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beyond its true limits. The maps at Agathodaemon which accompany the Geography of Ptolemy,though inditl'creutly drawn, prmerve I much better outline of this sea than is expressed in the Theodosinn or Poutingerian Table, where the Mediterranean is so reduced in breadth as to resemble a canal, and the site, form, and dimensions of its islands are displaced and disfigured.
The latitudes were estimated by the ancient observers in stadia reckoned from the equator, and are not so discordant as might be expected from such a method. The length between the oquinoctinl line and Syracuse, or rather the place which they called the “ Strait of Sicily,” is given as follows:—
Ptolemy - - - - - 26,833 Their longitudes run rather wild, and are m'koned from the “Sacrum Promontorium " (Cape St. Vim cent), and the numbers given are as the are from thence to Syracuse:—
In Admiml Smyth's work (The Medilmnncnn, p. 375) will he found a tubular view of the abovementioned n1l111easurements of the elder geographers, along with the determination resulting from his own observations; assuming, for a reduction of the numbers, 700 studio. to u degrco of latitude, for a plane projection in the 36° parallel, and 555 for the corro»ponding degree of longitude. (Comp. Gosselin, Gtoyraphie den Grecs, 1 vol. Paris, 1780; Geogra» plu'c £164 Anciem, 3 vols. Pnris,1813; Maura llinéraires, 1 Vol. Paris, 1813.)
3. Physical Gcoympliy.—A more richly-varied and broken outline gives to the N. shores of the Mediterranean an advantage over the S. or Libyan coast, which was remarked by Eratmthenes. (Strah. ii. p. 109.) The three great peninsulas, -— the Iberian, the Italic, and the Hellenic,—with their sinuous and deeply indented shores, form, in combination with the neighbouring islands and opposite coasts, many strait-s and isthmuses. Exclusive of rho Euxine (wliich, however, must be considered a port of it), this sheet of water is naturally divided into two vast basins; the barrier at the entrance of the straits marks the commencement of the W. basin, which descends to an abysmal depth, and extends as far as the central part of the sea, where it flows over mother barrier (the subaqueous AaL venture Bunk, discovered by Admiral Smyth), and again falls into the yet unflthorned Levant basin
Strabo (ii. pp. 122—127) marked 05‘ this expense by three smaller closed basins. The westernmost, or Tyrrhenian basin, comprehended the space between the Pillars of Hercules and Sicily, including tho Iberian, Ligurinn, and Sardininn scas ; the waters to the W. of Italy were also called, in reference to the Adriatic, the “ Lower Sea," its that gulf bore the name of the " Upper .Sca." The second was the Syitic basin, E. of Sicily, including the Ansoninn or Siculian, the Ionian, and the Libyan seas: on the N. this basin runs up into the Adriatic, on the S. the gulf of Libya penetrates deeply into
the African continent. The E. port of this basin is interrupted by Cyprus alone, and was divided into the Carpathian, l‘nmphylian, Cilician, and Syrian
The third or Aegean portion is bounded to the S. by a curved line, which, commencing at the coast of Carin in Asia Minor, is formed by the islands of Rhodes, Crete, and Cythera, joining the Peloponncsus not far from Cape Malea, with its subdivisions, the Thracian, Myrtoan, Icarisu, and Cretan seas.
