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and was erected by a certain M. Tullius, a citizen and magistrate of Pompeii, who has been supposed to be of the family of Cicero; but the absence of the cognomen renders this highly improbable. The epithet of Fortune Augusta shows that the temple and its inscription are not earlier than the time of Augustus. It is much in ruins, having probably sufi‘eied severely from the earthquake of 63; and has little architectural cfl'ect.
Pompeii possessed two Theatres and an Amphitheatre. The former were situated, as seems to have been usual in Greek towns, close together,- the larger one being intended and adapted for theatrical performances properly so called; the smaller one serving as an Odenm, or theatre for music. Both are unquestionably of Roman date: the larger one was erected (as we learn from an inscription found in it) by two members of the same family, M. Holconius Rufus and M. Holcouius Celer, both of whom appear to have held high civil offices in the municipal government. of Pompeii. The period of its construction may probably be referred to the reign of Augustus. The smaller theatre seems to be of earlier date, and was erected at the public expense under the direction of the Duumviri or chief magistrates of the city. The large Theatre is to a considerable extent excavated out of the side of a hill, on the slope of which it was situated, thus saving a considerable amount of the expense of construction. But the exterior was still surrounded by a wall, a part of which always rose above the surface of the soil, so that it is singular it should not have long before led to the discovery of the buried city. Its internal disposition and arrangements, without ex. actly coinciding with the rules laid down by Vitruvius, approach sufficiently near to them to show that it was constructed on the Roman, and not the Greek model. Its architect (as we learn from an inscription) was a freedtnan of the name of M. Artorius Primus. It seems to have been almost wholly cused or lined with marble, but the greater part of this, as well as the other decorations of the building, has been carried away by former excavations, probably made soon after the catastrophe. The interior diameter of the building is 223 feet: it. had 29 rows of seats, divided into three stories by galleries or praecincliones, and was capable of containing about 5000 spectators. The smaller Theatre, which communicated with the larger by a covered portico on the level of the orchrmtru, was not above a fourth of the size of the other, being adapted to receive only about 1500 spectators. We learn from an inscription that it was covered or permanently roofed in, a rare thing with ancient theatres, and doubtless owing to its small size. Its chief architectural peculiarity is that the seats are cut off by the walls at the two sides, so that it is only the lower seats of the came, of which the semicircle is complete.
Adjoining the two theatres, and arranged so as to have a direct communication with both, is a large quadrangular court or nrca (183 feet long by 148 wide), surrounded on all sides by a Doric
rtico. Its destination is very uncertain, it has been called a prevision market (Forum Nun. dinarium); but is more generally regarded as having served for the barracks 0r quarters of the soldiers. Perhaps a more plausible conjecture is that it was a bur-rack, not of soldiers but of gladiators. On the W. of this, as well as of the great theatre, was the triangular area or forum already noticed, in which the Greek temple was situated. The opening
of this on the N., where it communicated with the street, was ornamented by a portion or Propylaeum composed of eight Ionic columns of very elegant style, but. consisting of the common volcanic tufo, cased with stucco.
The Amphitheatre is situated at the distance of above 500 yards from the Theatres, at the extreme SE. angle of the city. It offers no very remarkable differences from other edifices of the same kind; its dimensions (430 feet by 335) are not such as to place it in the first rank even of provincial structures of the class; and from being in great part excavated out of the soil, it has not the imposing nrchitectuml character of the amphitheatres of Verona, Nemausus, or Pola. It had 24 rows of seats, and about 20,000 feet of sitting-room, so that it was adapted to receive at least 10,000 spectators. From one of the inscriptions found in it, it appears that it was built, or at least commenced, by two local malaistrates, named C. Quinctius Vulgus and M. Porcins, after the establishment of the colony under Augustus, and probably in the reign of that emperor.
The only public building which remains to be noticed is that of the Thermue or Baths, which were situated in the neighbourhood of the Forum, adjoining the short street which led into it from the Temple of Fortune. They have no pretence to tie with the magnificent suites of buildings which bore the name of Thermae at Rome, and in some othrr great cities; but are interesting as containing a complete suite of all apartments really required for bathing, and from their good preservation throw much light upon all similar remains. The details of their construction and arrangement are fully given in the Dictionary of Anh'quitia [or-l. BALNEAE], as well as in the works specially det'otrd to Pompeii.
