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Asia, and the boundary westward of India. It is
mentioned first in ancient authors by Hecatacus of
Miletus (Frrrym. 144, ed. Klausen), and sulue~
qucntly by Herodotus (iv. 44), who, however, only
notices it in connection with Various tribes who, he
states, livcd upon its banks. As in the case of
India itself, so in that of the Indus, the first real
description which the ancients obtained of this river
was from the historians of Alexander the (heart's
marches. Arrian states that its sources were in the
lower spurs of the Paropamisns, or Indian Caucasus
(flimfd-Krisb); wherein he agrees with Mela (iii. 7.
§ 6), Sfrabo (xv. p. 690). Curtius (viii. 9. §3), and
other writers. It was, in Arrinn's opinion, a vast
stream, even from its first scum, the largest river
in the world except the Ganges, and the recipient
of many tributaries, themselves larger than any other
known stream. It has been conjectured, from the
descriptions of the Indus which Arnun has preserved

that the writers from whom he has condensed his
narrative must have seen it at the time when its
waters were at their highest, in August and Scp~
ternber. Quoting fmmthsias (v. 4,11), and with the
authority of the other writers (v. 20), Arrian gives
40 studio for the menu breadth of the river, and 1.5
studio where it was most contracted; below the con-
fluence of the principal tributaries he considers its
breadth may be 100 studio, and even more than this
when much flooded (vi. 14). Pliny, on the Nb"
hand, considers that it is noWhere more than 50
stadin broad (vi. 20. s. 23); which is clearly the
same opinion as that of Strnbo, who states, that
though those who had not measured the breadth put
it down at 100 stadia, those, on the other band, who
had measured it, asserted that 50 studio was in
greatest, and 7 stadia its least breadth (xv. p. 700)-
lts depth, according to Pliny (1. 0.), was nowhere
less than 15 fsthoms. According to Diodorns, it was
the greatest river in the world other the Nile (ii. 35).
Curtius states that its writers were cold, and of the
colour of the sea (viii. 9. § 4). Its current is held by
some to have been slow (as by Mela. iii. 7. § 6): ILY
others, rapid (as by Eustath. in Jfionys. Per-icy. v-
1088). Its course towards the. sea, after leaving the
mountains, was nearly SW. (Plin. vi. 20. s. 23); on
its way it received. according to Strsbo (xv. p. 700)
and Arrian (v. 6), 15, according to Pliny, 19
other tributary rivers (1. 0.). About 2000 studio
from the Indim Ocean, it was divided into two
principal nn'ns (Stub. xv. p. 701 ), forming thereby
a. Delta, like that of the Nile, though not so large,
called Puttolcne, from its chief town Pattsla (which
Arrinn M50118 meant. in the Indian tongue, Deltl
(v- 4); though this statement may be questioned).
(or. also Arrinn, Ind. 2; llionys. I'ericg. v. rose)
The flat. loud at the mouths of rivers which flow
from high mountain-ranges with a rapid stream, is
ever changing: hence. probably, the different ac—
counts which we reccivc of the mouths of the Indus
from those who recorded the history of Alexander,
and from the works of later geographers. The
former (as we have stated), with Strabo, gave the
Indus only two principal outlets into the lndiim
Ocean, — at e. distance, the one from the other, ac-
cording to Aristobulns (G17. Stmh. xv. p- 690% Of
1000 stadia, but, according to Nearrhus (l. 0.), of
1800 studio. The latter mention more than two
months: Mela (iii. 7. § 6) speaking of " phi?
ostiu," nod Ptolemy giving the names of seven (WI-
1. § 28), in which he is confirmed by the author of
the Periplns Maris Erythruei (p. 22). The nnmcfi

