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remains within the ruined walls are a theatre about 100 feet in diameter, and above it a cistern, 100 feet long, 70 broad, and 14 deep, excavated on three sides in the rock, and on the fourth constructed of masonry. In the ncropolhs Leake discovered some remains of Doric shafts of white marble, which he conjectures to have belonged to the temple of Athena, of which Dicuearchus speaks(l. 55); but the temple mentioned by Dicuearchus must have been at Old Pleuron, since Dicaearchus was 0. contemporary of Aristotle and Theophrastus, and could not have been alive at the time of the foundation of New Pleuron. Dodwell, who visited the ruins of this city, erroneously maintains that they are those of Oeniadae, which were, however, situated among the marshes on the other side of the Achelons. Leaks places Old Pleurou further south, at a site called Ghv o-hastra, on the edge of the plain of Mesalonghi, where there are a few Hellenic remains. (Lenka, Nor-Ilium Greece, vol. i. p. 115, 5011., vol. iii. p. 539; Dudwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i. p. 96, 5011.; Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 140,

-) squ’Lll‘I'I‘I'III‘IE (HAWOivfl, Strab. xvii. p. 799; Ptol. iv. 5. § 8; Steph. B. a. 0.), the frontier town of Aegypt towards Libya. It stood at the head of the l’linthinetio bay, in latitude 29° 40' N., just within the Mareotic name, but beyond the limits of the Delta proper. There are no remains enabling us to determine the exact. site of this town; but it cannot have been far from Taposiris (A boim‘r), of which the ruins are still visible about 25 miles W. of Alcxandreia. An inferior kind of wine was produced in this region of Aegypt; and Hellanicus (Fr. 155) says that the people of Plinthine originally disoovered the virtues of the grape. (Athen. i. p. 34.) [W. B. 1).]

PLINTHINE’TICUS SINUS (“Aweiwims niMros, Herod. ii. 6), the westernmost of the Mediterranean harbours of Aegypt. It was indeed little more than a roadstend, and was exposed to the N. and NW. winds. W. of the Sinus Plinthineticus began the Regio Marinarica. [W. B. D.]

I’LISTIA (Prestia), a town of the Samnites, mentioned only by Livy (ix. 21, 22) in a manner that offends but little clue to its position. It was besieged by the Sarnnites in 13.0. 315, with the view of drawing oh" the Romans from the siege of Suticula: they failed in this object, but made themselves masters of Plistin. The site is probably indicated by a village still called Presh'a, about 4 miles from Sm Agata. dei Goti, it the foot of the Monte T bumo. [15. H. 13.]

PLIS'I‘US. [DELPH‘L]

PLITENDUS, a town of Phrygin on the river Ahmder, which is probably a branch of the Sangarius. (Liv. xxxviii. 15.)

PLITIIANA ('rd flAiana, Arrian, Per. Mar. Erythr. p. 29, kinds, p. 294, ed. C. Miiller, who reads Haitian), an important emporium in the Dnchinabades in India, from which many onyx stones were exported. It is called by Ptolemy (vii. 1. § 82) Bnethona (BaiBava), tho royal residence of Siroptolemaeus. In l’racrit it is also called Paithana, in Snnscrit Pratliisthana; it is the modern town of 1",};th or Pnltanah upon the river Gwiaveri. (Vincent, Voyage of Nearclms, vol. ii. p. 412; Lassen, Ind. Alterth. vol. i. p. 177; C. llltiiler, ad (,‘wyr. Grace. Min. vol. i. p. 294.)

PLOTAI') INSULAE. [S'rum‘lmnm]

1‘LOT11E1A. [Al-nu, p. 330, b.]

