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Per. 92), are obvioust more etymological fancies. No trace 0f the name is found in the Homeric poems; and it occurs for the first time in Aeschylns, though, from the poetic diction of that writer, it is not clear in what recise sense he employs the term rdv-rws pox): ’1 9108. (Aesch. L c.) Herodotus evidently employs the name 'Idwor di-lros, the Ionian gulf, as synonymous with the Adriatic; and Thucydidee likewise uses the term in the same sense, as is evident from his expression, that “ Epidamnns is a city on the right hand as you sail into the Ionian gulf" (i. 24). He also repeatedly uses the term 6 'Iovws (with ltd/\ros understood) in speaking of the passage from Corcyra to the Iapygian promontory (vi. 30, 34, vii. 33); but in all these cases he refers only to the narrow sea, which might be considered as part of the some gulf or inlet with the entrance of the Adriatio Scylax also, and even Scymnus Chins, employ the name of the Ionian gulf in the same sense. as synonymous with the Adriatic. or at least with the southern part of it (Scyl. 14, 27; Scymn. Ch. 133, 361) [Annrancuu Mama]; while the name of the Ionian sea, in the more extended sense given to it by later geographers, as indicated at the commenoement of this article, is not found in any early Greek writer. Polybius is the first extant author who uses the term in this sense, and gives the name of 'Ionor sniper to the sea which extended from the entrance of the Adriatic along the coast of Italy as far as the promontory of Corinthus, which he considers as its southem limit. (Pol. ii. 14, v. 110.) Even here the peculiar expression of the Ionian strait sufficiently shows that this was a mere extension of the name from the narrow sea or strait at the entrance of the Adriatic to the more open sea to the S. of it. Hence we have no proof that the name was ever one in common use among the Greeks until it came to be established by the geographers; and even Strabo, who on these points often follows earlier authors, gives the name only of the Ionian gulf to the part of the sea near the entrance of the Adriatic, while he extends the appellation of the Sicilian sea (Irchurhv réAc-yor) from the eastern shores of Sicily to those of the Peloponnese. He, as well as I’olybius and Scymnus Chine, fixes the Acrocemunian promontory as the limit between the Ionian and the Adriatic seas. (Strnb. ii. p. 123, vii. pp. 316, 317.) Pliny uses the name of Ioninm Mare very widely, or rather very vaguely; including under that appellation the Mare Siculnm and Creticum of the Greeks, as well as apparently the lower part of the Adriatic (Plin.iii..8. s. 14. 26. s. 29, 30, iv. 11. a. 18), and this appears to have been the usage common in his day, and which is followed by the Latin poets. (Virg. Aen. iii. 211, 671; Ovid.Fa.rt. iv. 565, 8:0.) Mela distinguishes the Ionian son from the Sicilian, and applies the former name, in the sense now generally adopted by geographers, as that portion of the broad sea between the shorm of Greece and those of Sicily, which lay nearest to the former. (Mel. ii. 4. § 1.) But all these names, given merely to portions of the Mediterranean which had no natural limits, were evidently used very vaguely and indefinitely; and the great extension given at a later period to the name of the Adriatic swallowed up altogether those of the Ionian and Sicilian seas [AntuArrcum MARE], or led to the employment of the former name in a vague and general sense, wholly difl'erent from that in which it was originally applied. Thus Servius, commenting on the expression of Virgil, “ Ineulne Ionio in magno," where the


true Ioninm Mare is meant by the poet, says:— “ Sciendum, Ioninm einum esse immeneurn, ab Ionia usque ad Sicilian], et hujus partes essc Adriaticum, Achaicum et Epiroticnm." (Serv. ad Am. iii. 211.) On the other hand, the name of the Ionian gulf (6 mam. nerve!) was still given in into time; (at least by geographers). in a very limited sense, to that portion of the Adriatic immediately within the strait at. its entrance. (Enstath. ad Dionys. Per. 92, 389.) Ptolemy even applies the name of the Ionian sea (‘luivnw n'Aryos, 1. 14, 15) in the same restricted manner.

From the name of the Ionian sea has been derived that of the Ionian islands, now given to the group of seven principal islands (besides several smaller ones) which constitute an independent republic under the protectorate of Great Britain; but there is no ancient authority for this appellation. [15. H. 13.]