From the Aegean, the “ White Sea " of the Turks, the channel of the Hellespont leads into the Propontis, connected by the Tllracian Bosporus with the Euxine: to the NE. of that sheet of water lies the Pains Maeotis, with the strait of the Cimmerian Bosponrs. The configuration of the continents and of the islands (the latter either severed from the main or volcanimlly elevated in lines, as if over long fissures) led in very early times to cosmological views respecting eruptions, terrestrial revolutions, and overpourings of the swollen higher ms into those which were lower. Tire Eusine, the Hellespont, the straits of Gades, and the Internal Sea, with its many islands, were well fitted to originate such theories. Not to speak of the floods of Ogyges and Dcucalion, or the legendary cleaving of the pillars of Hercules by that hero, the Samothrscian traditions recounted that the Euxine, once an inland lake, swollen by the rivers that flowed into it, had broken first through the Bosporus and afterwards the Hellespont. (Diod. v. 47.) A seller: of these Samothracian traditions appears in the “ Sluice Theory " of Streton of Lampsacns (Strab. i. pp. 49, 50), according to which, the swellings of the waters of the Euxine first opened the passage of the Hellespont, and afterwards caused the outlet through the Pillars of Hercules. This theory of Straton led Eratosthenes ot' Cyrene to examine the problem of the equality of level of all external seas, or seas surrounding the continents. (Strab. l. 0.; comp. ii. p. 104.) Strabo (i. pp. 51, 54) rejected the theory of Straton, as insufficient to account for all the phenomena, and proposed one of his own, the profoundness of which modern geologist-s are only now beginning to appreciate. “ It is not," he says (L c.), “ because the lands covered by seas were originally at different altitudes, that the waters have risen, or subsided, or receded from some parts and inundated others. But the reason is, that the same land is sometimes raised up and sometimes depressed, so that it either overflows or returns into its own place again. We must therefore ascribe the cause to the ground, either to that ground which is under the sea, or to that which becomes flooded by it; but rather to that which lies beneath the sea, for this is more moveable, and, on account of its wetness, can be altered with greater quickness." (Lyell, Geology, p. l7; Humboldt, Cosmos, vol. ii. p. 118, trans, Aspects of Nature, vol. ii. pp. 73—83, trans.)
The fluvial system of the Internal Sea, including the rivers that fall into the Euxine, consists, bosides many secondary streams, of the Nile, Danube, Borysthenes, Tanais, Po, Rhone, Ebro, and Tyros. The general physics of this sea, and their connect tion with ancient speculations, do not fall within the scope of this article; it will be sufiicient to say that the theory of the tides was first studied on the coast of this, which can only in poetical language be called “ atidelcss sot.” The mariner of old had his charts and sailing directories, was acquainted
with the bewildering currents and counter—currents of this seu,—the “Typhoo” (Main), and the “Prester” (I'pno'rrip), the destroyer of those at sea, of which Lucretius (vi. 422—445) has given so terrific a description,—and hailed in the hour of danger, as the “ Diescuri " who played about the mast-head of his vessel (Plin. ii. 437; Seu.NaL Quaut. ii.), the fire of St. Elmo, “sacred to the seaman.” Much valuable information upon the winds, climate, and other atmospheric phenomena, as recorded by the ancients, and compared with modern investigations, is to he found in Smyth (Mediterranean, pp. 210—302). Forbiger's section upon Physical Geography (vol. i. pp. 576— 655) is useful for the references to the Latin and Greek authors. Some papers, which appeared in Fraser’s Magazine for the years 1852 and 1853, upon the fish known to the ancients, throw considerable light upon the ichthyology of this sea. Recent inquiry has confirmed the truth of many instructive and interesting facts relating to the fish of the Mediterranean which have been handed down by Aristotle, Pliny, Archestratus, Aelian,0vid, Oppian, Athenaeus, and Ausonius.
4. Historical Geoyraphy.—To trace the progress of discovery on the waters and shores of this sea would be to give the history of civilisation,-—“nullum sine nomine snxum." Its geographical position has eminently tended towards the intercourse of nations, and the extension of the knowledge 0‘ the world The three peninsula—the Iberian, Italic, and Hellenic—run out to meet that of A591 Minor projecting from the E. coast, while the islandfl of the Aegean have served as stepping stones for the passage of the peoples from one continent to the other; and the great Indian Ocean advances by the fissure between Arabia, Aegypt, and Abyssiniamndfl’ the name of the Red Sea, so as only to be divide by a narrow isthmus from the Delta of the Nile valley and the SE. coast of the Mediterranean.
“We,” says Plato in the Phaedo (p. 109, b-)| “ who dwell from the Phasis to the Pillars of Hercules, inhabit only a small portion of the earth in which we have settled round the (Interior) see, him nuts or frogs round a marsh." And yet the margin of this contracted basin has been the site where civilisation was first developed, and the theatre of the greatest events in the early history of the worldBeligion, intellectual culture, law, arts, and manners—nearly everything that lifts us above th' savage, have come from these coasts.