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that the city was considered as an ancient one, and certainly existed before the Roman conquest of Istrin in n. c. 177, though its name is not mentioned on that occasion. It was undoubtedly the advantages of its excellent port that. attracted the attention of the Romans, and led Augustus to establish a colony there, to which he gave the name of Pietas Julia. (Mel. L c. ; Plin. iii. 19. s. 23.) Several of the still existing remains prove that: he at the same time adorned it with public edifices; and there is no doubt that under the Roman Empire it. became a considerable and flourishing town, and, next to Tcrgeste (Trieste), the most important city of Istn'n. (Strnb. l. 0.; Ptol. iii. 1. § 27; Gruter, lnmr. p. 263. 7, p. 860. l, p. 432. 8.) It is mentioned in history as the place where Crispus, the eldest son of Constantine the Great, was put to death by order of his father; and again, in A. r). 354, the Caesar Gullus underwent the same fate there by order of Constantins. (Ammian. Marc. xiv. 11.) After the full of the Roman Empire in the West it continued to be a place of importance, and in A. n. 544 it. was there that Belisarlus assembled the fleet and army with which he was preparing to cross over to Rnvenna. (l’rocop. B. G. iii. 10.) It probably partook of the prosperity which was enjoyed by all Istriu during the period that anenna became the seat of empire, and which was continued throughout the period of the Exarchate; we learn from the Itineraries that it. was connected by a road along the coast with Tergostt‘, from which it was 77 miles distant, while the direct communication by sea with Iudera (Zara) seems to have been in frequent use, though the passage was 450 stadia, or 56 Roman miles. (ltin. Ant. pp. 271, 496.)

Poln is remarkable for the importance and preservation of its ancient remains. Of these by far the most important is the amphitheatre, one of the most interwting structures of the kind still extant, and remarkable especially for the circumstance that the cxternnl circumference, usually the part which has suffered the most. is in this case almost entirely perfect. It: is built on the slope of a bill, so that on the E. side it has only one row of arcades, while on the opposite side, facing the buy,it has a double tier, with an additional story above. It is 436 English feet. in length by 346 in breadth, so that it exceeds in size. the amphitheatre of N isms, though considerably smaller than that at Verona. But its position and the preservation of its more architectural portions render it far more striking in aspect than either of them. Considerable remains of a theatre was also preserved down to the 17th century, but were destroyed in 1636, in order to make use of the mnterials in the construction of the citadel. There still remain two temples; one of which Was dedicated to Rome and Augustus, and though of small size, is of very elegant design and execution, correspmding to the Angus-tun age, at which period it was undoubtcdly erected. It has thence become a favourite model for study with Italian architects from the time of l’nllndio downwards. The other, which was consecrated to Diane, is in less complete preservation, and has been converted into a modern habitution. Besides these, the Porto Aurca, a kind of triumphnl arch, but erected by a private individual of the name of Sergius, now forms the S. gate of the city. Another gate, and several portions of the ancient walls are also preserved. The whole of these monuments are built of the hard white limestone of the

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THE UNIVERSITY OF (muse UBRARY

much to their effect. Dante speaks of the environs

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snrcophsgi nnd ancient tombs with which they were almost wholly occupied. These have now disappeared. (Dante, Inf ix. 13.)

The antiquities of Pola have been repeatedly described, and illustrated with figures; among others, in the fourth volume of Stuart and Rcvett’s Athens, fol. Loud. 18l6,s.nd in the Voyage Pittaresqrw do l'lslric at de lo Dalmatia, fol. Paris, 1802; also in Allason's Antiquities q/‘Pala, fol., Lond. 1819.

The harbour of Polo is completely landlocked, so as to have the appearance of a small basin-shaped lake, communicating by a narrow channel with the sea. Oil" its entrance lies a group of small islands

called the hole Briom', which are probably those ‘

called by Pliny Cissa and Pullariu. (Plin. iii. 26. e. 30.) The southernmost promontory of lstria, about 10 miles distant from l’oln, derived from it the name of Pointicum Promontorium. It is now called Capo Prowmuwe. [E. 11.13.]