It is impossible here to enter into any details concerning the. results of the excavations in regard to the private dwellings at Pompeii, though these are, in many respects, the most interesting, from the light they have thrown upon the domestic life of the ancient inhabitants, their manners and usages, as well as from the artistic beauty and variety of the objects discovered. A few words on the.gencr.d character of the houses and other private buildings of Pompeii are all that our space will admit of. As these are almost the only remains of a similar kind that have been preserved to us, it must be borne In mind that they can hardly be regarded as representing in their purity the arrangements either of the Greek or Roman mode of building. On the one hand Pompeii, though strongly tinctured with Greek civilisation, was not a Greek city; on the other hand: though there is no doubt that the houses at Pompeu present much more the Roman plan and arrangemrnt than that of the Greeks, we must not conclude that they represent them in all respects. We know. at least, that Rome itself was built in many respects in a very different manner. Cicero, in a welllrnown passage, contrasts the narrow streets, the lofty houses, and irregular construction of the capital with the broad streets and regular arrange ment of Capua, resulting from its position in a level plain; and it is clear that, in some respects. Pompeii more resembled the capital of Campamn than the imperial city. its streets indeed (nonlready stated) were narrow. but with few exceptions straight and regular, and the houses were certainly 10W, seldom exceeding two stories in heigllt;_fl"d even of these the upper story seems to have consisted only of inferior rooms, a kind of gar-rets, probably serving fortbe sleeping-rooms of slaves, and in some cases of the females of the family. From the mode of destruction of the city the upper stories have indeed been almost uniformly totally destroyed; but this circumstance itself, as well as the few traces which occasionally remain, seems to prove that they were built Wholly of wood, and could never have formed an important part of the houses. his only on the W. side of the city, where the ground slopes steeply towards the sea, that houses are found which consisted of three stories or more. Externally the houses had little or nothing of an ornamental character; not a single instance has been found of a portico before a private house; and towards the street they presented either dead walls, with here and there! few small and scanty openings as windows, or ranges of shops, tor the most part low and mean in character, even when they occupied (a was often the case) the front of dwellings of a superior description. The interior of the houses of the more wealthy class was arranged apparently on the ram model as those at Rome; its disposition is given in detail in the Dictionary of Antiquities under the article Domes where a plan is given of the House of Pansn, one of the most extensive and complete of those found at Pompeii. In this case the singie house with its garden and appurtenances, including as usual several shops, occupied the whole of an inmla or the space bounded by four streets or alleys: but- this was unusual; in most cases each insulacomprised several houses even Where they were of a better description, and must have been the residence of persons of some wealth. Among the most remarkable of these may be mentioned the dwellings known as the House of Sallust, that of the Tragic Poet, of Clutor and Pollux, of the Labyrinth, 8:0. The work of Dr. Overka (above cited) gives a very interesting series of these houses, selected so as to afford examples of every description of house, from the humblest. dwelling, consisting of only two rooms. to the richly decorated and spacious mansions of Sallnst and Fame. The style of decoration of these houses presents a my general uniformity of character. The walls
atrium and perister being decorated with columns; but these are composed only of a soft and coarse stone (volcanic tufo) covered with stucco. The prodigal use of marble, both for columns and slabs to encrust the walls, which had become so general at ltome under the first emperors, apparently not having yet found its way to Pompeii. The floors are generally enriched with mosaics, some of which possess a very high degree of merit as works of art. The most. beautiful yet discovered adorned the house known as the House of the Faun, from a bronze statue of a dancing Faun which was also found in it. The illustrations to Gell’s Pompeiana (2nd series, Lond. 1835) will convey to the reader a sufficient idea of the number and variety of the artistic decorations of the private houses at Pompeii; though several of the most richly ornamented have been discovered since the date of its publication.
