not named in any Indian writer. Shortly afterwards, Alexander received an embassy and presents from Abisaris (no doubt Ablrisa'ra), whose territory, as has been shown by Prof. Wilson from the Annall of Cachrm'r, must have been in the mountains in the southern part of that province. (Asiat. Ra. vol. xv. p. H6.) There had been previously a war between this ruler and the Malli, Oxydrscae, and the people of the Lower Panjrib, which had ended in nothing. Alexander confirmed Abisaris in the possession of his own territory, made Philip satrap of the Malli and Oxydracae, and Pytho of the land between the confluence of the Indus and Acesinee and the sea (Arrian, vi. l5); placing, at the same time, Oxyarces over the Pumpamisadae. (Arr. vi. 15.) It may be observed that, in the time of Ptolemy, the Cashmirians appear to have held the whole of the Panja'b, so far as the Vindhya mountains, a partial! of the southern country being, however, in the hand! of the Malli and Cathaei.

The same state of things prevailed for some time after the death of Alexander, as appears by a decree of Perdiccas, mentioned in Diodonis (xviii. 3), and with little material change under Antipater. (Diod. xviii. 39.) Indeed, the provinces remained true to the Macedonians till the com— mencement of the rule of the Prasii, when Sandrocottus took up arms against the Macedonian governors. (Justin. xv. 4.) The origin of this rebellion is clearly traceable. Porus was slain by Eudamns about 13.0. 317 (Diod. xix. I4); hence Sandrocottus must have been on the throne about the time that Seleucns took Babylon. no. 312. The attempt of the Indians to recover their freedom “:13 probably aided by the fact that Porus had been slain by a Greek. Sandrocottus, as king of the Prasii (Sansc. Prachya) and of the nations on the Gnngt'fl, made war with Sclencus Nicator, who penetrated far into India. Plutarch says he ruled over all India, but this is not likely. (Plat. Alex. 62.) It appear! tint he cmosed the Indus, and obtained by marriage Arnehoais, Gedrosia, and the Pampamiszuluc, from Selencns. (Strab. xv. p. 724; Appian, Syr. 55.) It waste his court that Megnsthencs (as we have before stated) was sent. Sandrooottus was succeeded by Amitrochltes (SunscAmilrathas), which is almost certainly the true form of the name, though Strabo calls him Allitroehadea. He was the contemporary of Antiochus Soter. (Athen. xiv. 67.) It is clear, from Athenaeus (l. 0.), that the same friendship was maintained between the two descendants as between the two fathers. Daimachus was sent as ambassador to Pllibothra. (Strab. ii. p. 70.) Then came the was between the Parthians and Bactriaus, and the more complete establishment of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom, under Menander, Apollodotus, Eucratides, and their succmm, to which we cannot here do more thou allude. The effect, however, of these were was to interrupt communication between the East and the West; hence the meagre nature of the historical records of the period. The expedition of Antioehns the Great to India brought to light the name of another king, Sophagascnns (Polyb. xi. 32), who was, in all probability, king of the Prusii. The Scythinns finally put an end to the Bactlian empire about 13.0. 136. (De Gnignes, Mém. dc I'Acad. d. Irwcr. xxv. p. 17.) This event is noticed in the Pcriplus (p. 22), where, however, Parthi must. be taken to mean Scytlii. (See also Periphu, p. 24; Dionys. Perieg. W. 1087 —1088.) Eustathius adds, in his commentary on Dionysius 1—01 Kai 'Ivdoomidm oweérwr M7011!Iol. Minnagaru was their chief town, a. name, as lppears from Isid. Char. ( p. 9), which was partly (Scythian and partly Sanscrit. (Cf. also De Guignes, c


The Scythinns were in their turn driven out of India by Vicrémsditya, about is. c. 56 (Colebruoke, M Algebra, Land. 1817, p. 43), who fismblisiled hi6 seat of empire at Oujer'n (Lw'ayini). At the time When the Periplus was compiled, the capital had been lzlin changed, as we there read, ’Og‘iiv'n, {v ff xal 1‘" BMLMI: rpdrcpov iv.