POLEMUNIUM (Hohemimol'), a town on the (amt of Pontus, at the month of the small river Sidenus, l0 stadis from Phadisane. and 130 from Cape Insonium. (Ari-ion, Peripl. p. 16 ; Anonym. I'eripl. p. ll, 8m; Ptol. v. 6. 9‘ 4; Steph. B. c. u.) Pliny (vi. 4) places the town 120 Roman miles from Amisus, which seems to be to) great a distance. (Comp. Amm. Marc. xxii. 8; Hierocl. p. 702, where it is crroneously culled Toheluimnv; Tab. Pauling.) Neither Strabo nor any writer before him mentions this town, and it is therefore generally beliet'ed that it was built on the site of the town of Side, which is not noticed by my writer after Strabo. its mime intimates that it was founded, or at all events was named, after one l’olemon, perhaps the one who was made king of that part of Purdue, about. n. c. 36, by M. Antonina. It had a harbour, and seems to have in the course of time become a place of considerable import— nnue, as the part of l’ontus in which it. was situated received from it the name of Poutus Polemoniacus. The town was situated on the western bank of the Sidenus, where its existence is still attested by the ruins of on octagon church, and the remains of a massive wall ; but the ancient name of the pluoe is preserved by the village of Poulcman, on the opposite side of the river. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. i.

270.) [L. 8.]

POLICHNA (“Mix”). 1. A town of Lcoouia, mentioned only by l’olybius (iv. 36), is placed by Leslie in the interior of the country on the eastern slope of Mt. Parnon at Réonda ('rd. ‘Péov-ra), where, among the ruins of a fortified town of the lower empire, are some remains of Hellenic walls. (Leake, Peloponmiaca, p. 364.)

2. A town in the NW. of Messeniu on the road from Andanis to Dorium and Cyparissiis. (Pans, iv. 33. § 6.) [Domuac]

3. A town of Meguris, mentioned only in a line of Homer, quoted by Strabo, for which the Athenians substituted another to prove that Snlnmis ut the time of the Trojan War was a dependency of Athens. (Strnb. ix. p. 394.)

4. (Elli. Hohixri'rns), a town of Crete, whose territory bordered upon that of Cydonin. (Thne, ii. 85.) in n. c. 429 the Athenians assisted the inhabitants of Polichna in making wnr upon the Cydoninns. (Thuc. I. c.) Herodotus also mentions the I’olichnitue, and says that this people and the l'raesii were the only people in Crete who did not join the other Cretans in the expedition against.

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Greece, vol. ii. p. 380) supposes the ruins at I ’6lis S. of Armyro to be those of Polichna, which Pashley, however, regards as those of Lappa or Lamps (Ci-ole. vol. i. p. 83.)

POLICHNE (Hohlxwl), a small town in tne upper valley of the Aesepus in Troos (Shrub. xiii. p. 603; Plin. v. 32; Steph. B. c. 0.; Hicrocl. p. 662.) liespecting a place bearing the same name near Chmmenme, see CLAZOMESAE. [L.S.]

POLIMA'RTIUM (Romano). a town of litrurin, not far from the right bank of the Tiber, and about 12 miles E. of Viterbo. The name is not found in any writer earlier than Paulus Diaeonus (Hist. Long. iv. 8), and there is therefore no evidence of its antiquity: but it is certain that there existed an ancient Etruscan city about 2 miles N. of the present village of Bomarzo. Some ruins and other slight \‘estiges of ancient buildings still remain, and uumo rous sepulchres have been discovered, some of which have yielded various objects of interest. One of them is adorned with paintings in the Etruscan style, but apparently not of early date. (Dennis's Etna-in, vol. i. p. 214~226.) [n n. n]

POLIS (fldlur), a village of the Hyaen in Leeds Ozolis, which Leake supposes occupied the site 0f Kamila, where he found an inscription. (Thuc. iii. 10!; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 620.)

POLISMA (rid/homo), a. small place on the river Simoeis in Trees, was originally called Polion; but it. was situated in an unsuitable locality, and soon decayed. (Strab. xiii. p. 60].) [L. 5.]