Outside the gate leading to Herculaneum, in a kind of suburb, stands a house of a different description, being a suburban villa of considerable extent, and adapted to have been the abode of a person of considerable wealth. From the greater space at command this villa comprises much that is not. found in the houses within the town; among others a large court or garden (Xystua), a complete suite of private baths, &c. The remains of this villa are of much ralue and interest for comparison with the numerous ruins which occur elsewhere of similar buildings, often on a much more extensive scale, but in a far less perfect state of preservation; as well as for assisting: us to understand the descriptions given by l'liny and Vitruvius of similar structures, with their numerous appurtenances. (For the details of their arrangements the reader is referred to the article VILLA, in the Dictionary 1y Antiquities. and to the work on Pompeii, Lond. 1832, vol. ii. ch. ll.) Between this villa and the gate at the city are the remains of another villa, said to he on a larger scale and more richly decorated than the one just described; but its ruins, which Were excavated in 1764, were filled up again, and are not now visible. It has been called, though without the slightest authority, the Villa of Cicero. The one still extant is commonly known as the Villa of
are almost invariably ornamented with painting, the
Arrius Diomcdes, but for no other reason than that
tilt? UNIVERSITY OF cmcaoo usescv
a sepulchre bearing that name was discovered near its entrance; a very slight argument, where almost the whole street is bordered with tombs. In fact, the approach to the gate of Herculaneum is bounded on both sides by rows of tombs or sepnlchral monuments, extending with only occasional interruptions for above 400 yards. Many of them are on a very considerable scale, both of size and architectural character; and though they cannot vie with the enormous mausolea which border in a similar manner the line of the Via Appia near Rome, they derive additional interest from the perfect state of preservation in which they remain ; and the Street of the Tombs, as it is commonly called, is perhaps one of the most interesting scenes at Pompeii. The monuments are for the most part those of persons who had held magistraeies, or other offices, in the city of Pompeii, and in many cases the site was assigned them by public authority. It is therefore probable that this place of sepulture, immediately outside the gate and on one of the principal approaches to the city, was regarded as peculiarly honourable.
Besides the tombs and the two villas already noticed, there have been found the remains of shop; and small houses outside the gate of llcrculaneum, and there would appear to have been on this side of the city a considerable suburb. This is supposed to be the one designated in the sepulchral inscription of M. Arrius Diomedes as the “Pngus Augustus Felix Suburbanus." We have as yet no evidence of the existence of any suburbs outside the other gates. It is evident that any estimate of the population of Pompeii must be very vague and uncertain ; but still from our accurate knowledge of the space it occupied, as well as the character of the houses, we may arrive at something like an approximation, and it seems certain that the population of the town itself could not have exceeded about 20,000 persons. This is in accordance with the statements of ancient writers, none of whom would lead us to regard Pompeii as having been more than a second or third rate provincial town.
The inscriptions found at Pompeii, which are often incorrectly given in the ordinary works on the subject, are carefully edited by Mommsen. in his Inscriptiones Regm' Neapolitani (pp. 112—122). These do not, hocher, include a class of much in. terest, and peculiar to Pompeii, the inscriptions of a temporary kind which were rudely painted on the walls, or scratched on the plaster of the houses and public buildings. It is remarkable that several of time no in the Oscan dialect, and seem to prove that the use of that ancient language must have continued down to a much later period than is commonly supposed. But the public or ofl'icial use of the Oscan seems to have ceased after the Social War, and the numerous inscriptions of a public character which belong to the age of Augustlla and his successors are unifome in the Latin language, H.
POMPE'II PRAESI'DIUM (Tab. Pent; l’ompeii, 11in. AM. p. 134; lpompei, Ilia. Hierol. p.566), a place in Moesis Superior, between Horreum Marni and anssus, identified either with Kasclmia (Reichard) or Boulut‘arl (Lapie).
POMPEIO'POLIS (flop-irmodrrohis), a town of Papillagnnia, on the southern bank of the river Amnias, a tributary of the Hnlys (Strnb. xii. p. 562 ; Steph, B_ a, v,). Its name seems to indicate that it was founded by Pompey the Great. In the ltine~ rurics it is marked as 27 mike from Siuope; accord
ing to which its site may be looked for in the valley of the Amniru, about the modern Trish K up-n', where Captain Kinneir (p. 286) found some ancient remains. In the vicinity of the placewas a great mine of the mineral called Sandnrach. (Strab. l. c.) l’ompeiopolis is often referred to by late writers as an episcopal sec of Paphlagonia (Socrat. ii. 39, 8th Hierocl. p. 695; Constant. Porph. do Them. i. 7; Justinian, Novell. xxix. 1; Tab. Peutt'ng.)