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of these months, in a direction from W. to K, are: — 1. 247cm 016/40 (the I‘illl' or Loluu-i), not improbably in the arm of the stream by which Alexander's fleet gained the Indian Ocean; 2. Iivbwv union (the Rikala); 3. Xpwufiv amino (the Ilagamari or Kakanan'), whereby merchandise and goods ascended to Tatta; 4. Xdpiepnv unipo- (the rilula f); 5. 2dIepe; 6. Edge-Au or iaé'u'Jthe. (the I’inynri or Sir); 7. vargdp-n (probably Lonimiri, the Pn'rana, ija or Kori). For the conjecture! identifications of these months, most of which are now closed, oxeept in high floods, see Lassen's Map of Ancient India. The principal streams which flowed into the Indus are:-—on the right orwestern bank of the river, the Choespes, called by Arrian the Guraeus, and by Ptolemy the Sunstus (the Attuk); and the Cophen (Ca'bul river), with its own smaller tributary the Chess (the Kow); and, on the left or eastern bank, the greater rivers, —- which give its name to the Panjdb (or the country of the Five Rivers),— the Acesines (Chemib), the Hydnspes or Bidaspes (Jelum), the Hydraotes (Ravi); and the Hypauis or Hyphasis (the Sulledge). these rivers under their respective names] As in the case of the Ganges, so in that of the Indus, it has been left to modern ruesrrhes to determine nccumtely the real sources of the river: it is now well known that the Indus rims at a considerable distance on the NE. side of the Himdlayn, in what was considered by the Hindus their most sacred land, and which was also the district in which, on opposite sides of the mountains, the Brahmaputra, the Gauges, and the Jumna, have their several sourcm. From its soum, the Indus flows NW. to lsl'ardu, and thence W. and S\V., till it bursts through the mountain barriers, and descends into the plain of the Panjdb, passing,' along the western edge of Cnskmir. (RitterJL‘rdkunde, vol. v. p. 216; Moorcroft, T raveLr in Ludakh and Cashmi'r, 1841.) The native name Sindhu has been preserved with remarkable accuracy, both in the Greek writels and in modern times. Thus, in the Periylus, we find Elmo’s (p. 23); in I’toletny, Iii/9w (vii. 1. §2), from which, by the softening ofthe Ionic pronunciation, the Greeks obtained their form 'lvdos. (Ci. I’lin. vi. 20; Cusmas, Indie. p. 337.) The prment name is Sind or Sindlzu. (Bitter, vol. v. pp. 29. 171.) V. ISUUS, a river of the south-east of Carin, near the town of Cibyra. On its banks was situated, according to Livy (xxxviii. 14), the fort of Thnbusion. l'liny (v. 29) states that sixty other rivers, and up“this of a hundred mountain torrents, emptied themleh'es into it. This river, which is said to have Melted its name from some Indian Who had been thrown into it from an elephant, is probably no other than the river Cnlbis (KdAfiis, Strab. xiv. p. 651; Phil. v. 2. § 11; Pomp. Mela, i. 16), at present "1th Quingi, or Tovas, which has its sources on Mount (Iadmus, above Cihyra, and passing through C-aria emptim itself into the sea near Caunns, opposite to the island of Rhodes. [L. 5.] _ INDU'STRIA, atown of Liguria, situated on the "gill bank of the Padns, about. 20 miles below Turin. It I! mentioned only by Pliny, who tells us that in! ancient name was Bomxcumnncs, which he connects with Bodincus, the native name of the Point [Panes], and odds that it was at this point that river first attained a. considerable depth. (I‘lin in. 16. s. 20.) Its site (which was erroneously fixed by wlier writers at Cusnle) has been established bound question at a 11th called Monteit as 1’0, 1


few miles below Cbivauo, but on the right bank of the river, where excavations have brought to light numerous coins and objects of ancient art, some of them of great beauty, as well as several inscriptions, which leave no doubt that the remains thus discovered are those of Industria. They also prove that it enjoyed municipal rank under the Roman empire. (Ricolvi e Rivautella, II 0:10 dell’ antics cittd d’Indu-rtn'a, tfc.,Torino_. 1745,4to.; Millin, Voy. en Piémont, vol. i. pp. 308—311.) [E. H. [3.]

INF '<."\. AE'I‘SA.




