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culaneum; but his attention is directed principally \ soon after the catastrophe took place. This seems
to the circumstances of his uncle‘s death and tho ‘ to be proved by the small number of objects of in-
pbenomena which he had himself witnessed. trinsic value (such as gold and silver plate) that
From this time the name of Pompeii disappears have been discovered, as well as by the fact that
from history. It is not noticed by Ptolemy; and it comparatively few skeletons have been found, though
is certain that the city was never rebuilt. But the it appears certain, from the expressions of Dion
name is found in the Tabula; and it thus ap- Cassius, that great numbers of the inhabitants
pears thata small place must have again arisen on perished; nor have any of these been found in tho
the site, or, more probably, in the neighbourhood, of theatre, there it is probable that the greatest loss of
the buried city. But all trace of Pompeii was sub- life occurred.
seluently lost; and in the middle ages its very site it was not till 1748 that an accidental discovery
was entirely forgotten, so that even the learned and drew attention to the remains of Pompeii; and in 1755
diligent Cluverius was unable to fix it with certainty, regular excavations on the site were first commenced
and was led to place it at Seaqu on the Same, about by the Neapolitan government, which have been
'2 miles E.of its true position. This difliculty arise, carried on ever since, though with frequent intervals
in great masure, from the great physical changes and interruptions. It is impossible for us here even
produced by the catastrophe of A. D. 79, which to attempt to give any account of the results of these
diverted the course of the Sarno, so that it now excavations and the endless variety of interesting
flows at some distance from Pompeii,—nnd at the remains that have been brought to light. We shall
same time pushed forward the line of the coast, so confine ourselves to thou points which bear more
that the city is now above a mile distant from the immediately on the topography and character of the
m, which in ancient times undoubtedly bathed its town of Pompeii, rather than on the general habits,
walls. life, and manners of ancient times. More detailed
There is no reason to suppose that Pompeii in accounts of the remains, and the numerous objects
ancient times ever rose above the rank of a second- which have been discovered in the course of the ex-
rnte provincial town; but the re-discoveryof itsburiod cavntions, especially the works of art, will be found
rruiains in the last century has given a celebrity to in the great work of Mazois (La Ruines dc Pompeii,
its name exceeding that of the greatest cities. The continued by Gan, 4 vols. fol., Paris, 1812—1838),
circumstances of its destruction were peculiarly and in the two works of Sir W. Gel] (Pmnpeiam,
favourable to the preservation of its remains. It lst series, 2 vols. 8m. Lond. 1824; 2nd scries,2 vols.
"s not overthrown by a. torrent of lava, but simply 8vo. 1830); also in the little work published by
buried byavsst accumulation of volcanic sand, ashes, the Society of Useful Knowledge (Pompeii, 2 vols.
and cinders (called by the Italians lapilli), which 12mo. 1831). A recent French publication by Breton
forms a mass of a very light, dry, and porous (Pompcia, Svo. Paris, 1855), also gives a good ac-
thmcter. At the some time, it is almost certain count of the whole progress and results of the dis-
lhst the present accumulation of this volcanic de- coveries (including the most recent excavations) in
posit (which is in most places 15 feet in depth) did a moderate comme and inexpensive form. The
not take place at once, but was formed by successive still more recent work of Overbeck (Bvo. Leipzic,
WWW; and there is little doubt that the ruins 1856), of which the first part only has yet appeared,
were searched and the most valuable objects removed contains an eXcellent compendium of the whole sub-

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bENER-AL PLAN OF POMPSII

l- Gate of Herculancum. 7. Gate of the Theatre:2. Gate orvuuvmb 8. Modern entrance to the ch!2' site“- .% iii-tilt. . a. . . 5. Gate 0fthe Snruus. ll. Amphitheatre. 0. Gate of Sllblae. 12. Street or the Tombr- T T 4

THE UNIVERStTY OF (muse LIBRARY

ject, with especial attention to the works of art discovered.

The area occupied by the ancient city was an irregular are], about 2 miles in circumference. It was surrounded by a wall, which is still preserved round the whole of the city, except on the side towards the see, where no traces of it have been found, and it seems certain that it had been pulled down in ancient times to allow for the extension of houses and other buildings down to the water's edge. The wall itself is in many places much ruined, as well as the towers that flank it, and though this may be in part owing to the earthquake of 63, as well as the eruption of 79, it is probable that the defences of the town had before that time

been allowed to fall into decay, and perhaps erm intentionally dismantled after the Social War. There were seven gates, the most considerable and ornamental of which we that which formed the entrance tn the city by the high road from Herculaneum: the others have been called respectively the gate of Vesuvius, the gate of Capua, the gate at Nola, the gate of the Sarnns, the gate of Stahite, and the gate of the Theatres. The entrances to the town from the side of the son had ceased to be gates, there being no longer any walls on that aide All these names are of course modern, but are convenient in assisting us to describe the city. The walls were strengthened with an Agger er rampart, faced with masonry, and having a parapet or outer

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wall on its external front: they were further fortitied at intervals with square towers, which in some parts occur regularly at about 100 yards from each other, in other parts are added much more sparingly. These towers seem to have been subsequent additions to the original walls, being of a different and less solid style of construction. The walls themselves are very solidly built of large blocks of trsrertine, in horizontal courses, but presenting considerable irregularities of construction: the upper part is more regularly finished, and consists of peperino. But both walls and towers are in many places patched with coarser masonry and reticulated work; thus showing that they had been frequently repaired, and at distant intervals of time.