The earliest civilisation on these shores was to the 5., but the national character of the AW" was opposed to intercourse with other nations, Mid their navigation, such as it was, was mainly con' fined to the Nile and Arabian gulf. The Phoenicians were the first great agents in promoting $110 communion of peoples, and their flag waved in every part of the waters of the Internal Sea. Carthage and Etruria, though of less importance than Phw nicin in connecting nations and extending the 880’ graphical horizon, exercised great influence _0fl commercial intercourse with the W. coast of Air!“ and the N. of Europe. The progressive movement propagated itself more widely and enduringly timing" the Greeks and Romans, especially after the latte! had broken the Phoenico-Carthnginian power. ‘
[n the Hellenic peninsula the broken configurath of the coast-line invited early navigation and oommercial intercourse, and the expeditions of th' Sauna-"8 (Herod. iv. 162) and Phocaeans (Hendr. 163) laid open the W. coast of this sea. During the period of the Roman Universal Empire, the Mediterranean was the lake of the imperial city. Soon after the conclusion of the First Mitbridntic War, piracy, which has always existed from the earliest periods of history to the present day in the Grecian waters, was carried on systematically by large armies and flcets, the strongholds of which were Cilicia and Crete. From these stations the pirates directed their expeditions over the greater part of the Mediterranean. (Appian, Bell. Mithr. 92: Plnt. Pomp. 24.) Piracy, crushed by Pompeius, was never utter-wards carried on so extensively asto merit. a place in history, but was not entirely extirpated even by the fleet which the Roman emperors maintained in the East, and that cases still occurred is proved by inscriptions. (Biklth. Corp. 1m. Grace. nn. 2335, 2347.) The Romans despised all trade, and the Greeks, from the time of Hadrian, their great patron, till the extinction of the Roman power in the East, possessed the largest share of the commerce of the Mediterranean. Even after the Moslem conquests, the Arabs. in spite of the various expeditions which they fitted out to attack Constantinople, never succeeded in forming a maritime power; and their nnval strength declined with the numbers and wealth of their Christian subjects, until it dwindled into a few piraticul Squadrons. The emperors of Constantinople really remained masters of the sea. On all points connected with this sea, son Admiral Smyth, The Meditcrrmwm. London, 1854. [E. B. J.] lNTl'IROCREA (‘Iwrpolrplrn Stmb.), n small town or village ot~ the Sabines, between Amiternum and llente. It was placed on the Via Saluria, at the junction of its two branches, one of which led cistWards to Amiternnm, the other, and principal one, up the valley of the Velinus, to Asculum. It is now called Antmcloco, and is a position of great military importance, from its commanding the entrance to the two passes just mentioned, which must in all ages have formed two of the principal lines of communication across the Apeimines. It seems, however, to have been in ancient times but a small place : Strabo mils it a village; and its name is otherwise found only in the itineraries, which place it at 14 M. P. from Rcato, adistancc that coincides with the position ofAnlr-orioco. (Strub. v. p. 228; Ilia. Ant. p. 307; Tab. Peal.) Its ancient name is evidently derived from its position in a deep valley between rugged mountains; for we learn from Festus (p. 181,011. lliill.) that Ocris was nu ancient word for n mountain: and it is interesting to find this form still Preserved in the name of the Montague 111' 00m, a lofty and rugged group of the Apennines, near Aqva'la. Carla del Reyna di Napoli, 3. to]. [E H. 3.] INTERPROMIUM, a village of the lllarruciui, ing a station on the Via Claudia Vulcrin be‘f'efll Corfiuium and Teate. It is repeatedly mentioned in the Itineraries, but the distances are “firmly given. (Ilia. Ant. pp. 102,310; Tab. Peal.) The line of the ancient highrood is, however, well Woodard the position of lnterpromium is fixed by ancient remains, as well as mediaeval records, at I place on the right bank of the Aternus, just lrlow the narrow gorge through which that river flows below Popoli The site is now marked only by a tavern called the Ostcria di .9. Valentino, from the little town of that name on the hill above; it is distant 12 Roman miles from Corfinium (S. I’ellino),
and 13 from Teate (Chietr'), or 21 from Pescara, at the mouth of the Atemns. (Holsten. Not. ad Cluv. p. 143; D'Anville, Analyse de I'Italt'e, p. 178; Romanelli, vol. iii. p.117.) An inscription also mentions luberprominm under the name of Pngna luterprominua (Oral). Imcr. 144; Romanelli, L c.); it is called “ Interpromium vicus" in the Itinerary of Antoninus (p. 102), and was evidently a mere village. probably a dependency of Tests. [15. H. 13.] lN'l‘l'BlLl. l. [EDETANL] 2. A town of Hispania Bnetica, near llliturgis, the scene of a battle gained by the Romans over the Carthaginiam in the Second Punic War. (Liv. xxiii. 49; Frontin. Stratag. iii. a.) [P. 5.]