INGAUNI ('l'yyawm), a Ligurian tribe, who inhabited the sen-mt and adjoining mountains, at the foot of the Maritime Alps, on the W. side of the Gulqu Genoa. 'I'hcir position is clearly identified by that of their capital or chief town, Albium Ingaunum, still called Albcnga. They appear to have been in early times one of the most powerful and warlike of the Lignrisn tribes, and bear a prominent part in the long-continued Wars of the Rumans with that people. Their name is first mentioned in a. c. 205, on occasion of the landing of Mago, the brother of Hannibal, in Lignria. They were at that time engaged in hostilities with the Epanterii, a neighbouring tribe who appear to have dwelt further inland: the Csrthaginian general concluded an alliance with them, and supported them against the mountaineers of the interior; he subsequently returned to their capital after his defeat by the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul, and it was from thence that he took his final departure for Africa, B. c. 203. (Liv. xxviii. 46, xxx. 19.) After the close of the Second Panic War, a. c. 201, a treaty was concluded with the Inganni by the Roman consul, C. Aelius (Id. xxxi. 2); but sixteen years later (in B. c. 185) we find them at war with the Romans, when their territory was invaded by the consul _Appius Claudius, who defeated them in several battles, and took six of their towns. (Id. xxxix. 32.) But four years afterwards, B. c. 181, they were still in arms, and were attacked for the second time by the proeonsul Aemilius Paulina. This general was at first involved in great perils, the Inguuni having surprised and besieged him in his camp; but he ultimately obtained a great and decisive victory, in which 15,000 of the enemy were killed and 2500 taken prisoners. This victory procured to Aemilius the honour of a triumph, and was followed by the submission of the whole people of the Ingauni (“ Ligurum Ingaunorurn omne nouicn "), while all the other Lignrians sent to Rome to sue for peace. (Liv. x1. 25—2B,34.) From this time we hear nothing more of the Inguuni in liismry,prnbably on account of the loss of the later books of Livy; for that they did not long remain at peace with Rome, and that hostilities were repeatedly re~ newed before they were finally reduced to submission and settled down into the condition of Roman subjects, is clearly proved by the fact stated by Pliny, that their territory was assigned to them. and its boundaries fixed or altered, no less thandhirly times. (“Liguribus Ingnunis agro tricies dato," l’lin. iii. 5. s. 6.) They appear to have been much addicted, in common with other maritime Ligurlan tribes, to habits of piracy, a tendency which they retained down to a late period. (Liv. iii. 28. 41; Vopisc. Prowl. 12.) We find them still existing and recognised its a separate tribe in the days of Strabo and Pliny; but we have no means of fixing the extent or limits of their territory, which evidently comprised a considerable portion of the seacoest on each side of their capital city, and probably extended on the W. till it met that of the Intemelii. It must have included several minor towns, but their capital, of which the name is variously written Albium lngannum and Albingaunnm, is the only town expressly assigned to them by ancient writers. [ALBIUM lxosuxusn] (Strah. iv. p. 202 ; Plin. 5. s. 6.) [E. H. 8.]

I’NGENA. [Annmcarvn]

INI'CERUM, a town in Lower Pannonia, in the neighbourhood of which there was a praetorium, or place of rest for the emperors when they travelled in those parts. (Itin. Ant. pp. 260, 265.) Some identify it with the modern Possega. [L. 8.]

INO'PUS. [Di-1111s.]

INSA'NI MUN'l'ES (rd Mawdneva llpn, Ptol. iii. 3. § 7), a range of mountains in Sardinia, mentioned by Livy (xxx. 39) in a manner which seems to imply that they were in the NE. part of the island ; and this is confirmed by Claudian, who speaks of them as rendering the northem part of Sardinia rugged and savage, and the adjoining seas stormy and dangerous to navigators. (Claudinn, B. Gild. 513.) Hence, it is evident that the name was applied to the lofty and rugged range of menutains in the N. and NE. part of the island: and was, doubtless, given to them by Roman navigators, on account of the sudden and frequent storms to which they gave rise. (Liv. 1.0.). Ptolemy also places the Matrégem lip-rl—a name which is obvioust translated from the Latin one—~in the interior of the island, and though he would seem to consider them as nearer the W. than the E. coast, the position which he assigns them may still be referred to the same range or mass of mountains, which extends from the neighbourhood of Olbia (Terra Nova) on the E. coast, to that of Cornus on the W. [SARntstnj [F.. H, 8.]

I’NSUBRES, a people both in Gallia Transnlpina and Gnllia Cisalpina. D'Anville, on the authority of Livy (v. 34), places the Insubres of Gallia Transalpina in that part of the territory of the Aedui where there was a town Mediolauum, between Forum Segusianorum [Fonust Ssaustaxonust] and Lngdunum (Lyon). This is the only ground that there is fbr supposing that there existed a. people or a pugus in Gnllia Transalpina named lnsubles. Of the lnsubres in Gullia Cisalpina, an account is given elsewhere [V0]. I. p. 986]. [6. L.]