The name I’ompeiopolis was borne temporarily by several towns, such as Sou in Cilicia, Amsus and E uraronra in Cappadocia, as well as by Pournlon in Tarraconensian Spain. [L 5.]
PO’MPELO (mama/W, Ptol. ii. 6. § 67; Son. iii. p. lGl, who makes the name equivalent to floprmd-irohrs), the chief town of the Vascones in Hispania Turracnnenais, on the road from Asturicaw Bunligala (ltin. Ant. p. 455), and a civites stipendiaria in the jurisdiction of Caesaraugusta. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4.) Now Pumplona. [T. H. D.]
POMPONIA’NA. Pliny (iii. 5) says that Pomponiana is the same asMese, the middle island of the Stoechades or Isles d’ Hiéres [Smucrunns]. which lie close to the French roast cast of Toulon. D'Anville, following the Maritime Itinerary, which plates Pomponiana between Telo (Toulon) and Heracleia Caccabaria [Hrzmcnsu], thinks that Pomponiana is the peninsula of Giem, which is opposite to the western point of Prote (Parqueroles), the most western of the Stoechades. He remarks that the part of Giens which is on the land side is almost covered by a lagune, from which there are channels to the sea on both sides, so that the peninsula may be cansidcrcd as an island. (G. L.]
POlll‘ONlA’NIS PORTUS. [PDBTUS Pooh roams-rs.
POMPTI'NAE PALU'DES (rd. floor-rive FM: Paludt' Pontiac) was the name given (othe extensive tract of marshy ground in the S. of Latian at the foot of the Volscian mountains, extending from the neighbourhood of Cistcma to the sea at Ten-ocinu. They occupy a space of about 30 miles in length by 7 or 8 in breadth: and are separated from theses on the W. by a broad tract of sandy plain, covered with forest, which is also perfectly level, and intennixed with marshy spots, and pools or lagoons of stagnant water, so that it is almost as unhealthy as the regular marsh, and the whole tract is often comprised under the name ofthc Pontiac Mamba. The extremely low level of this whole tract. affording scarcely any natural outfall for the waters which descend into it from the Volscian mountains, together with the accumulation of sand along the seashore from Astura to the Circcian promontory, readily accounts for the formation of these extensive marshes; and there can be no doubt that the whole of this low alluvial tract is of very rccent origin compared with the rest of the adjoining mainland. Still there is the strongest mason from physical considerations to reject the notion very generally entertained by the Romans, and adopted by Pliny, that the whole of this accumulation had taken place within the period of historical record. This idea seems indeed to have arisen in the first instants from the assumption that the Mons Circeius was the island of Circe mentioned by Homer, and was therefore in the time of that poet really an island in the midst of the open sea. [CIRCEIUS Moss] But it is far more strange that Pliny should assert, on the authority of ’l‘hmplirastus, that the accumulation had taken place in great part since the time of that writer; though Thoophrastus himself tells us distinctly that the island was in his days united to the ' ‘ J by the lnted ’ r "a of certain rivers. (Thcophr. 11. P. v. 8. § 3; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) Another tradition, prwerved to us also by Pliny (l. 0.). but wholly at variance with the last, asserted that. the tract then covered by marshes, and rendered uninhabitablo by them, had formerly been occupied by no less than 24 (or, according to some M58, 33) cities. But no trace of this fact, which he citcs from Mucianus, an author contemporary with himself, is to be found in any earlier writer; and not even the name of one of these supposed cities has been preserved; there can therefore be little doubt that the whole story has arisen from some misconception.