POLITO'RIUM (l'loArro’iplov : Elli. l'lohlrwpirox, Steph. IL), on ancient city of Lntium, destroyed at a very earl y period of the Roman history. The account of its capture and destruction by Ancus him-ins comprises indeed all we know concerning it; for the statement cited from Cato (Serv. ad Am. v. 564) which ascribed its foundation to Pulitcs, the son of I’rinm, is evidently a mere etymological fiction. According to Livy and Dionysins, it was a cityoi the Prisci Latini, and was the first which was attacde by the Roman king, who made himself master of it with little difficulty, and transported the inhabitants to Rome, where he settled them upon the Aventino. But the Latins having soon after reeolonised the deserted city, Ancns attacked it. again, and having taken it a second time, entirely destroyed it, that it might not for the future Alford a shelter to his enemies. (Liv. i. 33; Dionys. ill37, 38, 43.) The destruction appears to have complete, for the name of Politoriurn never mm occurs, except in Pliny’s list of the cities of Latium that were utterly extinct. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) ll! site is consequently involved in the greatest obscurity; the only clue we have is the circumrlliww that it appears in the above narrntive amiatcd With Telleuae, which is equally uncertain, and till! Ficann, the poeition of which at Dmglmcello, on the Via Ostiensis, may be considered its well established. [FICANIL] Nibby would place Polilorium It a spot milled La Tmelta near Decimo, on the Via Laurentino; while Gell considers the remains of an ancient city that have been discovered at a called La Giootra, on the right of the Via Apple. about u mile and a half from Fz'onuw and 10 mllcs from Rome, as those of l’olitorium There candle no doubt that the ruins at. La Giorlra -—consistmg of considerable fragments of walls. built in a very massive and ancient style, and enclosing a ing and

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narrow space, bordered by precipitous banks—are those of an ancient Latin city; but whether they mark the site of Politolium, as supposed by Gell, or of Tellenae, as suggested by Nibhy and adopted by Abeken, we are wholly without the means of determining. (Gell, T op. oflfome, p. 280 ; Nibby, Dialomt', vol. ii. p. 571, vol. iii. p. 146—l52; Abcken, .lll'llel Italian, p. 69.) The ruins at La Gioatm are more fully noticed under the article Tsunsxnz. [E. H. B.] POLLE'NTIA. l. (l'loMrr-rla: Eth. Pollentrnus. Polam), a city of Liguria, situated in the interior of that province, at the northern foot of the Apenninm, near the confluence of the Stura and Tamra. It was about 7 miles W. of Alba Pompeia. it was probably a Ligurian town before the Roman conquest, and included in the territory of the Statielli; but we do not meet with its name in history until near the close of the Roman republic, when it appears as a town of importance. In B. 0. 43,1“. Antonius, after his defeat at ltlutinn, withdrew to Vndn Sebata, intending to proceed into Transalpine Gaul; but this being opposed by his troops, he was compelled to recross the Apennines, With the view of seizing on Pollentia', in which. he was, however, anticipated by Decimus Brutus, who llml occupied the city with five cohorts. (Cic. ad Tam. xi. 13.) Under the Roman Empire, Pollentin I! mentioned by Pliny among the “ nobilia oppidn " which adorned the tract of Liguria between the Apelmines and the Padus. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 7.) It had considerable manufactures of pottery, and the Full Produced in its territory enjoyed great reputa"0". having a natural dark colour. (Plin. viii. 48. |-_73. XXXV. 12. 8. 46; Sil. Itnl. viii. 597 ; Martial, xiv. 157.) It is incidentally mentioned as a municipal town under the reign of Tiberius, having been “Ml? Punished by that emperor for a tumult that mined in its forum. (Suet. Tib. 37.) But its name is chiefly noted in history as the scene of a Kmt bottle fought between Stilicho and the Goths under Mario, in A.D. 403. The circumstances of this battle are very imperfectly known to us, and "I?" "8 event is variously related; for while Claudun celebrates it. as a glorious triumph, Orosius describes it as a dubious success, and Cassiodorus "Kl Jomandes boldly claim the victory for the Gob:- (Claudion, B. Get. 580—647; Prudent. "Shown. ii. nos-749; Oros. vii. 37; Prosper. Cltron, p. 190; Cmsiod. Citron. p. 450; Jornnnd. 30.) But it seems certain that it was attended “"1 great slaughter on both sides, and that it led to: temporary retreat of the Gothic king. No "llfieqnent mention is found of it, and we have no "Wt of the circumstances of its decay or deltfnction; but the name does not reappear in the "riddle ages, and the modern Pollenza is a poor "llge- Considerable remains of the ancient city “Pl still be traced, though in a very decayed condition; they include the traces of a theatre, an lmphitheatre, s temple, and other buildings; and ""011! inscriptions have also been discovered on the Kim, thus confirming the evidence of its ancient P'f'j‘Pel'ily and importance. (Millin, Voyage a: PM, W- vol. ii. p. 55.) The ruins are situated two miles from the modern town of Cheruco, but ml the left bank of the Tanaro. 2- A town of Picenum mentioned only by Pliny, who among the “ populi" of that region, enumerates l-lle Pollentini, whom he unites with the Urbs Salvia