I'NSULA, or l'NSULA ALLO'BROGUM,in Gallia Narbonensis. Livy (xxi. 31), after describing Hunnibal's passage of the Rhone, says that he directed his march on the east side towards the inland parts of Gallia. At his fourth encampment he came to the Insula, “where the rivers Arsr and the Rhodnnus, flowing down from the Alps by two different directions, comprise between them some tract of country, and then unite: it is the level country between them which is called the Insula. T he Allobroges dwell near.” One might easily see that there must be some error in the word Arar; for Hannibal could not have reached the latitude of Lugdunnm (Lyon) in four days from the place where he crossed the Rhone; and this is certain, though we do not know the exact place where he did cross the Rhone. Nor, if he had got to the junction of the Arar and Rhodanns, could Livy say that he reached a place near which the Allobroges dwell; for, if he had


marched from the lsara (Isére) to the junction of the 805116 and Rhone, he would have passed through the country of the Allobroges. [Anwsnooas] Nor dew the Arar (Swine) flow from the Alps, though the Isara does. Besides this, if Hannibal had gone so far north as the part between the 806M and Rhone, he would have gone much further north than was necessary for his purpxe, as Livy describes it. It is therefore certain, if we look to the content only, that we must read “ Isara" for “Arar;" and there is a reading of one MS., cited by Gronovius, which showa that lsara may have once been in the text, and that it. has been corrupted. (Wale-homer, Gc'og. (fa. vol. i. p. 135.) Livy in this passage copied Polybius, in whose MSS. (iii. 49) the name of the river is Scoras or Scaras; a name which the editors ought to have kept, instead of changing it into Isaras (wiper), as Bekker and others before him have done, though the lsara or Isére is certainly the river. In the latest editions of Ptolemy (ii. 10. § 6) the Isara appears in the form lsar (loop); but it is certain that there are great variations in the M55. of Ptolemy, and in the editions. Walckenser (vol. i. p. 134) says that the edition of Ulm of 1482 has Sicarus, and that there is “Simros" in thel Strassburg editions of 1513, 1520. 1522. The editio princeps of 1475 ha “Cisar;" and others have “ Tisar” and “ 'l'isan." The probable conclusion is, that “ lsc-ar " is one of the forms of the name, which is as genuine a Celtic form as “ Is-nr " or “ lsara,” the form in Cicero (ad F am. x. 15, &c.). “Isc-ara" may be compared with the British forms “ lsaoa" (the Eu), Isca,and Ischalis; and ls-ars with the mums of the Italian rivers Aussr and Aesis.

Polybins compares the country in the angle between the Rhone and the Isara (Isére) to the Delta of Egypt in extent and form, except that in the Delta the sea unitm the one side and the channels of the streams which form the two other sides; but here mountains almost inaccessible form the third side of this lnsula. He describes it as populous, and a corn country. The junction of the last, as Strabo calls the river (p. 185), and the Rhone, was, according to him, opposite the place where the Ce'venna approach near to the banks of the Rhone.

The Isére, one of the chief branches of the Rhone, rises in the high Pennine Alps, and flows through the valleys of the Alpine region by a very winding course past St. Mam-ice, Moutiers, Confiam, Mon! meilian, where it begins to be navigable, Grenoble, the Roman Cularo 0r Gratianopelis, and joins the Rhone a few miles north of Valentin ( Valence). Its whole course is estimated at about 160 miles. Hannibal, after staying a short time in the country about the junction of the Rhone and the 1m, commenced his march over the Alps. It is not material to decide whether his whole army crossed over into the Insula or not, or whether he did himself, though the words of Polybius imply that he did. It is certain that he marched up the valley of the hire towards the Alps; and the way to find out where he crossed the Alps is by following the valley of the Iaére. [6. L.]

INSURA. [hlrnan]

IN'I'ELE'NE (‘1vrnAnvb), one of the five pmvinces W. of the Tigris, coded, in 11.0. 297, by Nsrses t0 Galcrius and the Romans. (Petr. PatrFr. 14, Fragm. Hist. Grace. ed. Miiller; Gibbon, c. xiii.) St. Martin, in his note to Le Beau (Ba: Empire, vol. i. p. 380), Would read for lnteltne

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Ingilme (‘lyyrhfir-n), the name of a small province of Armenia near the sources of the Tigris mentioned by Epiphmins (Hum. LX. vol. i. p. 505, ed Valeains; comp. St. Martin, Mém. our I'Armem'e, rol. i. pp. 23, 97.) ' B. J.]