The Pomptine Marshes are generally represented as deriving their name from the city of Suessa I’ornetia, which appears to have been situated somewhere on their borders, though we have no clue to its precise position. [Susssa PUMETIA]. The “Pomptinus ager." which is repeatedly mentioned by Livy, and which was cultivated with corn, and part of it portioned out in lots to Roman colonists (Liv. ii. 34, iv. 25, vi. 5, 21) was probably rather the district bordering on the marshes than the actual swampy tract, which does not appear to have been ever efl'ectually reclaimed; though a very moderate amount of industry must at any time have authred to bring into cultivation considerable portions of the adjoining plain. As early, however, as the year 312 a. c. the Appian Way appears to have been carried through the midst of the marshes (Liv. 1x. 29; Diod. xx. 36), and a mural conducted along nith it from Forum Appii to Tarracina, which became also much resorted to as a mode of tratlic. [Via Arena] The institution of the Pornptine tribe in a. c. 358, and of the Ufentine tribe in art. 318 (Liv. vii. 15, in. 20), would seem also to point to the existence of a considerable population In the neighbourhood at least of the Pornptine Marshes; but still we have unequivocal testimony of the continued existence of the marshes themselves in all periods of antiquity. (Sil. ltal. viii. 380; Stmb. v. p. 283, 8:0.)
The very circumstance that the plain is bordered illl'lmghout by a chain of considerable and populous Was situated on the mountain front, while not one 15; recorded as existing in the plain itself, is 11 audicrent proof that the latter was in great part uninhabitablg
The actual marshes are formed principally by the stagnation of the waters of two streams, the Annexes and the Urans, both rising in the. Volscian mountains. (Strab. v. p. 233.) Of those the latter was the most considerable, and appears to have been regarded as the principal stream. of which the Amnus was only a tributary. The Elm! is described as a slow and sluggish stream; and Sililla ltllicus, amplifying the hints of Virgil, draws a dreary picture of its waters, black with mud,winding their slow way through the pcstii'erous l’lolnptine plains. (Vii-g. Aen. vii. 801; Sil. Ital. oii- 379-382; Clandinn. Prob. et 01. Com. 257.) But, besides these, several minor streams either flow ‘10“ from the Volscian mountains, or rise imme' dl-le at their foot in copious springs of clear water, 85 is commonly the case with all limestone mountains. The Nrnr-rmnus, which rises at the foot. of "it hill at Norba, is the most, remarkable instance
nation of which gives rise to these marshes, is very considerable; and it is only by carrying these 08‘ in artificial ‘ ‘ to the sea that any real progress can be made in the drainage of the district. Various attempts were made in ancient times to drain the Pontine Marshes. The first. of these was in 8.0. 160, by the consul Cornelius Cethegus, which, according to the brief notice transmitted to us, would seem to have been for a time successful (Liv. Epit. xlvi.); but it is probable that the result attained was in reality but a partial one; and we find them relapsing into their forrner state before the close of the Republic, so that the drainage of tho Pontine Marshes is noticed among the great public works projected by the dictator Caesar, which he did not live to execute. (b'uet. Cw. 44; Pint. Cues. 58; Dion Cass. xliv. 5.) It would appear that on this occasion also some progress was made with the works, so that a considerable extent of land was reclaimed for cultivation, which M. Antonius proposed to divide among the poorer Roman citizens. (Dion Cass. xlv. 9.) Horace alludes to a similar work as having been accomplished by Augustus (Hor. Art. Poet. 65; Schol. Crug. ad 100.); but we find no mention of this elsewhere, and may therefore probably conclude that no great success attended his ed'urts. Juvenal alludes to the Pontiac Marshes as in his time a favourite resort of robbers and highwaymen (Juv. iii. 307); a sufficient proof that the district was one thinly inhabited. The enter— prise seems to have been resumed by Trajan in connection with his restoration of the Appian Way through the same district (Dion Cass. lrrviii. 15); but we have no particular account of his works, though inscriptions confirm the account given by Dion Cassius of his renovation of the highroad. The next serious attempt we hear of to drain this marshy tract was that under 'l‘heodoric, which is recorded both by Cassiodorus and by an inscription still extant at Terr'acirm. (Cassiodor. I'ar. ii. 32, 33; Grater, Imc’r. p. 152. 8.) But in the period that follmred the works naturally fell into decay, and the whole tract relapsed into an uninhabitable state, which continued till the close of the middle ages. Nor was it till quite modern times that any important works were undertaken with a view to reclaim it. Pope Pius VI. was the first toreopen the line of the Appian Way, which had been abandoned for centuries, and restore at the same time the canal by its side, extending from Trepomi to Terraciua. This canal takes the place of that which existed in the time of Horace and Strabo, and formed the customary mode of transit for travellers proceeding from Forum Appii to 'l‘urracina. (Hor. Sat. i. 5. 10—24; Strab. v. p. 233; Lucan, iii. 85.) It is evidently the same which is called by Procopius (B. G. i.ll) the Dccennovium, a name which could only be applied to an artificial cut or canal, though that author terms it a river. The “ nineteen miles" indicated by the name commenced from Tripontium (Trepontl'), from whence the canal was carried in a straight line to within 8 miles of Tarracina. It was this portion of the road which, as we learn from an inscription, was restored by Tmjan; and the canal was doubtless constructed or restored at the same time. Hence Casaiodorus applies the name of “ Decennovii palndes" to the whole tract of the Pontine Marshes. (Cassiod. Var ii. 32, 33.)