JOI’PA ('Id'rrn, LXX.; StrahJVl. p. 759; Ptol. v. 16. § 2. The fomi' 161m, Steph B.; Dionys. v. 910; Joseph. Antiq. ix. 10. §2; Soliu. 34, better suits the Phoenician original, which signifies “an eminence," comp. Mover'e PM, pt. p. 177; Hitzig, Die Philillfier, pp. 131—184: Eth.'loIi'r'rpr, ’lmrsf'mr, 'lmla, “161m, 'londs, 'Iorfs. The Hebrew name Jarno is still preserved in the Arabic Ytifu or .Iafl'a). A seaport town and haven on the arrest of Palestine, situated on an eminence. The ancients asserted that it had existed before the Deluge (Pomp. Mela, i. ll. §3; Plin. v. 14), and according to legend it was on this shore that Andromeda was rescued by Perseus (Strab. l. c.; l’lin. I. 0.; comp. Hicron. in Jan. i.) from the monster, whose skeleton was exhibited at Rome by M. Aemilius Seanrus during his famous curule aedileship (I’lin. ix. 4). When the Israelites invaded Canaan it is mentioned as lying on the border of the tribe of Dan (Josh. xix. 40), and was the only port possessed by the Jewish people, till Herod made the harbour at Caesarea. The timber from Lebanon intended for both the first and second temples Ill lnnded here (1 Kings, v. 9; 2 Citron. ii. 16; Ezra, iii. 7); and Jonah went to Joppa to find a ship going to Tarshish (Jon. i. 3). Judas Moccabaeue set the shipping on fire, because of the inhabitants having drowned 200 Jews (2 film. xii. 3—7)The town was afterwards taken by Jonathan (1 Mace. x. 74—76), but was not long retained, as it was again captured by Simon (xii. 34), and was strongly fortified by him (xiv. 5, xv. 28).. it was annexed by Poinpcius to the Roman provmce of Syria, along with other towns which the Jews had held by grants from the predecessors of Antiochus (Joseph. Anlr'q. xiv. 4. § 4, comp. xiii.9. § 2), and was afterwards given to Herod by Jullul Caesar (xv. 7. § 3), and remained part of the do— minions of Archclaus (xvii. 11. § 4).

In thr- New Testament Joppa is mentioned in (amnection with the Apostle Peter (Acts, ix. {lb—4?, L 5, 18. xi. 5). During the Jewish war, this place, which lind bemme a receptacle for pirates (Strab. xvi. p. 759), wall; taken by Cestius, and 8400 of the inhabitants were put to the sword. (JosephB. J. ii. 18. 10.) Vespasinn afterwards utterly demolished the ruins of Joppa, to which great numbers of persons had lied, and taken to piracyfvr subsistence. (B. J. iii. 9. §§ 2—5.) In the tune of Constantine Joppn was the seat of a bishop. as well as when taken by the Arabian: undcr Omar, 11.0. 636; the name of a bishop occurs in me council held at Jerusalem 11.1). 536. At the porivd


of the Crusades, Jopps, which had already taken the name of Jaflu (‘ld-tpa, Anna Comn. Alex. xi. p. 328), was alternately in the hands of the Christians and Moelems. After its capture by Saladin (Wilken, Die Kremz, vol. iv. pp. 537, 539) it fell into the hands of our own Richard (p. 545), was then sacked by Malok-al'Adcl (vol. v. p. 25), was rebuilt by Frederick II. (vol. vi. p. 471) and Louis 1X. (vol. vii. p. 816), when it. was taken by Sultan Bibars (vol. vii. p. 517). As the landingplsce for pilgrims to Jerusalem, from the first Crusade to our own day, it occurs in all the Itineraries and books of travels, which describe the locality and natural unfitness of Jafl‘a for a haven, in terms very similar to those employed by the ancients. For coins of Joppn see Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 483. (Roland, Palmt. p 864; Von Reamer, Palestina, p. 201 ; Winer, Realwérterbudl, s. v.,' Robinson, Researches, vol. iii. p.31; Ritter, Erdlmnde, vol. xvi. pt. i. pp 574—580, Berlin, 1852.) B. J