INTEME’LH ('llrrenlhot), a maritime people of Liguria, situated to the W. of the Ingauui, at the foot of the Maritime Alps. They are but. little known in history, being only once mentioned by Livy, in conjunction with their neighbours, the ingauui, as addicted to piratical habits, to repress which their coast was visited by a Roman squadron in n. c. [80. (Liv. x1. 41.) Strabo speaks of them asastill existing tribe (Strab. iv. p. 202); and their capital, called Albium Intemelium or Albintemeliu:n, now corrude into Vr'ntimr'ghh. was in his time a considerable city. [Aumm In'rnxnuumj We have no moons of determining the extent or limits of their territory; but it seems to have bordered on thnt of the lngauni on the E., and the V0diantii on the W.: at least, thue are the only tribes mentioned as existing in this part of Lignria by writers of the Roman Empire. It probably comprised also the whole valley of the RUTUBA or Mil, one of the most considerable of the rivers, or rather mountain torrents, of Ligurin, which rises at the foot of the Col di Tenda, and falls into the sea n Vr'ntimt'glia. [n n. 3.]

IN'l'EltAMNA ('lvre'pqtva : Eth. Intermnnaa, -itis), was the name of several cities in difl‘erent parts of ltaly. its obvious etymology, already pointed out by “mo and Festns, indicates their position at the confluence of two streams (“inter nmnes," Vlrr. L. L. v.28, Fest. 0. Anita, p. l7,Miill.); which ia,however, impartially borne out by their actual situation. The form L'rrsnmnm ('lrrepdpmov), and the ethnic form lnteramnis, are also found, but more rarely.

l. A Roman colony on the banks of the Liris, thence called, for distinction’s sake, lNTERALtNA L1anus. it was situated on the left or northern bank of the Liris, near the junction of the little river Which flows by Aquinum (confounded by Strabo 'ith the Melpis, a much more considerable stream), and was distant 6 miles from the latter city, end 7 from Casinum. lts territory, which was included in Latium, according to the more extended use of that name, must have originally belonged to the Volseians, but. we have no mention of Interamna as a Volacian city, nor indeed "17 "lde of its existence previous to the establishment of the Roman colony there. in n. c. 3l2. This took place at the same time with that at the neighbourinr town of Casinum, the object of both being °btionsly to secure the fertile valley of the Liria from the lttlclta of the Sninnites. (Liv. ix. 28; Diod. 1i!- 105; Veil. Pati. 14.) Hence we find, in n. c. 294, the territory of Interamna ravaged by the SamBilfl, Who did not, however, venture to attack the m! itself; and, at the opening of the following camPfiimi i! Was from lnterunna that the consul Sp. CarViliua commenced his operations against Sunuium. (Liv. x. 36, 39.) Its territory was at a later period laid Waste by Hannibal during his march by the Vin bills from Capua upon Rome, 1!. c. 2l2 (Liv. xxvi. 9): and shortly afterwards the name of luteramna lPPtars among the twelve refractory colonies which declared themsele unable to furnish any further “{l’l’liw, and were subsequently (n. c. 204) loaded vnth heavier burdens in consequence (id. xxvii. 9, Bin. 15). After the Social War it passed, in cornm°11 with the other Latin colonies, into the state of


a municipium; and we find repeated mention of it as a municipal town, apparently of some consequence. (Cie. Plu'l. ii. 41, pro Mil. 17; Strab. v. p. 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) it received a colony under the Second Triumvirate, but does not appear to have enjoyed colonial rank, several inscriptions of imperial times giving it only the title of a municipium. (Lib. Col. p. 234; Orell. lmcr. 2857, 3828.) Its position at some distance from the line of the Via Latina was probably unfavourable to its pneperity in later times: from the same cause its name is not, found in the itineraries, and we have no means of tracing its existence after the fall of the Roman Empire. The period at which it was ruined or deserted is unknown; but, mention is found in documents of the middle age of a “Castrum Teranre," and the site of the ancient city, though now entirely uninhabited, is still called T creme. It presents extensive remains of ancient buildings, with vestiges of the walls, streets, and aqueduct-s; and numerous inscriptions and other objects of antiquity have been discovered there, which are preserved in the neighbouring vilhlges. (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 384; Cluver, Ital. p. 1039. The inscriptions are given by Mommsen, 1m. Reg". Neap. pp. 22], 222.)