The general plan of the city is very regular, and the greater part of the streets run in straight lilies: but the principal line of street, which runs from the irate of Herculaueum to the Forum, is an exception. being irregular and crooked u well as very narrow. Though it must undoubtedly have been one of the chief thoroughfares of the city, and the line followed by the high road from Capua, Neapolis, and Rome itself, it does not exceed 12 or 14 feet in width, including the raised trottoirs or footpaths on each Mlle, so that the carriageway could only have admitted the passage of one vehicle at a. time. Some of the other streets are broader; but few of them tweed 20 feet in width, and the widest yet found is only about 30. They are uniformly paved with large polygonal blocks of hard lava or basalt, in the same manner as were the streets of ancient time, and the Via Appia, and other great highways in this part of Italy. The principal street, already "Wood, was crossed, a little before it reached the Forum, by a long straight line of street which, passing by the temple of Fortune, led direct to the gate of Nola. In the angle formed by the two itood the public baths or Thermae, and between these and the temple of Fortune a short broad street led direct to the Forum, of which it seems to have formed the principal entrance. From the Forum two other parallel streets struck off in an easterly direction, which have been followed till they 01‘085 anmlier main line of street that leads from the gate of Vesuvius directly across the city to the gate adjoining the theatres. This last line crosses the Street already noticed, leading from the gate of Nola Wmtward, and the two divide the whole city into four quarters, though of irregular size. Great part of the city (especially the SE. quarter) has not yet been explored, but recent excavations, by following the line of these main streets, have clearly shown its general plan, and the regularity with which the minor streets branched off at intervals in parallel lines. There is also little doubt that the part of the F"! aheady excavated is the most important, as it includes the Forum, with the public buildings adJoining to it, the thattres, amphitheatre. 8%

The Forum was situated in the SW. quarter of the citMind was distant about 400 yards from the gate of Herculanenm. As was commonly the case In ancient times, it. was surrounded by the principal Public buildings, and was evidently the centre of the life and movement of the city. The extent of It was not, however, great; the actual open space (exclusive of the porticoes which surrounded it) did Wt exceed 160 yards in length by 35 in breadth, and 1 part of this space was occupied by the temple 0" Jupiter. It was surrounded on three sides by a

to have been surmounted by a gallery or upper story, though no part of this is now preserved. it would seem that this portico had replaced an older arcade on the eastern side of the Forum, a portion of which still remains, so that this alteration Was not yet completed when the catastrophe took place. At the north end of the Forum, and projecting out. into the open area, are the remains of an edifice which must. have been much the most magnificent of any in the city. It is commonly known, with at least a plausible foundation, as the temple of Jupiter; others dispute its being a temple at all, and have called it the Senacnlnm, or place of meeting of the local senate. It was raised on a podium or base of considerable elevation, and had a portion of six Corinthian columns in front, which, according to Sir W. Gell, are nearly as large as those in the portico of St. Paul's. From the state in which it was found it seems certain that this edifice (in common with most of the public buildings at Pom— peii) had been overthrown by the earthquake of 63, or, at least, so much damaged that it was necessary to restore, and in great part rebuild it, and that. this process was still incomplete at the time of its final destruction. At the NE. angle of the Forum, udjoining the temple of Jupiter, stood an arch which appears to have been of a triumphal character, though now deprived of all its ornaments; it was the principal entrance to the Forum, and the only one by which it was accessible to carriages of any description. On the E. side of the Forum were four edifices, all unquestionably of a public chip racter, though we are much in doubt as to their objects and destination. The first (towards the N.) is generally known as the Pantheon, from its having contained an altar in the centre, with twelve pe. destals placed in a circle round it, which are supposed to have supported statues of the twelve chiol gods. But no traces have been found of these, and the general plan and arrangement of the building are wholly unlike those of an ordinary temple. A more plausible conjecture is, that it was consecrated to Augustus, and contained a l temple or aedr'cula in honour of that emperor, w ile the court and surrounding edifices were appropriated to the service of his priests, the Augustales, who are mcn~ tioned in many inscriptions as existing at Pompeii. Next to this building is one which is commonly regarded as the Curia or Scnnculum; it had a portico of fluted columns of white marble, which ranged with those of the general portico that surrounded the Forum. South of this again is a building which was certainly a temple, though it is impossible now to say to what divinity it was consecrated; it is commonly called the Temple of Mercury, and is of small size and very irregular form. Between this and the street known as the Street of the Silversmiths, which issued from the Forum near its SE. angle, was a large building which, as we learn from an inscription still existing, was erected by a female priestess named Eumachia. It consists of a large and spacious area (about 130 feet by 65) surrounded by a Colonnade, and having a raised platform at the end with a semicircular recess similar to that usually found in a Basilica. But though in this case the founder of the edifice is known, its purpose is still completely obscure. It iscommouly called the Chalcidicum, but it is probable that that term (which is found in the inscription above noticed) designates only a part of

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Grecian-Doric portion or colonnade, which appears

the edifice, not the whole building.