10S ('10.: Elli. ’nim, new), an island in the Aegneon as, one of the Sporudes, and falsely called by Stephan: one of the Cyclades, lay north of There and south of Paros and Nuoe. According to Pliny, it was 25 miles in length, and was distant 18 miles from Name and 25 from Them. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23.) Both Pliny and Stephunus state that it was originally called Phoenice. It possessed a town of the some turns (Ptol. 15. § 28), situated upon a height on the western side of the island. It, has an exeeileut harbour, of a circular form, like the Peiraeeus: its mouth faces the south-west. and is oppMite the island of Sicinus. The island is now lulled Mb (1" 'l¢); and when Ross visited it, in 1836, it contained 505 families or 2500 souls. The modern town is built upon the site of the ancient one. of which there are still remains.

in! was celebrated in antiquity as the burialPIIBB of Homer, who is said to have died here on his voyage from Smyrna to Athens. Long afterwards, yhen the fame of the poet had filled the world, the inhabitants of los are reported to have erected the following inscription upon his tomb-—

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(Pseudmlkmd. Vii. Homer. 34, 36; comp. Scylax,
p. 22; Strab. x. p. 484; Paus. x. 24-
2: Plin-
Steliih “- 66-) It was also stated that Clymenc,
the mother of Homer, was a native of Ice. and that
the was buried in the island (Pause, Steph. 13., ll.cc.);
Ind, according to Gellius (iii. 11), Aristotle related
UH! Homer himself was born in 103. In 1771 a
Dutch nobleman, Graf Pusch van Krieneu, assertul
that hehad discovered the tomb of Homer in the
florihml part of the island; and in 1773 he pub-
itlltdlln account. of his discovery, with some in-
Rrrptmm relating to Homer which he said he had
{WM upon the tomb. Of this discovery is detailed

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JOVI'ACUM, a town in Noricum, where a “ pracfcctus secundae ltalicae militum Libnrnuriorum " had his head-quarters ; a circumstance suggesting that the town, though situated some distance from the Danube, was yet connected with its navigation. (Itin. Ant. p. 249; Not. Imp; Tab. Pent.) [L 5.]

JOVIS MONS (.llongri, near A mpurias), a spur of the Pyrenees in Spain, running out into the Mediterranean near the frontier of Gaul. The steplike terraces which its face presented Were called Scalae Herculis. (Mela, ii. 6. § 5.) [P. S.]

JOVIS MONS (1b Atbs dpor, Ptol. iv. 3. § 18; low»), a mountain of Africa l'roprin, between the rivers Bagmdas and Triton, apparently containing the sources of the river Catadn. [P. 8.]

JOVIS PAGUS, a town in the interiorof Moesia, on the eastern bank of the Mnrgus. (Ilia Ui'eros. p. 565; Tab. Pout; Geog. Rev. iv. 7, where it is called simply Pages.) Some identify it with the modern Glngovacz. [1,. 8.]

JOVIS PROMONTORlUM (Aior Expo, l’tol. vii. 4. §4), a promontory mentioned by Ptolemy, at the S. and of the island of Tnprobane (Ceyhm). Its citact position cannot be identified, but it must have been in the neighbourhood of the present Point du Galle. if it be not the same.

lPAGRO or IPAGRUM (Ayuilar, on the Cobra), acity of Hispania Baetica, 28 M. P. south of Corduba, on the road to Gudee. (Itin. Ant. p. 412; Inscr. ap. Muratori, p. 1052, No. 8; Floral, EqLS. vol. xii. p. 2; Coins, up. Flora, Med. Vol. ii. p. 647; Miennet, vol. i. p. 17, Suppl. vol. i. p. 29; Seatini, pp. 28, 29 ; Eckhcl, vol. i. p. 23.) [lb 8.]

li’ASTURGI. [lsruucn]

irmsrlAnAn. [Arne/i, p. 826, b.)

ll’Ni (’h'vok), on the coast of Magnesia, in Thesnnly, at the foot of Mount Pelion, where port. of the fleet of Xerxes was wrecked. seems to have been the name of some rocks. (Herod. vii. l88 ; Strab. ix. p. 443.)

IPN US ('Iirvos; EM. 'lrvnis), a town of the Locri Owlae, of uncertain site. (Thuc. iii. 10! ; Steph. B. e. v.)

lPSUS ('Idour or 'Nms), n small town of Phrygin, a few miles below Synnada. The place itself never was of any particular note, but it is celebrated in history for the great battle fought in its plains, n. c. 801, by the aged Antigonus and his son Demetrius against the combined forces of Cnssauder, Lysimochus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus, in which Antigonue lost his conquests and his life. (Plut. Pym-h. 4; Appinn, Syriac. 55.) From Hierocles (p. 677) and the Acts of Councils (Concil. Nicaen, ii. p, 16 l ), we learn that in the seventh and eighth centuries it was the see of a Christian bishop. Some modems identify Ipsus with lpsili Iliasar. [L 8.]