_ Itis remarkable that no allusion has been found In my of the early literature of the Hindt'm to Alexander the Great, but the effect of the later expeditions 0f the Bactrian kings is apparently indicated under 1116 name 0f the I'avnna. In the astronomical works, the I'avano are barbarians who understood astronomy, whence it has been conjectured by Colcbrooke that the Alexandrinns are referred to. (Ind. Algebra, P- 80-) Generally, there can be no doubt that the

' mm mean nations to the W. of India. Thus, in the Mahabhdruta, they make war on the Indians, in mnjnnction with the Piiradi (i. e. Panhi). and the Sacuor Seytllians. (Lasscn,1’entap. p. 60.) In the Drama of the Mudra-Rtixrma, which refers to the fur between Clnmdragupta and another Indian King, I! is stated that Cusumapnrn (i. e. Pulibothrn) was surrounded by the Girratao Yavuni,Cambogi, l‘ersac, Boetrians, and the other forces of Chandragupta, and the king of the Mountain Regions. Lassen thinks, filth much reason, that this refers to Seleucus, who, In his war with Chandragupta, readied, B5 wc km": inhbothra. (l’lin. vi. l7.)

With regard to the commerce of ancient India, Which we have every reason to suppose was very extensive, it is impossible in this place to do more than toindiclte a few of the principal facts. Indeed, the WWW of India, including the northern and the wuthcm districts, may be considered as an epitome ofthe commerce of the world, there being few pro

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ductions of any other country which may not be found somewhere within its vast area.

The principal directions in which the commerce of ancient India flowed were, between Westem India. and Africa, between the interior of the Deccan and the outports of the southern and watem coast of the Indian Ocean, between Ceylon and the ports of the Cormnzmdel coast, between the Coro'mandel coast and the Aureu Chemonesus, and, in the N., along the Gauges and into Tritary and the territory of the Sinnc. There appears also to have been a remarkable trade with the opposite coast of Africa, along the district now called Zanguebar, in scsumum, rice, cotton goods, cane-honey (sugar), which was regularly sent from the interior of Ariaca (Comm) to Barygaza (Berooeli), and thence westward. (Pcn'pl. p. 8.) Arab sailors are mentioned who lived at Muzn (Mocha), and who tmded with Bnrygnza. (Peripl. p. 12.) Bunions of India had established themselves on the N. side of Sucotrn, called the island of Discorides (Peripl. p. 17): while, even so early as Aguthorchides, there was evidently an active coniniercc between Western India and Yemen. (Aguthurch. p. 66, ed. Hudson.) Again, the rapidity with which Alexander got his fleet together seems to show that there must have been a considerable commerce by boats upon the Indus. At the time of the Periplus there was a chain of ports along the western coast, — Baryng (Beroach), Muziris in Limyrit-n (Mangalore), Nelkynda (Nelioeram), Pattala (once supposed to be Tnttn, but much more probably 113/— (h-oba'd), and Cnlliene, now Gallian (Peripl. p. 30): while there were three principal emporia for merchandise, — Oneno (Oujein), the chief mart of foreign commerce, (ride an interesting account of its ruins, Aliat. Rea. vol. vi. p. 36), and for the transmission of the goods to Burygnzu; Tagurn, in the interior of the Deccan (uhnost certainly Deoglu'r or [Icvanagan' near L‘llora), whence the goods were conveyed over difficult. roads to Barygazn and Pluthana or I’lithana, a place the exact position of which cannot now be determined, but, from the character of the products of the place, must have been somewhere in the GM“.

Along the Regio Paralz'a to the S., and on the Coromandel coast, were several ports of consequence; and extensive pearl fisheries in the kingdom of king I‘andion, near Colchi, and near the island of Epicdorus, where the Inwurdv (a silky thread spun from the Pinna-fish) was procured. (Pcripl. p. 33). Further to the N. were, - Musulia (Masidiputam), famous for its cotton goods (Peripl. p. 35); and Gange, a great mart for muslin, betel, pearls, &c., somewhere near the month of the Ganges, its exact locality, however, not. being now determinable. (Peripl. p. 36.) The commerce of Ceylon (Selundi'b, i. e. Sinhala-dm'po) was in pearls of the best. class, and precious stones of all kinds, especially the ruby and the emerald. The notices In Ptolemy and l’liny shew that its shores were well furnished with commcrcial towns (Ptol. vii, 4. 3, 4, 5), while we know from the narrative of Cosmas Indicoplclbales (0]). Montfaucon, Call. Now Bibl. Pair. vol. ii.) that it. was, in the sixth century A.D., the centre of Hindu commerce. Besides these lliLlL'CS, we learn that lhu'e was an emporium upon the Coromandcl coast, whence the merchant. ships crossed over to Chryse (in all probability Malacca), in the Aureo Chemoncsus; the name of it, however, is not specified.