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO UBRARY

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The S. end of the Forum was occupied by three of justice, in which the tribunals held their sittings. buildings of very Bimilm' Chflmcu’ri standing side by The western side of the Forum wee principally omiaide, eaeh consisting of a single hall with an apse or pied by a Basilica. and a large temple, which I! semicircular recess at. the further extremity. The commonly called (though without any authority) most probable opinion is that these were the courts the Temple of Venus. The former is the largest

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building in Pompeii; it is of an oblong form, 220

feet in length by 80 in breadth, and abutted endwise on the Forum. from which it was entered by a vestibule with five doorways. The roof was supported by n perister of 28 lonic columns of large size, but built of brick, coated with stucco. There is a raised tribunal at the further end, but no apse, which is ususlIy found in buildings of this class. Numerous inscriptions were found scratched on the walls of this edifice, one of which is interesting, as it given the date of the consulshipof M. Lepidus and Q. Catulus (B. c. 78). and thus proves the building to have been erected before that time. Between this edifice and the temple in street of greater width than usual, which extends from the Forum in n westerly direction, and probably communicated with the port. The Temple of Venus, on the N. side of this street, was

temple with a small cella, elevated on a podium or basement, surrounded by a much more extensive portico, and the whole again enclosed by a wall, forming the per-{bolus or sacred enclosure. All parts of the building are profusely decorated with painting. The temple itsell'is Corinthian, but the columns of the portion seem to have been originally Doric, though afterwards clumsily transformed into Corinthian, or rather an awkward imitation of Corinthian. This is only one among many instances found at. Pompeii of very defective architecture, us well as of the frequent changes which the buildings of the city had undergone, and which were still in progress when the city itself was destroyed. The buildings at the NW. corner of the Forum are devoid of architectural character, and seem to have served as the public granaries and

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an extensive building consisting of a peripteral prisons.

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TEMPLE or venue.
(The Forum and Temple of Jupiter in the background.)

The open area of the Forum was paved, like that 0‘ Home, with broad slabs of a kind of marble, thus showing that it was never designed for the trnfiic of any kind of vehicles. It is moreover probable that the yhole space, including the porticocs which surrounded Ill could be closed at night, or whenever it was required. by iron gates at the several entrances. It was adorned with numerous statues, the pedestals of Which still remain; they are all of white marble, but the statues themselves have uniformly disap' PmNd- it is probable either that they had not been "-emted during the process of restoration which the Forum was undergoing, or that they had been searched for and carried oil" by excavations soon after the destruction of the city.

The remaining public buildings of the city may be more briefly described. Besides the temples which Burrounded the Forum, the remains of four others have been discovered; three of which are situated in the immediate vicinity of the theatres, a quarter which appears to have had more of architectural “moment than any other part of the city, except the Forum. Of these the most interesting is one which Btoed a little to the SW. of the great. theatre, near the Wall of the city, and which is evidently much more ancient than any of the other temples at Pompeii: it is of the Doric order and of pure Greek style, but of very ancient character, much resembling that of Neptune at Paeotum and tho oldest temples nt Selinns. Unfortunately only the basement and a

It is commonly called the Temple of Hercules, but it is obvious that such a. name is purely conjectural. It stood in an open area of considerable extent, and of a triangular form, surrounded on two sidw by porticoes: but Ithis area, which is commonly called a Forum, has been evidently constructed at a much later period, and with no reference to the temple, which is placed very awkwardly in relation to it. Another tetnplo in the same quarter of the town, immediately adjoining the great theatre, is interest~ ing because we learn with certainty from an inscription that it was consecrated to Isis, and had been rebuilt by N. Popidius Celsinus “from the foundations " after its overthrow in the great earthquake of A. D. 63. It is of a good style of architecture, but built chiefly of brick covered with stucco (only the capitals and shafts of the columns being of a soft stone), and is of small size. Like most of the temples at Pompeii, it consists of a cells, raised on an elevated podium, and surrounded externally by a more extensive portico. Adjoining this temple was another, the smallest yet found at, Pompeii, and in no way remarkable. It has been varioqu called the temple of Aeaculapius, and that of Jupiter and Juno.

The only temple which remains to be noticed is one situated about 60 yards N. of the Forum a: the angle formed by the long main street leading to the gate of Nola, with a short broad street which led from it direct to the Forum. This was the

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(7 “Pillli and other urchitcctural fragments remain.

Temple of Fortune, us we learn from an inscription

THE ilNlVERSlTY OF (Htcsoo UBRARY

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