Pliny calls the citizens of this Interamna “ Interamnatea Succasiui, qui et Lirimrtes vocantnr." The former appellation was evidently bestowed from their situation in the neighbourhood of Casinum, but is not adopted by any other author. They are called in inscriptions “ lnteranmates Lirinates," and sometimes “ Lidth " alone: hence it is probable that we should read “ Lirinatum" for “ Lnrinatum " in Silius ltalicus (viii. 402), where he is enumerating Vollcian cities, and hence the mention of Larinnrn would be wholly out of place.

2. (Term'),a city of Umbria, situated on the river Nar, a little below its continence with the Velinus, and about 8 miles E. from Narnia. It was surrounded by a bunch of the river, so as to be in fact situated on an island, whence it derived its name. The inhabitants are termed by Pliny “ lnteramnatu cognomine Nartes," to distinguish thorn from those of the other towns of the name; and we find them designated in inscriptions as lnteramnatee Nam-s and Nahartes; but we do not find this epithet applied to the city itself. No mention is found of lntcramna in history previous to its passing under the Roman yoke; but there is no doubt that it was an ancient Umbrian city, and an inscription of the time of Tiberius has pmerved to us the local tradition that it was founded in 5.0. 672, or rather more than 80 years after Rome. (Orell. Imcr. 689.) When we first hear of lnteramna in history it appears as a flourishing municipal town, deriving gmt walth from the fertility of its territory, which was irrigated by the river Nar. Hence it. is said to have been, as early as the civil wars at Marina and Sulla, one of the “florentissima ltaline ntunit‘ipia" (Florus, 21); and though it sufl'ercd a sewers blow upw that occasion, its lands being confiscated by Sulla and portioned out among his soldiers, we still find it mentioned by Cicero in a manner that proves it to have been a place of importance (Cic ad ,1“. iv. 15). Its inhabitants were frequently engaged in iitigation and disputes with their neighbours of Rcate, on account of the regulation of the waters of the V0linus, which joins the Nar a few miles above Interamna; and under the reign of Tiberius they were obliged to enter an energetic protest against a project that had been started it! aside the course of the Nor, so that it should no longer flow into the Tiber. (Tac. Ann. L 79.) In the civil war between Vitellius and Vespasinn it was occupied by the troops of the former while their head-quarters were at Narnia, but was taken with little resistance by An'ius Varus. (Id. Hist. iii. GI, 63.) Inscriptions sufficiently attest the continued municipal importance of Interamna under the Roman empire; and, though its position was some miles to the right of the great Flaininian highway, which proceeded from Narnia direct to Mcvania (Strab. v. p. 227; Too. Ilis‘t. ii. 64), a branch line of road was carried from Narnia by luteramna and Spoletium to Forum Flaminii, where it rejoined the main highrood. This line, which followed very nearly that of the present highroad from Rome to Pewga'a, appears to have latterly become the more important of the two, and is given in the Antonine and Jerusalem Itineraries to the exclusion of the true Via Flaminia. (Itin. Ant. p. 125; 11in. Ilier. p. 613; Tab. Peat.) The great richness of the meadqu belonging to Interamnn on the banks or" the Nar- is celebrated by Pliny, who tells us that they were cut for hey no less than four times in the year (l’lin. xviii. 28. s. 67); and Tacitus also represents the same district as among the most fertile in Italy (Tac. Ann. i. 79). That great historian himself is generally considered as a native of Interamnn, but without any distinct authority: it appears, however, to have been subsequently the patrimoninl residence, and probably the birthplace, of his discendants, the two emperors Tacitus and Florianus. (Vopisc. Florian. 2.) In A. D. 193, it was at Interamna that a deputation from the senate met the emperor Septimius Severus, when on his march to the capital (Spartian. Sever. 6); and at a later period (A. n. 253) it was there that the two emperors, 'I‘reboniunus Gallus and his son Volusinnus, who were on their march to oppose Aemilianus in bloesin, Were putto death by their own soldiers, (Eutrop. ix. 5; Vict. Cries. 31, Epit.3l.)

Interamna became the see of a bishop in very early times, and has subsisted without interruption through the middle ages on its present site; the name being gradually corrupted into its modern form of Term'. It is still a flourishing city, and retains various relics of its ancient importance, including the remains of an amphitheatre, of two temples supposed to have been dedicated to the sun and to Hercules, and some portions of the ancient Thermae. None of these ruins are, however, of much importance or interest. Many inscriptions have also been discovered on the site, and are preserved in the Palazzo Publico.