INUI CASTRUM. [Casrnnm Iron]
INYCUM or INYCUS ('Iywrov, Steph. 13., but 1'1 'Ivuxor, Herod: .EUI. 'lwnivor), a town of Sicily, situated in the SW. of the island, on the river Hypsas. It is principally known from its connection with the mythical legends concerning Mines and Duednlns; the capital of the Sicanian prince Cocalus, who atl‘orded a shelter to the fugitive Daedalus against the Cretan monarch, being placed by some writers at Inycum, and by others at Camicus. (Pans. vii. 4. § 6; Churnx, up. Staph. B. n. Kapurés.) It is mentioned in historical times by Herodotus as the place of confinement to which Scythes, the ruler of Zuncle, was sent by Hippocrates, who had taken him prisoner. (Herod. vi. 23, 24.) Aelian, who copies the narrative of Herodotus, represents Scythes as a native of lnycum; but this is probably a mistake. (Ael. V. H. viii. l7.) Plato speaks of lnycum as still in existence in his time, but Quite a small place (xwpiov mivu apmpdv) ; notwithstanding which he makes the sophist Hippias boast that he had derived from it a sum of 20 minae. (Plat. llipp. M. p. 282, e.) It is evident that it always continued to be an inconsidersble place, and was probably a maze dependency of Selinus. Hence we never again meet with its name, though Stephanns tells us that this was still preserved on account of the excellence of its wine. (Steph. B. |.v. ’lvvxov; Ht-eych. s. v.) Vibius Sequester is the only author that ntl'ords any clue to its position, by telling us that the river Hypsas (the modern Belief) flowed by it (Vib. Sequest. p. 12, according to Cluver's emen dation); but further than this its site cannot be determined. H. 13.]
IUL, afterwards CAESAHE'A (’1ch Kaurdpcur, Ptol. ii 4. §5; i! Kmartpuc, Strah., &c.), originally an obscure Phoenician settlement on the N. coast of Afriut, became afterwards famous as the capital of Bacchus and of ana II. [MAURETANIAJ The latter king enlarged and adorned the city, and guve it the name of Caesarea, in honour of his patron Augustus. Under the Romans it. gave its name to the province of Mauretnnia Caesar-ionsis, of which it was the capital. It was made a colony by the emperor Claudius. Under Valcns it was burnt by the Moors; but it was again restored; and in the 6th century it was a. populous and flourishing city. It occupied a favourable position midway between Carthage and the Straits, and was conveniently situated with refe.ence to Spain, the Balearic islands, and Sardinia; and it had a natural harbour, protected by a small island. To the E. of the city stood the royal mausoleum. (Stub. xvii. p. 581; Dion Cass. lit. 9; Mela, i. 6. § 1; Plin. v. 2. l. l; Eutrop. vii. 5 ; Itin. Anl. pp. 5, 15, 25, 31; Ores. vii. 33; Ammian. xxix. 5; Procop. B. l’and. ii. 5.) Caesarea is now identified, beyond all doubt, with the magnificent ruins at Zershcll on the coast of Algier, in a little more than 2° E. long. The Arabic name is simply an abbreviation of Caesarea. Iol; a fact clear to the intuitive sugacity of Shaw, and which, in connection with the statements of the ancients, led that incomparable traveller to the truth. Unfortunately, however, nearly all subsequent writers preferred to follow the thick-headed Mannert, who was misled by an error in the Antonine Itinerary, whereby all the places along this coast, for a considerable distance, are thrown too far to the W.; until the researches which followed the French conquest of the country revealed inscriptions which set the question at rest for ever. There exist few stronger examples of that golden rule of criticism :— “Pomleranda aunt testimonia, non numerzuula." (Shaw, Travels, vol. i. pt. 1. c. 3; Barth, l'VamIerngen, p. 56; l’cllissicr, in the Exploration Scienti/ique do l'A/gnirie, vol. vi. p. 349.) [R 8.]