It is probable, however, that the greatest line of commerce was from the N. and W. along the


Ganges, commencing with Taxila near the Indus, or Lahore on that river, and passing thence to Palibothra. This was called the Royal Road. It is remarkable that the Ramayana describes a road from Ayodhiya (Dude), over the Ganges and the J umna, to Hastinapaira and Lahore, which must be nearly identical with that mentioned in the Greek geographers. The commerce, which appears to have existed between the interior of Asia, India, and the land of the Sinne and Series, is very remarkablev It is stated that from Thins (the capital of the Sinae) fine cottons and silk were sent on foot to Bactra, and thence down the Ganges to Limyrica. (Peripl. p. 36.) The Periplus speaks of a sort of annual fair which was held within the territory of the Thinac,to which malabathron (betel) was imported from India. It is not easy to make out whereabouts Thins itself was situated, and none of the modem attempts at identification appear to us at all satisfactory: it is clearly, however, a northern town, in the direction of Ladakb in Thibet, and not, as Ptolemy placed it, at dfalacm in Tenasserim, or, as Vincent (Voyage of Nearchua, vol. ii. p. 735) conjectured, at Arramn. It is curious that silk should be so constantly mentioned as an article of import from other countries, especially Serica, as there is every reason to suppose that it was indigenous in India; the name for silk throughout the whole of the Indian Archipelago being the Sanscrit word mtm. (Colebrooke, Asiat. Res. vol. v. p. 61.)

It is impossible to give in this work any details as to the knowledge of ancient India exhibited in the remains of native poems or histories. The whole of this subject has been examined with great ability by Lassen in his Indische Alterthumkumie; and to his pages, to which we are indebted for most of the Sanscrit names which we have from time to time inserted, We must refer our readers. From the careful comparison which has been made by Lassen and other orientalists (among whom Pott deserves especial mention) of the Indian names pro served by the Greek writers, 2 great amount of evidence has been adduced in favour of the general faithfulness of those who recorded what they saw or heard. In many instances, as may be seen by the names we have already quoted, the Greek writers have been content with a simple adaptation of the sounds which they heard to those best suited for their own pronunciation. When we consider the barbarous words which have come to Europe in modern times as the European representations of the nsmm of places and peoples existing at the present time, we have reason to besurprised at the accuracy with which Greek cars appreciated, and the Greek language preserved, names which must have up‘ peared to Greeks far more barbarous than they would have seemed to the modern conquerors of the country. The attention of modern scholars has detected many words of genuine Indian origin in a Greek dress; and an able essay by Prof. Tychsen on such words in the fragments of Ctesias will repay the perusal of those who are interested in such subjects. (See Heeren, Asiatic Nations, vol. ii. Append. 4, ed. Lond. 1846.)

The generic name of the inhabitants of the whole country to the E. of Persia and S. of the Ilimdlaya mountains (with the exception of the Sores) was, in ancient times, Inns (‘IvBoi), or Indians. It is true that the appellation referred to a much wider or much less extensive range of country, at different periods of history. There can, however, be no doubt, that


when the ancient writers speak of the Inn, they mean the inhabitants of a vast territory in the SE. part of Asia. The extension of the meaning of the name depended on the extension of the knowledge of India, and may be traced, though less completely, in the same manner as we have traced the gradual progress of knowledge relative to the land itself. The Indi are mentioned in more than one of the fragments of Hccataeus (Hecat. Frog-m. 175, 178), and are stated by Aeschylua to have been a people in the neighbourhood of the Aethiopisns, who made use of camels. (Suml. 284—287.) Herodotus is the first ancient author who may be said to give any real description of them; and he is led to refer to them, only because a portion of this ocuntry, which adjoined the territory of Dareius, wms included in one of the satrapies of his vast empire, and, therefiw, paid him tribute. Some pm of his narrative (iii. 94—106, iv. 44, vii. 65) may be doubted, as clearly from hearsay evidence; some is certainly fabulous. The sum of it is, that the Indians were the must populous and richest nation which he knew of (iii. 94), and that they consisted of many different tribes. speaking different languages. Some of them, he states, dwelt in the immediate neighbourhood of the Acthiopinns, and were, like them, black in colour (iii. 98. IOI); some, in the marshes and desert land still further E. The manners of these tribes, whom he calls Padaei, and Csllatiae or Calantisc, were in the lowest grade of civilisation ,-—a wandering race, living on raw flesh and raw fish, and of cum nibal habits (Cf. Shah. xv. p. 710, from which Mannert, v. I. p. 3, infers that the Padnei were not after all genuine Indians, but Tatar-s.) Others (and these were the most warlike) occupied the more northern districts in the neighbourhood of Csspatyrus (Cashmtr) in the Reyio Party/ice. Herodotus places that part of India which was subject to Darcius in the 20th satmpy, and SIJIII’S that the annual tribute from it amounted to 360 talents (iii. 94). XOMthl speaks of the Indians as a great nation, and one worthy of alliance with Cynxares and the Modes (i. 5. § 3, iii. 2. § 25, vi. 2. I), though he does not specify to what part of India he refers. That, however. it was nearly the same as that which Herodotus describes, no one can doubt.