nities to have been united into one. (lYi-licsnIi-ia Pollentini, Plin. iii. 14. s. 18.) The Unns SALYIA, now Urbilmghia, is well known; and the site of l’ollentia must be sought in its immediate neighbourhood. Holstenius places it at Monte Melon, on a hill on the left hunk of the Chienti between Macerala and Talentiflo, about 3 miles fom Urbimglia on the opposite side of the valley. (Holsten. Not. ad C‘Iuv. p. 138.) [E. H. B.] POLLE’NTIA. [B.Aumnss]

I’OLLUSCA or POLUSCA (Hohadoka: Elli. Hohuoxavds, l’olluscinus: Crual della Mandn'n), a city of Latium, which appears in the early history of Rome insepariibly connected with Longuln and Corioli. Thus, in n. c. 493, we find the three places enumerated in succession as reduced by the arms of Postumus Cominius; and again in B. c. 488 all three were recovered by the Volscinns under the command of Coriolanus. (Liv. ii. 33, 39; Dionys. vi. 9], viii, 36.) No subsequent mention of Pollusca occurs, except that its name is found in Pliny, among the cities of Latium of which all trace had disappeared. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) As its name is there given among the places which had once shared in the sacrifices on the Albun Mount, it is probable that it was originally 1 Latin city, and had fallen into the hands of the Volscians; whence it is called, when first noticed in history, a Volscian city. Livy. indeed, appears to regard Longula and Pollusca as belonging to the Volsci Antiatcs, and therefore at that time more dependencies of Antium. The position of P_ollusca,as well as that of Lougula, must be in great measure matter of conjecture, but the site suggested by Nibby, on a hill adjoining the Otteria lli Civitd, lbOllb 22 miles from Rome,on the road to Porto d' Anzo, has at least a plausible claim to that distinction. The bill in question which is included in the farm of the Cmal della filmedria, stands just at the bifurcation of the two roads that load to Porto d' Anzo and to Canon : it was noticed by Sir W. Gell as the probable site of an ancient town, and suggested as one of those which might be selected for Corioli: if we place the latter city at Monte Giove, the site more generally adopted, Pollusca may very well have been at the Osterr'a (Ii Cr'viu‘r; but the point is one which can never be determined with certainty. (Cell, Top of Rome, p. 183; Nibby, Dr‘ntorni, vol. i. p. 402; Abeken, Mitts! Italien p. 72.) [E. H. B.]

POLTYOBRIA. [AENUS.]

POLYAEGUS (Hohim'yos), a desert island in the Aegacun sea, near Melos. (l’tol. iii. 15.§ 28 ; Plin. iv. 12. s. 23; Mela, ii. 7.) It is either Polybos, or perhaps Antimelos with its wild goats. (Ross, Reisen mlfden Griccb. Imeln, vol. iii. p. 26.)

POLYANTHES. [AMANTLAJ

POLYANUS (HoAi'uu/os) a mountain in Epcirus mentioned by Strabo (vii. p. 327) along with Tomums.