About 3 miles above Term' is the celebrated cascade of the Velinus, which owes its origin to the Itoqu M’. Curius; it is more fully noticed under the article Venues.

3. (Teramo), a city of Picenum, in the territory of the Praetutii, and probably the chief place in the district of that people. The name is omitted by I'liny, but is found in Ptolemy, who distinctly assigns it to the Pmctutii; and it is mentioned also in the. Libcr Coloniarum among the “Civitatm Piccni." It there bears the epithet of “ Palestina.” or, as the name is elsewhere written, “ Paletinn;" the origin and meaning of which are wholly unknown. (Ptol. iii. 1. § 58; Lib. Col. pp. 226, 259.) In the genuine fragments of Frontinus, on the other hand, the citizens are correctly designated as “ Interamnates Pme. tutirmi.” (Frontin. i. p. 18, ed. Lachm.) Being 5ituuted in the interior of the country, at a distance from the highroads, the name is not found in the


Itineraries, but we know that it was an episcopal see and I place of some importance under the Homan empire. The name is already corrude in our MSS. of the Liber Coloniarum into Temmne, whence its modern form of Teramo. But in the middle ages it appears to have been known also by the nnme of Aprutium, supposed to be a corruption of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied (as was so ofiien the case in Gaul) to their chief city. Thus we find the name of Abrutium among the cities of Piccnum enumerated by the Geographer of Ravenna (iv. 3]); and under the Lombards we find mention of a " comes Aprutii." The mme has been retained in that of .4bruzo,now given to the two northernmost provinces of the kingdom of Naples, of one of which, called Abruzzo Ullerz'ore, the city of Teramo is still the capital. Vestiges of the ancient theatre, of bath: and other buildings of Roman date, as well as statues, altars, and other ancient remains, have been discovered on the site: numerous inscriptions have been also found, in one of which the citizens are designated as “ Interamnites Praetutiani.” (Romanelli, vol iii. pp. 297—30l; Mommeen, I. 13. N. pp. 329—4331.)

There is no foundation for the existence of a fourth city of the name of Interamna among the Frentani, as assumed by Romanelli, and, from him, by Cranier, on the authority of a very apocryphal inscription. [FRENTANL] H. 8.]

INTERAMNE'SIA (Phlegon. dc Longaev. l: Elli. Interamnicnses, Plin. iv. 21. s. 35), a stipt'ndiary town of Lusitania, named in the inscription of Alcanlara, and supposed by Ukert to have been situated between the Coa and Tow-oer, near Cuald Rodrigo and Almeida. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. lv p. 398.) [n 5.]



INTERCISA or Al) INTERCISA, is the name given in the Itineraries to a station on the Via Flaminia, which evidently derives this name from its being situated at the remarkable tunnel or gallery hewn throth the rock, now known as the P0380 dbl Furla. (Itin. Hicr. p. 614; Tab. Paul.) This passage, which is still traversed by the modern highway from Rome to Form, is a Work of the emperor Vespasinn, as an inscription cut in the rock informs us, and was constructed in the seventh year of his reign, A. 1). 75. (Inscr. up. Clover, Ital. p. 6l9.) It is also noticed among the public Works of that emperor by Aurelius Victor, who calls it Petra Pcrtusa; and the same name (Hérpa KP705110.) is given to it by Piocopios, who has left us a detailcd and accurate description of the locality. (Vict. Cues. 9, Epit. 9, l'rocop. B. 0. ii. H.)

The valley of the Cautiano, a tributary of the Metaurus, which is here followed by the Flmninian Way, is at this point so narrow that it is only by cutting the road out of the solid rock that it can carried along the face of the precipice, and, in addition to this, the rock itself is in one place pierced by In arched gallery or tunnel, which gave rise to the name of Petra Pertusa. The actual tunnel is only 126 feet long, but the whole length of the pass 10 about half a mile. Claudinn alludes to this remarkable work in terms which prove the admiration that it excited. (Gland. dc VI. Cons. 111m. 502.) A'B later period the pass was guarded by a fort, which, from its completely commanding the F laminian Vl'ay, became a military post of importance, and is remote“)! mentioned during the wars of the Goth

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