From the writers subsequent to Alexander. the following particulars rclntive to the people and their manners may be gathered. The ancients considch that they were divided into seven castes ;-l. Priests. the royal counsellors, and nearly connected with,ifnot the same as, the Bpaxuins or Brahmins. (Strobxv. pp. 7l2—716; Arr-inn, Ind. ll.) With these Strabo (l. c.) makes another class, whom he calls I‘appt'ivcs. These, as Grosskurd (iii. p. I53) i138 suggest/rd, would seem, from the description of their habits, to have been fakirs, or pcniteuts, and the same as the Gymnosophistae so often mentioned by Strabo and Arrian. This caste was exempted from taxes and service in war. 2. Ilusbandmen, Who were free from war-service. They were the most numerous of the seven castes. (Strab. xv. p. 704.) The land itself was held to belong to the king, who farmed it out, leaving to the cultivator one-fourth of the produce as his share. 3. Hunter: and shep— llerds, who lead a wandering life, their office being ‘0 Mr Cattle and boasts of burden: the horse and the elephant were held to be for the kings only. (Strnb. l. c.) 4. Art/20m and handirvnfismm. 0’ all kinds. (Stmb. xv. p. 707.) 5. Warriors. (Strab. L c.) 6. Political 0 was (¥¢opot, Strab. 1. c.), who looked after alfitirs in the towns, &c., and reported secretly to the king. 7. The Royal Countdlorr, who presided over the administration of justioe (Strsb. I. c.), and kept the archives of the realm.


It was not permitted for interrnarriages to take place between any of these classes, nor for any onc to perform the oflice allotted to another, except in the case of the first taste (called also that of the llelroool), towhicb class a marl might be raised from any of the other classes. (Strab. l.c.; Arrian, Ind. c. 12; Diod. ii. 41; Plin. vi. 19. s. 22.) We may remark that the modern writers on India recognise only four castes, (:ullcd respectively Brahman, Kaliatryos, Vaisylu, and Sudml,—a division which Heeren has suggested (we think without sufficient evidence) to indicate the remains of distinct racQ. (Aaiat. Nat. vol. ii. p. 220.)

The lowest of the people (now called Pariahs), as belonging to none of the above castes, are nowhere distinctly mentioned by ancient writers (but cf. Strab. Xv. p. 709; Diod. ii. 29; Arriun, Ind. c. 10).

The general description of the Indians, drawn from Megasthenes and others who had lived with them, is very pleasing. Theft is said to have been unknown, l0 that houses could be lefi. nnfastencd. (Strab. xv. p. 709.) No Indian was known to speak falsehood. (Strsb. L c.; Arrisn, Ind. c. 12.) They were extremely temperate, abstaining wholly from wine (Strab. I. c.),—their hatred of drunkenness being so great that any girl of the harem, who should see the king drunk, was at liberty to kill him. (Strab. xv. p. 710.) No class eat meat (Herod. iii. 100), their chief sustenance being rice, which afforded them also a strong drink, i.e. arr-ole. (Strnb. xv. p. 694.) Hence an mpecial freedom from diseases, and long lives; though maturity was early developed, especially in the female sex, girls of seven years old being deemed marriageable. (Strab. xv. pp. 701— 706; Arrian, Ind. 9.) The women are said to have been remarkable for their chastity, it being impossible to tempt them with any smaller gifts than that ofsn elephant (Arrian, Ind. c. 17), which was not considered discreditnble by their countrymen; and the usual custom of marriage was for the father to lake his daughters and to give them in marriage to the youths who had distinguished themselves most 111 gymnastic exercises. (Arrian, I. 0.; Strnb. xv. 11717.) To strangers they ever showed the utmost hospitality. (Diod. ii. 42.) As warriors they were "marines (An-inn, Ind. c. 9; Ezped. Alex. v. 4; I’lut Ala. c. 59, 63): the weapons of the footBoldiers being bows and arrows, and a great twohlnded sword ; and of the cavalry, a javelin and a mud shield (Arrian, Ind. c. 16; Strab. xv. p. 717; Curt. viii. 9.) In the Panj/lb, it is said that the