POLY'BOTUS (Hohdgoror), a place in the west of l’hrygie Major, a little to the south-cost of Synnadn, is mentioned only by Hierooles (p. 677) and a few Byzantine writers (l’rocop. Hist. Arc. 18; Anna Comnen. p. 324; Concil. Nicnen. ii. p. 358), who, however, do not give the name correctly, but call it Pulybatus or Polygotus. Col. Lenke (Asia Min. p. 53) identifies the site of Polyth with the mo— dern Bqu-udun, which he regards as only a Turkish corruption of the ancient name. [L- 5-]

I’OLY'GlUM, a plum on the south coast of Gallia,

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THE UNIVERSITY OF cameo UBRARY

“ Trnuisque censu civitas Polygium est,

Tum hlansa vicus oppidumque Neustalo." There is nothing to say about a place for whose site there is no sufficient evidence. Menard supposed it to be Bourigues on the Etang do Tau. The name seems to be Greek, and the place may be one of the Massaliot settlements on this coast. [NAUs'rnm]. [G. L.] POLYME'DIUM (Huhvpilbwv, Strsb. xiii. pp. 606, 6l6; Polymedin, Plin. v. 30. s. 32), a small place in Mysia, between the promontory Lcctum and Assns, and at the distance of 40 studio from the former.

POLYRRHE'NIA (nor-m1,th Ptol. iii. l7.§ lO; Hondfipnv, HoAi'ip-qv, Steph. B. s. 0., corrected by Meineke into Honufifinvia; l‘loMinpnvo, Scylax, p. 18, corrected by Gail; flukudp‘hviov, Zenob. Prov. v. 50; Polyrrhenium, Plin. iv. 12. s. 20: Elli. Hohvdp-rivros, Polyh. iv. 53, 55; Strab. x. p. 479), a town in the NW. of Crete, whose territory occupied the whole western extremity of the island, extending from N. to S. (Scylsx, p. 18.) Strabo describes it as lying W. of Cydonia, at the distance of 30 stadia from the sea, and 60 from Phalswarna, and as containing a temple of Dictynna. He adds that the l’olyrrhenisns formerly dwelt in villages, and that they were collected into one place by the Achnesns and Lacednernonians, who built a strong city looking towards the south. (Strnb. x. p. 479.) In the civil wars in Crete inthe time of the Achacan League, n.c. 2l9, the Polyrrhenians, who had been subject allies of Cnossus, deserted the latter, and assisted the Lyctians against that city. They also sent auxiliary troops to the assistance of the Achneans, because the Gnossians had supported the Aetolisns. (l’olyb. iv. 53, 55.) The ruins of l’olyrrhenin, called Palluw'kcutro, near Kisamo-Kaste'li, exhibit the remains of the ancient walls, from l0 to 18 feet high. (Psshley, Crete, vol. ii. p. 46, seq.)

POLYTIME'TUS. [Om [Mum]

POME'TIA. [Sums Poaurruu]

POMPE'II (Hop-ruin, Strab.; Hour-firm, Dion Cass: EU». Hopmfms, Pompeisnus: Pompeii), an ancient city of Campania, situated on the most of the beautiful gulf called the Crater or Bay of Naples, at the mouth of the river Sumus (Santa), and immediately at the foot of Mount Vesuvius. It was intermediate between Herculaneum :rnd Stabinc. (Strnb. v. p. 247; Pliny,iii. 5. s. 9; Mela, ii. 4. § 9.) All accounts agree in representing it as u very ancient city: a tradition recorded by Solinns 5) ascribed its foundation to Hercules; but Dionysius, who expmssly notices him as the founder of Herculnncum, says nothing of Pompeii (Dionys. i. 44). Strabo says it was first occupied by the Oocans, subsequently by the Tyrrhcnians (Etmscans) and Pelasgians, and afterwards by the Ssmnitcs (Strab. 1.0.). It continued in the hands of these last, thnt is, of the branch of the nation who had assumed the mum of Cmpaniuus [CAMPANIA], till it praised under the government of Rome. It is probable that it bemunc from an curly period a. flourishing town, owing to its mtvantageous situation at the mouth of the Seruus, which rendered it the port of Nola, Nucerio, and all the rich plain watered by that river. (Strsb. I. c.) But we meet with no mention of its nuns in history previous to the Roman conquest of Campouin. In It. 0. SIO it is mentioned for the first. time, when a Rumor; (loot under 1’. Cornelius touched there, and the troops on bomd proceeded from thence to rovnge the territory of Nuceris. (Liv. 1x. 38.) N0 sub_