lOLAl or IOLAENSES ('ldAam, Pans; '10Adnoi, l)iod.; 'loAaeis, Strab. v. p. 225), I. people of Sardinia, who appear to have been one of the indigenous or native tribes of the island. According to Strabo, they were the same people who were called in his day Diagesbians or Diagebrians (Am.7q6pei‘r or Aia'ynogels), a name otherwise unknown: and he adds that they were a T yrrheniun people, a statement in itself not improbable. The commonly received tradition, however, represented them as a Greek race, composed of emigrants fmm Attica and Thespiae, who had settled in the island under the command of lolaus, the nephew of Hercules. (Pans. x. 17. §5; Diod. iv. 30, v. 15.) It is evident that this legend was derived from the resemblance of the name (in the fomi which it assumed according to the Greek pronunciation) to that. of Iolaus: what the native form of the name was, we know not; and it is not mentioned by any Latin author, though both Pau>anias and Diodorns affirm that it was still retained by the part of the island which had been inhabited by the Iolai. Hence, modern writers have assumed that the name is in reality the same with that of the lhenses, which would seem probable enough; but l’ausanias, the only writer who mentions them both, expresst distinguishes the two. That author speaks of Olbia, in the NE. part of the island, as one of their chief towns. Diodorus represents them, on the contrary, as occupying the plains and most fertile portions of the island, while the district adjoining Olbia is one of the most rugged and mountainous in Surdinia. H. 15.]
IOLCUS ('lwkmis, Ep. 'lnwhmis, Dor. 'IaMdr: Elli. ’laiMios, fem. 'Iw/Uris, 'lwAKias), an ancient city of Magnesia in Thessaly, situated at. the head of the Pagasacan gulf and at the foot of Mt. Pelion (Pind. Nem. iv. 88), and celebrated in the heroic ages as the residence of Jason, and the place where the Argonauts assembled [See [)ict. (flhbgrmrtt. Janos and Amman-rain] it is mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithets of dvknue’in; and ebpoxapor (11. ii. 712, 0d. xi. 256). It is said to have been founded by Cretheus (Apollod. i. 9.§ H), and to have been colonised by Minyans from Orchomonos. (Strab. ix. p. 414.) lulcus is rarely mentioned in historical times. It was given by the Thessalians to l'lippias, upon his expulsion from Athens. (Herod. v. 94.) The town afterwards suffi-rod from the disscnsions of its inhabitants, but it was finally ruined by the foundation of Dcmetn'as in
B. c. 290, when the inhabitants of lolcos and of other adjoining towns were removed to this place. (Stmb. ix. p. 436.) It seems to have been no longer in uisteuce in the time of Strabo, since he speaks of the place where lolcus stood (a 11'); ’leofi rotor, is. p. 438).
The position of [clone is indicated by Strabo, who says that it was on the road from Boebe to Demetrias, and at the distance of 7 stadia from the latter (ix. p. 438). in another passage he says that 101005 is situated above the sea at the distance of 7 stadia from Demetrius (ix. p. 436). Pindar also. as we have already seen, places lolcos at the foot of Mt. Pelion, consequently a little inland. From these descriptions there is little doubt that Leuko is right in placing lolcos on the steep height. betwern the southernmost houses of V010 and V'luklimmablaliz', upon which stands achurch called Epilolxipt'. There are at present no ancient remains at this place; but some large squared blocks of atone are said to have formerly existed at the foot of the height, and to have been carried away for the construction of buildings elsewhere. Moreover, it is the only spot in the neighbourhood which has any appearance of being an ancient site. It might indeed appear, from Livy (xliv. 12, 13), that lolcus was situated upon the coast ; but in this }m.sage, as well as in Stnibo (ix. p. 436), the name of lolcos seems to have been given to this part of the cmst as well as to the city itself. (Lenka, Nor-them Greece, vol. iv. p. 379; Méziens, .11émoire sur le Pelion et I'Ossa, p. 11.)