IRA (1,06). l. A town of Messenizt. mentioned by Homer (IL ix. 150,292), usually identified with the inter Abia. on the Messeniun gulf. [ABIA.]

2. Or EIRA (ETpa), a mountain in Meesenin, which the Messenians fortified in the Second Messenian War, and which Aristoinenes defended for ten years against the Spartans. It was in the north of Messenia, near the river Noda- Lcake places it at no great distance from the sea, under the side of the mountain on which now stands Si'zflzmikmlro and )lla'rmamo ,- but there are no ancient remains in this spot. More to the cast, on the left bank of the Node, near Kaluzlétri, are the remains of an ancient fortress, which was, in all probability. Eire; and the lofty mountain above, now called Teri-iizi, was probably

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the comtruction of the walls of Babylon. There is no mason to doubt that it. is represented by the modern Hit. There does not appear to be any river at present at Hit, but a small stream may have been easily blocked up by the sand of ages. There are still bitumen springs in the neighbourhood of this [11306. It has been conjectured that the “(an/1710'. mm of Isidorus (p. 5) refers to the same town. (Bitter, Erdhmdc, vol. ii. p. 148; Renncll, Geogr. querod. p. 552.) ISACA, in Britain, a river mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. §4) as lying west of the outlet oft/w Tas mom (Tamar). In the Monuments. Britannica, Isacae ostia are identified with ll'eynwulll, and also With Enrwuth; most probably the latter, name for mime, aswell as place for place. In the Geographer of Ravenna the form is Ism, which is preferable. [lscm [IL G. L.] ISADICI (Eiodbnrm), a people whom Strabo (xi. p. 506) couples with the Troglodytae and other tn'bes of the Caucasus. The name may imply some Ilellenic fancy about savage justice and virtue. (Comp. Gmskurd, ad loc.) B. J.] ISAMNIUM, in Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 2. § 8) as a promontory north of the Bubt'mla (river Boyne) = St. John’s Foreland, Clogher Head, Downy Point, Bollaslum Point ('1’). [It G. L.] ISANNAVATIA, in Bn'tain, mentioned in the 6th Itinerary as lying between Lactodurum and Tripontinm. It is a name of some difliculty, since neither of the places on each side of it has been identified. (See cv.) In the Geographer of Ravcnna we find a Bannovallum, and in the 8th Itinerary a Bannovantum. Probably these two names are identical. At any rate, Bannovantum = Isannavatia, since each is 28 miles from Msgiovinium. Thus, in the 6th Itinerary, we have:— M. I’

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word as the English Ouse. D’Anville says that the name Isara in the middle ages became Elia or Aerie. Vibius Sequester mentions a river Esia which flows into the Sequana; but D'Anville suspects the passage to be an interpolation, though it is impossible to judge what. is interpolation: in such a strange book as Vibius Sequester. Uberlin, the editor of Vibius Sequestcr, maintains the passage to be genuine (p. 110). [G. L]

3. [Luna]

ISARCI, a Rhaetian tribe dwelling about the mouth of the river Isarus (Plin. iii. 24), from which it appears to have derived its name. [L. 5.]

ISARGUS. [humus]

ISARUS ('Ioapos : the Isar), a river of the Rhaetian Alps, flowing from an Alpine lake, and in a southern direction until it joins the Athesis near I’ons Drusi. (Strab. iv. p. 207, where the "hope: (or a) is said to receive the Atagis (Athesis); either a mistake of Strabo himself, or by a transcriber transposing the names. Comp. ILARUS-) [1... S.]