The SATURAE PALus, mentioned both by Virgil
“l mi!- Thua the whole mass of waters, the stag
und Silius ltalicus in connection with the river
IllE UNIVERSITY OF cnrcrco ocean
Ufens (Virg. Aen. vii. 801 ; Sil. Ital. viii. 380), must have been situated in the district of the Pontinc blushes, and was probably merely the name of some portion of the swamps included under that more general designation.
The line of the Appian Way was carried in a perfectly straight line through the Pnntine Marshes from the station Sub Lanuvio, at the foot of the Albnn Hills, to within a short distance of Tarracina. The stations along its course and the distances are difi'erently given in the Itineraries; but they may all be readily determined with the assistance of inscrip~ tions and Roman milestones still existing. At the beginning of the marshes, or rather in the level tract immediately adjoining them. was the station of Truss TABERSAE, distant 17 miles from Aricis, at point where a branch road from Antium fell into the Appian Way. The site of this was fixed by the Abbe Chaupy and other writers at a place called Le ('astelle, 2 miles on the Roman side of Crlrtema; but there seems no reason to reject the distances given in the Antonino Itinerary, which would place it 5 miles further from Rome, or 3 miles beyond Cislema, where some ruins still remain, referred by Chunpy to the station Ad Spouses of the Jerusalem Itinerary, but which would suit equally well for those of Tres Tabernso. ['l‘nrss Tnnrmrunj Six mila from this spot, and just 39 miles from Rome (as shown by a milestone still remaining there), is a place still called Torre di' Treporm', marking the site of TREPONTIUM, the spot from whence the canal of the Decennoriutn commenced, and from which therefore the 19 miles from which it derived its name were measured. Four miles further on considerable remains mark the site of Forum API'II, which in the Augustan age was a busy and thriving town; but in the fourth century had sunk to a mere Mututio or post station. The Antonine Itinernry gives the distance from Rome to Forum Appii at 43 miles, which is exactly correct; from thence to Tan-Minn it reckons 18 miles; the Jerusalem Itinerary makes the distance 19 miles, and gives an intermediate station called Ad Medias (I'nludcs), which was 9 miles from Forum Appii and 10 from Tarracina. The site of this is still marked by a spot called Torre 411' Mesa, where a striking Iiolnun monument still remains; but the reul distance from Forum Appii is only 8 miles, which coincides with the Antonino Itinerary. (Itin. Ant. p. 107; Itin. Hier. p. fill.) The Whole of this part of the road has been carefully examined and described by the Abbe Chnupy (De'couvev-le do In Maison d'llorace, vol. iii. pp. 382—452); and the distances discussed and corrected by Weatphul, (Rom. Kampdgne, pp. 67—70). ll. 3.]