JOMANES (Plin. vi. 17. s. 21), the most important of the afllnents of the Ganges, into which it flows near the city of Allahabad (Pratishthdna). There can he no doubt that Arrian means the sauna river when he speaks of lobarcs (Ind. c. 8); 1""1 Ptolemy expresses nearly the same sound, when he names the Diamuna (vii. 1. § 29). it is now calied the Jamiina or Jumna. The Jumna rises in the highest part of the Ilimdluyn, at no great dintanoe from the sources of the Sallezlye and Ganges, respectively, in the neighbourhood of Jamwuivala'n (Jumnatri), which is probably the most sacred spot of Hindu worship. It enters the Indian plain country at F yzabad, and on its way to join 111° Ganges it passes the important cities of Dehh‘ (1ndrnprastha) and Agra (Crishmapum), and reccivm several large tributari. These afiiuents, in orch from W. to 15., are the Sambus (Arrian, 1m]. 0. 4). (probably the Carmanvah' or Car/11ml), the Bellm (or Vetravati), and the Cainns (Arrian, Ln; Plinvi. 19. s. 21: now C(iyana or Chile). The hast has been already mentioned as one of the tributaries of the Ganges. V
ION (Iron), a river of Tymphaen in Thessaly. rising in the Cambunian mountains, and flowing into the l’eneius: now river of Krdlzm'a. (Strub. va1)- 327; Lenka, Northern Greece, vol. iv p. 546.)
ION MONS. [LUNA-1
IO'NIA ('lwvia), also called lonis, the country of Asia Minor inhabited by Ionian Greeks, and comprising the western coast from Phocaca in the north to ltliletus in the south. (Herod. i. 142; Stx'ah. xiv. init.; Plin. v. 81.) Its length from north to soutlh in a straight line, amounted to 800 stndia, While ‘11“ length of its much indented coast amounted to #30; and the distance from Ephesus to Smyva "1 a straight line, was only 320 studio, while along the mast it reached the large number of 2200. (SW1)
xiv.pp 632, 665.) Towards the inland, or the cast, lonia extended only a few miles, the towns of Magnesia, Larissa, Tmlles, Alabanda, and others, not belonging to it. Ptolemy (v. 2) assigns much narrower limits to Ionia than his predecessors, for, According to him, it extended only from the Hermus in Lydia to the Maeander in Caria; so that Phocnea and Miletns Would not belong to lonia. According to I generally received tradition, the Ionian colonies on the west coast of Asia were founded after the death of Codrus, the last king of Attica, about Ii. 0. 1044, or, according to others, as early as n. c. 1060, about 50 years after the conquest of l’cloponnesus by the Dorinns. The sons of Codrus, Neleus and Androclus, it is said, being dissatisfied with the abolition of royalty and the appointment of their eldest brother Medan to the archonship. emigrated, with huge numbers of Attic lonians and bands from other parts of Greece, into Asia Minor. (Strub. xiv. p. 633, ML; Pans. vii. 2.) Here, in one of the most beautiful and fertile parts of the earth, they founded a number of towns,—partly expelling and putty subduing the ancient inhabitants, who consisted mainly of Maeonians, Carians, and Pelasginna. (Herod. i. 142: Pans. vii. 2; Pherecyd. Fragm. 26; Dionys. l‘er. 822. Sec.) As a great many of the original inhabitants remained in the country as subjects of the conquerors, and an the latter had gone to Asia as warriors, without women, the new colonies were not pure Greek; but still the subdued nations were not so completely different as to render an lmslcamltion into one nation impoesible, or even very difiicult. This amalgamation with ditl'crcnt tribes also accounts for the fact that four different dialects were spoken by the loniana. (Herod. I. c.) The towns founded by the lonians — which, though independent d' one another, yet formed a kindof ' ’ d for pu ‘ A to twelve (Mend-irons), a number which must not be reganhd u accidental. These towns, of which mounts are given in separate articles, were: PHOurza, Env'rnnarz, Cuizomrruu, Tm, Luaxnos, CommmN, Eenrrsns, PBIENE, Mites, MILETL‘S, and Samoa and Cures in the neighbouring islands. (Shah. xiv. p. 633; Aelian, V. II. viii. 5.) Subsequently, about u. u. 700, Smynra, which until then had belonged to Aeolis, beanie by treachery a membrr of the lonian confederacy, which henceforth cononstcd of thirteen cities. (Herod i. 149; Fans. vii. 5; Stroh. I. c.) T hesc lonian colonies own rose to ‘ high drum! of prosperity, and in many respects outstripped the mother-country; for poets, philosoPltem. historians, and mists flourished