ISAL'RA ('rd 'Ioaupn: Elk. ‘Iouupsofi, the capital of Isauria, situated in the south-west of the country; it was a wealthy, populous, and well-fortifind city at the foot of Mount Taurus. Of its earlier history nothing is known; but we learn from Diodorus (xviii. 22) that when it was besieged by Perdiccas, and the inhabitants were no longer able to hold out, they set fire to the city, and destroyed themselves with all they possessed. Large quantities of molten gold were found afterwards by the Macedonians among the ashes and ruins. The town was rebuilt, but was destroyed a second time by the R0man Servilius Isauricus, and thenccforthit remained a heap of mine. Strabo (xii. p. 568) states that the place was ceded by the Romans to Amyntas of Galatia, who built out of the ruins of the ancient. city a new one in the neighbourhood, which he surrounded with a wall; but he did not live to complete the work. In the third century of our aera Isaura was the residence of the rival emperor Trcbellianus (Trcbell. Poll. XXX. Tyran. 25); but in the time of Ammianus Mamellinns (xiv. 8) nearly all traces of its former magnificence had vanished. At a later period it is still mentioned, under the name Isanropolis, as a town in the province ofLycaonia. (Hierocl. p. 675; Concil. Chnlcul. p. 673; comp. Strab. xiv. p. 665; Ptol. v. 4. § 12; Stoph. B. |.v.; Plin. v. 27.) Of Old Isanra no ruins appear tobe found, though D'Anville and others have identified it with the modem 85' War; they also believe that Seidl' Shelter occupies the site of New lemurs, while some travellers regard Serki Serao' as the representative of New Issura; but Hamilton (Researches, vol. ii. pp. 330, foil.) has given good reasons for thinking that certain ruins, among which are the remains of a triumphal arch of the emperor Hadrian and a gateway, on a hill near the village of Olou Bouiiar mark the site of New Isaurn. T he walls of the city can still be traced all around the place. The Isauriaus were a people of robbers, and the site of their city was particularly favourable to such a mode of life. [lssumau] [L. 5.]

ISAU'RIA (1'1 Ioaupia), a district in Asia Minor, bordering in the east on Lycaonin, in the north on I’hrygia, in the west on l’isidia, and in the south on Cilicia and Painpl.ylia. Its inhabitants, living in a wild and rugged mountainous country, were little known to the civilised nations of antiquity. The country contained but few towns, which existed especially in tho uorthem part, which was less


mountainous, though the capital, lsaura, was in the south. Stmho, in a somewhat obscure pussage (xii. p. 568). seems to distinguish between 'loaupiu, the northern part, and ’loaupuni, the southern and less known part, which he regards as belonging to Lycaonie. Later writers, too, dcsignate by the name lsauria only the northern port of the country, and take no notice of the south, which was to them almost a term incognito. The inhabitants of that secluded mountainous region of Asia, the Isauri or lsuurica gens, appear to have been a kindred race of the l’isidians. Their principul means of living were derived from plunder and mpine; from their mountain fastnesscs they used to descend into the plains, and to ravage and plunder wherever they could overcome the inhabitants of the valleys in Cilicia, Phrygin, and Pisidin. These msruuding habits rendered the Isaurinns, who also took part in the piracy of the Cilicians, so dangerous to the neighbouring countries that, in B. c. 78, the Romans sent against them an army under P. Servilius, who, after several dangerous campaigns, succeeded in conquering most of their strongholds and reducing them to submission, in consequence of which he received the eumnrne of Isauricns. (Strab. l. 0-; Diod. Sic. xviii. 22; Zoflitn. v. 25; Mela, i, 2; Plin. v. 23; Eutrop. vi. 3; Liv. Epil. 93; Dion Cass. xlv. 16; Flor. iii. 6; Ptol. v. 4. § 12; Oros. v. 23; Amm. Marc. xiv. 2, sxv. 9.) The lsuurisns after this were quite distinct from the Lycsonians, for Cicero (ad AN. v. 21; comp. ad Fem. xv. 2) distinguishes between the Forum Lycaonium and the lsauricurn. But notwithstanding the severe measures of Servilins, who had destroyed their strongholds, and even their capital of Issurn, they subsequently continued to infest their neighbours, which induced the tctrarch Amyntns to attempt their extirpation; but he did not succeed, and lost his life in the attempt. Although the glorious victory of Pompey over the pirates had put an end to such practices at sea, the Isaurisns, who in the midst of the possessions of Rome maintained their independence, continued their predstory excursions, and defied the power of Home; and the Romans, unable to protect their subjects against the bold mountnineer! in any other way, endeavoured to check them by surrounding their country with a ring of fem-eases. (Treh. Poll. XXX. Tyr. 25.) In this, however, the Romans succeeded but imperfectly, for the lssurinns frequently broke through the surrounding line of fortifications; and their successes emboldened them so muclt that, in the third century of our more, they united themselv with their kinsmen, the Cilicinns, into one nation. From that time the inhabitants of the highlands ol' Cilicia also are comprised under the name of Isauri, and the two, united, undertook expeditions on u very large scale. The strongest and most flourishing cities were attacked and plundered by them, and they remained the terror of the surrounding nations. In the third century, Trebellisnus, a chief of the Cilician lsnurisns, even assumed the title and dignity of Roman emperor. The Romans, indeed, conquered and put him to death; but were unable to reduce the lslurisus. The emperor Probus, for a time, succeeded in reducing them to submission; but they soon shook at!“ the yoke. (Vopise. Prob. 16; Zosim. i. 69, 70.) To the Greek emperors they were purticulerly formidable, for whole armies are said to have been cut to pieces and destroyed by them. (Said. 8. v. Bplixtos and 'Hodnhews; Philostorg.