I’ONS AENI, or, as it is called in the Penting. Table, Ad Aenum, was a frontier fort in Vindelicin on the river Aenus, and was garrisoned by a detachment of cavalry. (1!. Am. pp. 236, 257; Not. Imp.) It is commonly believed that its site is now marked by the village of Pfiiwzen, which in the middle ages bore the name of I’ontnns; hut Muchar
near Kraibury. [L. S_]
l’ONS AERA'RIUS, in Gsllia Narbonensis, is MUCH] in the Jerusalem Itin. on the road from N nmttsns (mees) to Arelate (Arlee), at the distance of xii. from Nemausus and viii. from Arelate. The Antonino Itin. marks xix. from Nemausns to Are. lnte in one distance. The road must thereliu-e have been straight between these two places. D'Anvillc
fixes the Pons at Bellegarde, where there in bridge over a canal which comes from the Rhone at U gernnm ( Beaucaire) and extends to A iqu Mortar. This canal separates the old dioceses of Nr‘mes and Arlee, and probably divided the territories of Nemausus and Arclnto. D’Anville conjectures that the name Aerarius may be owing to the fact tlut I toll was paid at the bridge, which was a common practice in the Roman period. (Dig. l9. lit. 2. s. 60. § 8: “ Redemptor ejus poutis portorium ab e0 exigebnt.") [G. L.]
PONS ALUTI, a town in Dacia on the road from Egeta to Apuls, near Robesti, below Straaburg. (Tab. Peat.)
PONS ARGENTEUS. [Anocxrevs]
PONS AUFIDI. [Am-mus.)
PONS AUGUSTI (Tab. Pent), a town in Dacia, on the road from Tiviscum to Surmntegte (usually called Zarmizegethusa), identified by Mannert with the Zeugrna (Zei'rytuz, Ptol. iii. 8. § 10) of Ptolemy, and placed near Bom'zar at the passage over the river Bistra; by others near Maryg. (Ukert, vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 6l6.)
FONS AURE'OLI (Pontirolo), a place on the highrond from Mediohmum to Bergomum, when? that road crossed the river Addus (Adda) by A bridge. It is mentioned as a station by the Jerusalem Itinerary, which places it 20 M. P. from Mediolsnum and 13 from Bergomum. (Itin. Hier. p. 558.) It derived its name from the circumstance that it was here that the usurper Aureolns was defeated in a pitched battle by the emperor Gallienus, and compelled to take refuge within the walls of Milan, A. D. 268. (Vict. Case. 33. EpiL 38.) After the death of Aureolus, who was put. to deuh by the soldiers of Claudius, he was buried by order of that emperor close to the bridge, which ever after retained the name of Aureolus. (Treh. Poll. Tnlq. Tyr. 10.) E. H. B.)
PONS CAMPA'NUS, a bridge on the Via Appis, by which that celebrated road crossed the little river Sav0.a short distance from its mouth. It was3 miles distant from Sinnessa (erroneously given as 9 in the Jerusalem Itinerary), and evidently derived its name from its being the frontier between Campanis and Latium, in the more extended sense of the latter name. It is mentioned by Pliny (xiv. 6. s. 8.), as well as the Itineraries (Tab.Peut.,' Itin. Bier. [>611); and Horace tells us that Maeoenas and his companions halted for the night in a villa adjoining it, on their journey from Rome to Brundusium(Her. Sat. i. 5. 4.5.) [E. H. [3.] ,
PONS DUBIS, in Gallin, a bridge over the Doha (Doubs), is marked in the Table on the road from Cabillonum (Cbélon) to Vesontio (angon), ml xiv. from Cabillonum. D'Anville supposes that the site may be a place called Pmrlouar, where it is soul that when the water in the Daub: is low, the Ninains of an old bridge are visible at which serrml roads met. (Ukert, Gallic», p. 50L) [G. L.]
FONS MANSUETI’NA or PONS SOCIO'BUll, a place in Pannonia, on the road leading from Soplr ones to Jovia; but no further particulsrs are known(It. Ant. pp. 264, 267.) [L. S.
PONS MI'LVIUS, or MU’LVIUS (Ponte Molle). a bridge on the Via Flaminia, by which that road crossed the Tiber just about 2 miles from the gate of Rome called the Ports Flaminia. It is probable that n. bridge existed on the spot at an early period, flld there must certainly hnve been one from the time when the Via Flaminia was constructed. The 55‘