in the Ionian cilia! long before the mother-country attained to any etnineuce in these intellectual pursuits. All the cities of lonia fanned independent republics, with democratii'al constitutions; but. their common afl'uirs were discussed at regular meetings held at Panioflium (flutu'vtov), the common centre of all the initial: cities, on the northern slope of Mount Myulei near l’riene, and about three strulia from the Pl“:- (llrrod. i. l4], 148; Stinbdriv. p. 639; Mela, )- 17; Plin. r. 29.) These meetings at Panionium “Pl’ar to have given rise to a pemmncnt town, with l l'rytancum, in which the meetings were held. (Steph. B. .9. n.) The political bond which held the lonirin cities together appears to have been rather ‘0‘", and the principal objects of the meetings, at leut in later times, were rcliL'inlm won-rhip aid the fl-lcbratron of games. The cities continued to enjoy “wil' hlcrcruing prosperity and their independence \
,nntil the establislnnent of the Lydian monarchy. The attacks upon the Ionian colonies began even in the reign of Gyges,so that one city alter another was conquered, until, in the reign of Croesus, all of them became subject to the Lydians. When Lydia became the prey of the Persian conqueror Cyrus, in B. c. 557, Ionia also was obliged to acknowledge the supremacy of Persia; but the new rulers scarcely interfered with the internal affairs of the cities and their confederacy; all they had to do was to pay tribute, to send their contingean to the Persian armies, and to submit to satraps and tyrants, the latter of whom were Greek usurpers who set them— eelves up in their native cities, and were backed by the Persian monarchs. But the lonians, accustomed to liberty, were unable to bear eren this gentle yoke for any length of time, and in n.c. 500 a general insurrection broke out against Persia, in which the Athenians and Eretrians also took part. The revolt had been planned and organised by Histiaeus, tyrant of Miletns, and Aristagorns, his son-in-hw. The Ionian: burned and destroyed Sardes, the residence of the Persian satrape, but were then routed and defeated in a bloody battle near Ephesus. In 13.0. 496 all the lonians were again reduced, and compelled to mist the Peroin-ns with men and ships in the war against Greece. In the battle of Mycale, 11.0. 479, the loniona deserted from the ranks ut‘ the Persians and joined their kinsmen, and thus took the first step to recover their independence, which ten years later was fully secured by the battle on the Eurymedon. They then entered into a relation with the Athenians. who were to protect them against any further aggression from the Persians; but in consequence of this they became more or less dependent upon their protectors. In the unfortunate peace of Antalcidas, the Ionians, with the other Asiatic Greeks, were again made over to l‘erein, a. c. 387; and when the Persian monarchy was destrayed by Alexander, they became a part of the Macedonian empire, and finally fell into the hands of the Romans. The highest prosperity of Ioniu belongs to the period of the Lydian supremacy; under the rule of Macedonia it somewhat recovered from it! previous sufl‘erings. Under the Romans the Ionian cities still retained their importance as commercial places, and as seats of art and literature; but they lost their political life, and sank down to the conditiun of mere provincial towns. The lost traces of their prosperity were destroyed under the barbarous rule of the Turks in the middle ages. During the period of their greatest prwpcrity and independence, the Ionian cities soul out numerous colonies to the blltll'es of the Black sea and to the western coasts and islands of the Mediterranean. (Comp. Thirl~ wall, Hid. of Greece, Vol. ii. chap. 12, pp. 94, 115, 120, Ste; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vul. ii. pp. 229— 253.) [L. 5.] IO'NIUM MARE ('ldvrov we'lm'yos, Ptol.), was the name given by geographers to the sea which bathed the western shores of Greece, and separated them from those of Sicily and Southern ltaly. The appellation would seem to data from u very early period, when the lonians still inhabited the shores of the Corinthian gulf, and the part of the l'Cll)pUtllleas subsequently known as Achaia; but we have no evi. deuce of its employment in early times. The legend; invented by later writers, which derived it from a hero of the name of lonius or lon, or from the wan