Hist. Eccles. xi. 8.) Once the lsanrinns even had the honour of giving an emperor to the East in the person of Zeno, surnnmcd the lsaurinn; but they were subsequently much reduced by the emperor Annstnsius, so that in the time of Justinian they had ceased to be formidable. (Comp. Gibbon, Hist. of the Decline, do, chap. xl.) The Isaurians are described as an ugly race, of low stature, and badly armed; in the open field they were bad soldiers, but as hardened mountaineers they were irraistible in what is called guerilla warfare. Their country, though for the most part consisting of rugged mountains, was not altogether barren, and the vine was cultivated to a considerable extent. (Arum. Marc. xiv. 8.) Traditions originating in the favourite pursuits of the ancient Isauriuns are still cumnt among the present inhabitants of the country, and an inte resting specimen is related in Hamilton‘s Research”, vol. ii. p. 331. [L. 5.]

ISCA, the name of two towns in Britain. The criticism of certain difficulties connected with their identification is given under Mumvun'mu. llch ii is assumed that one is Enter, the other Cam-leanOn-Usk.

1. less =Ez-eter, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 30). In the 12th and 15th Itineraries this appears as Isca Dumnoniorum, 15 mile; from Muridunum. The word Dumnoniorum shows that Devomln're is the county in which it is to be sought. Name for name, Ezeter suggm‘ta itself. Nevertheless, Horslcy gives Uxelu as the Roman name for Exeter, and placed Irca D. at Ckiselboro'. After remarking on lssca, that " it is universally supposed to be the river Ere in Devonshire," and that “lsacue cells must, therefore, be Emoulb," he adds, “ Isa: Dnnmoni0~ rum has been universally taken for Enter; 1 MW placed it near Ckhelbbro‘ and South Parker-ton, near the borders of Somersetshire” (p. 37!). His 0bjeetions (p. 462) lie in the diiiicnlty of fixing Muridunum (q. 0.); but, beyond this, be considch himself free to clniin Uxele. (q. o.) as Euler. For considering Inca. Dumnoniorum to he Enter, hams no better reastm than “ general opinion and some seeming aflinity of names.” Yet the “ efiinity of names " has been laid great stress on in the case of Isucne oetia. The lsca of Ptolemy must be about 20 or 30 miles north-east of the mouth of the Ere,“on which river Exeter stands. This renches to the Ar." Hence he suggests Ilclmier as lscu Dumm; but, as he admits that that town has a claim to be considered lechelis (q. 0.), he also admits that some of 1110 localities shout Hmnptlen Hill (where there are the remains of a Roman camp), South Petlzerton (“hem Roman coins have been found), and Cliiaelboro’ (not far from the Arc), have better claims. Hence, in lllfi "H‘Pr Uxeln=Ezelen and lsca D.= Chisclbm‘o'. Assuming that some, if not all, these diiliculties are explained under anm and Muiunuxum, the positive evidence in favour of Exeter is somotblnB more than mere opinion and similarity of name.

(I) The form Iscu. is nearer to Ear than 111‘, and that lsuca=Exe is admitted. The U:- in UZ-vlfl may better= A2.

(2) There is no doubt as to the other Isrs== thrlcon-on- Usk. New, Roger lloveden, who WNW whilst the Cornish was a spoken language, Emu-‘5 that the name of Exeter was the same as that 0‘ Cacrleon, in British, i. e. Caerwr'ec: civitas 35‘1""

(3) The statement of llomley, that “ he could never hear of any military way leading to or from” Exeter, misleads. In Polwhele (p. 182) we have I

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