oniruls encountered poisoned arrows. (Diod. “it l03.) Manly exercises of all kinds were in vogue smong them. The chase was the peculiar Pfi'ilege of royalty (Strab. xv. pp. 709—712 ; Ctes. [M1 l4; Curt. 9, 5941.); gymnastics, music, and dim-lug, of the rest of the people (Strnb. xv. p. 709; AM, 517. Alex. vi. a); and juggling and slight "(hind were then, as now, among their cllicf amusem'mi- (Aelinn, viii. 7; Juven. vi. 582.) Their “"111 dress befitted their hot. climate, and was of While lian (Philost. VII. Apoll. ii. 9) or of cottonatnll‘ (Stmb. xv. p. 719; Arriun, Ind. c. 16); their hot; and shoulders partially covered (Anion, l. 6.; Cuttviiiil, 15) or shaded from the sun by umbullMAni-n, Lc.); with shoes of white leather, mm "‘7 thick and many-coloured soles. (Arriun, L“) Gold and ivory rings and earnings were in


common use; and they were wont to dye their boards, not only black and white, but also red and green. (Arrian, l. c.) In general form of body, they were thin and elegantly made, with great lithencss (Arrian, Ind. c 17; Strab. ii. p. 103, xv. p. 695), but were Larger than other Asiatics. (Arrian, Exped. Alex. v. 4; Phil. vii. 2.)

Some peculiar customs they had, which have lasted to the present day, such as self-inunolntion by vrntcr or fire, and throwing themselves from precipices (Strab. xv. pp.716, 718; Curt. viii.9; ArrianJizped. .4 la. vii. 5; Lucan. iii. 42; I’lin.vi. 19. s. 20), and the burning of the widow (sauce); not, indeed, agreeably to any fixed law, but rather according to custom (Strab. xv. pp. 699—714: Diod. xvii. 91, xix. 33; Cic. Tm. Disp. v.‘ 27.) For writing materials they used the bark of trees (Strab. xv. p. 717: Curt. ix. 15), probably much as the modern Cinghnlese use the leaf of the palm. Their houses were generally built of wood or of the bamboo-cane; but in the cold mountain districts, of clay. (Arrian, Ind. c. 10.) It is a remarkable proof of the extent to which civilisation had been carried in ancient India, that there were, throughout great part of the country, high roads, with stones set up (answering to our milestones), on which were inscribed the name of the place and the distance in the next station. (Strab. xv. pp. 689—708; Arrian, Ind. c. 3.)

IN'DICUS OCEANUS (o 'Iviutbr dxravor, Agntll. ii. 14; 1b 'Iubrxiw rfAc'yor, Ptol. vii. 1. § 5). The Indian Ocean of the ancients may be consideer generally as that great sea which washed the whole of the southern portion of India, extending from the parallel of longitude of the mouths of the Indus to the shores of the Chersonesns Aurea. It seems, indeed, to have been held by them as part, however, of a yet greater extent of water, the limits of which were undefined, at least to the southwards, and to which they gave the generic name of the Southern Sea. Thus Herodotus speaks of 1‘; wrrl'n SriAaooa. in this sense (iv. 37), as does also Strabo (ii. p. 121); Diodorus calls it i) mud #:01116le a'msasds (iii 38), while the Erythracan sea, taken in its most extended meaning, doubtless conveyed the same sense. (Herod. ii. 102, iv. 37; compared with Strab. i. p.33.) Ptolemy gives the distances across this sea as stated by seafaring men; at the same time he guards against their over-statements, by recording his opinion in favour of no more than one~third of their measurements: this space he calls 8670 stadia (i. 13. § 7). The distance along its shores, following the indentations of the coastsline, he estimates, on the same authority, at 19,000 stadin. It is evident, however, that Ptolemy himself had no clear idea of the real form of the Indian Ocean, and that be inclined to the opinion of Hipparchus, Polybius, and Marinus of Tyre, that it was a vast inland sea, the southern portion of it being bounded by the shores of an unknown land which he supposed to connect Cattigara in the Chersonesns Aurea with the promontory of Prasum (now Cope Delgado) in Africa (comp. iv. 9. 1, 3,vii. 3. l, 3, 6). The origin ofthis error it is not easy now to ascertain, but it seems to have been connected with one which is found in the historians of Alexander’s expedition, according to which there was a connection between the Indus and the Nile, so that the sources of the Acesines (Chena'b) Were confounded with those of the Nile. (Arrian, vi. 1.) Strsbo, indeed, appears to have had some leaning to a similar view, in that be connected the Erythraean with the Atlantic sea (ii. p. 130); which was also

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