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sequent notice of it occurs till the outbreak of the Sociul War (B. 0. 9]), in which it appears to have taken a prominent part, as the Pompeisni ore mentioned by Appian apart from the other Csmpsnisnr. in enumerating the nations that joined in the insurrection. (Appian, B. C. i. 39.) In the second year of the war (a. c. 89) Pompeii was still in the hands of the insurgents, and it was not till after repeated engagements that L. Sulls, having defeated the Samnite forces under L. Cluentius,snd forced them to take refuge within the walls of Nola, wns nbleto form the siege of Pompeii. (Appisn,ib. 50; Omsr. l8;Vell. Pat. ii. 16.) The result of this is nowhere mentioned. It is certain that the town ultimately fell into the hands of Sulls ; but whether by force or s cspitulation we are not informed ; tho hitter is, however, the most probable, us it escaped the fate of Stabiae, and its inhabitants were admitted to the Roman franchise, though they lost a port of their territory, in which a military colony was established by the dictator, under the guidance and patronage of his rehtion, P. Sulla. (Cic. pro Sull. 2i; Zuinpt, do Colon. pp254, 468.) Before the close of the Republic, Pompeii become, in common with so many other maritime towns of Campsnin, a favourite resort of the Rmvm nobles, many of whom had villas in im immediate nliii-Ellbourhood. Among others, Cicero had a villa them, which he frequently mentions under the name of “ l‘ompcianum,“ nnd which appears to have be"! a considerable establishment. and one of his favourile residences. (Cic. Acud. ii. 3, all AIL i. 20, odanvii. 3, xii. 20.) Under the Empire it continued to be resorth to for the same purposes. Seneca pmiw the pleasantness of its situation, and we learn both from him and Tacitus that it was s populous mi flourishing town (“ celobrc oppidurn," Tao. Ami. rt. 22: Sen. Nat. Qu. vi. 1). in addition to the colony which it received (as already mentioned) under Sulla, and which is alluded to in an inscription as “001N115 Veneris Cornelia " (Mommsen, Inscr. R. N. 2201), it seems to have received a colony at some lstfl' period, probably under Augustus (though it is not termed a colony by Pliny), no it bests that title in several inscriptions (Motnmsen, l. c. 2230—2234)

In the reign of Nero (A. n. 59) s tumult took place in the amphitheatre of Pompeii, arising outof a dispute between the citizens and the newly-settle! colonists of Nuccris, which ended in n couflifli" which many persons were killed and wounded. The Pompeians were punished for this outlaws]! by tit" prohibition of all gladiatorial and theatrical exhibitions for ten years. (Tsc. Ann. xir. 17.) Only fut" years after, the city suffered severely from on earthquake, which took place on the 5th of FebruanA. D. 63. The expressions both of Seneca and Tantus would lead us to suppose that it was in gm.t part utterly destroyed; and we learn from existing "1' denee that the damage done was unquestionably "TY great, the public buildings especially having Budmd most severely. (Sen. Nat. Qu. vi. 1; Tsc. Ann. xv. 2‘2.) The city had hardly recovered from this rulnmity, when it met with one for greater; being totally overwhelmed by the famous eruption of VEsurius in A. n. 79, which buried Pompeii, us well as Hcrculsnenm, under a dense bed of ashes and cinder-‘The 1088 of life in the former city was the greater. beuiuse the inhabitants were assembled in the theatrrat the time when the catrwtropho tool: plum (Dim Cass. lxvi. 23.) The younger Pliny, in his celebrath letters describing the eruption (Ep. vi. 16, 20), dot! not. even notice the destruction of Pompeii or Be:

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