صور الصفحة

From the Same the army marched 5 parssaugs to the Pyramus, which was crossed where it was 600 Greek feet wide; and the march from the Pyramus to Issue was 15 psmsangs. Accordingly, the whole distance marched from Tarsus to Issue was 30 paresangs. The direct distance from T ursus to the head of the gulf is about 56 geographical miles; and these tWO points are very nearly in the same latitude. The modern road from Tsrsns, through Adana on the Serus, and Mopsuestia on the Pyremus, to the head of the gulf, has a general direction from W. to E. The length of Cyrus's march, from Tarsus to the Sarus, exceeds the direct dis_ tancc on the map very much, if we reckon the puresang at 3 geographical miles; for 10 pumsangs are 80 geographical miles, and the direct distance to Adana is not more than 16 miles. Mr. Ainsworth informs us that the Burns is not forduble at Adana; and Cyrus probably crossed at some other place. The march from the Surus to the l’yramus was 5 luirusungs, or 15 geographical miles; and this appears to he very nearly the direct distance from Adana to ansuestia (Moo). But Cyrus may have crossed some distance below Mopsuestia, without lengthening his march from the Sarus to the Pymrnus; and he may have done this even if he had to go lower down the Same than Adana to find a ford. If he did not go higher up the Pyremus to seek a ford, for the reasons which Mr. Ainsworth mentions, he must have crossed lower down than Mopsuestia. The distance from the point where the supposed old bed begins to turn to the south, to the NE. end of the gulf of lssus, is 40 geographical miles; and thus the distance of 15 parasaugs from the passage of the Pyramus to Issus, is more easily reconciled with the real distance than the measurement from Tarsus to the Serus.

The places not absolutely determined on or near the gulf of lssus, are: Myriandrus, Niropolis, Epiphaneia [Emmmm-zu], Arne Alexandri, and issue, though we know that lssus, must have been ut the head of the gulf and on it. The following extract from Colonel Chesney contains the latest information on these sites:-—-“Ab0ut 7 miles south-outward from the borders of Syria are the remains of a. considerable city, probably those of Issus or Nieopolis, with the ruins of a temple, in part of the Acropolis, an extensive aqueduct, generally with a double row of arches, running ESE. and WNW. These, in addition to the walls of the city itself, are entirely built of lava, and still exist in considerable perfection. Nearly l4. miles southward from thence, the Deli Cluii' quits the foot of the Amunus in two branches, which, after traversing the lssic plain, unite at the foot of the mountain just previously to entering the mi. The princin of these branches makes a deep curve towards the NE., so that a body of troops occupying one side might see behind and outtlank those posted on the opposite side, in which, as well as in other respects, the stream appears to unworto the Piuarus oi Alexander’s historians. A little southward of this river are the castle, khin, Muir, baths, and other ruins of detis, once Bniiw, with the three villages of Kurctur in the neighbourhood, situated in the midst of groves of orange and palm trees. Again, 5 miles southward, is the pass, above noticed, of Si'ikril-tnuin, and at nearly the same distance onward, the fine buy and anchorage of Iskenderun, with an open but convenient landing-place on a bold beach; but, in consequence of the accumulation of the sand by which the mouths of the streams



descending from this part of the Amanus are choked, n. pestilential swamp extends from the very edge of the sea almost to the foot of the mountain. in the marsh towards the latter are some trifling ruins, which may possibly be the site of ancient Myriamdrus; and within a mile of the shore are the remains of a castle and bridge constructed by Godfrey of Bouillon." ( Expedition for the Survey of the Riven Euphrates and Tigris, vol. i. p. 408.)

There is no direct proof here that these remains are those of Issue. The aqueduct probably belongs to the Roman period. It seems most likely that the remains are those of Nicopolis, and that laser on the coast has disappeared. Colonel Chesuey's description of the bend of one of the brsnclm of the Deli T schai corresponds to Arrian's (ii. 2. § 10), Who says, “ Darius placed at the foot of the menutain, which was on the Persian left and opposite to Alexander’s right, about 20,000 men; and some of them were on the rear of Alexander's army. For the mountain where they were posted in one place opened to some depth, and so a part became of the form of a buy on the sea. Darius then, by edvancing further to the bend, brought the men who were posted at the foot of the mountain, in the rest of the right wing of Alexander."

There still seems some doubt about the site of Myriandrus, which Mr. Ainsworth (Travels in the T rack of the Ten Thousand, tfc. p. 60) places about half way between Scanderoofl and Rhesus (Arsus); and he has the authority of Strabo. in his enumeration of the places on this wast, and that of Ptolemy, who places Myriandrus 15' south of Alexandria ad Issum. As to Arsus, he observes, — “ there are many ruins, and especially a lung aqueduct leading from the foot of the mountains.” G. L]

ISTAEVONES. [Grammars and Hussw onus]

ISTER. [Dusuuws]

I’STHMIA, a small district in Thessaly. [Zeu

[ocr errors]

l'STRIA ('lo'rpla) or HI'STRIA, was the 1181119 given by the Greeks and Romans to the country which still bears the same appellation, and fvrms 11 peninsula of somewhat triangular farm near the head of the Adriatic sea, running out from the coast of Libumia, between Tcrgeste (Trieste) and the Sinus Flanaticus, or Gulf of Quanta-0. It; is about 50 G. miles in length, and 35 in breadth, while the isthmus or strip of land between the two gulfs of Trieste and Qua-mere, by which it is united to the mainland, is about 27 G. miles across. The nmne is derived both by Greek and Latin authors from the fabulous notion entertained at a very early period that one branch or arm of the Danube (the lsterof the Greeks) flowed into the Adriatic sen near ltS head. (Strnb. i. p. 57; Hill. iii. 18. s. 22.) The deep inlets and narrow channels with which the coasts of the Adriatic are intersected for a considerable distance below the peninsula of Istria may have contributed to favour this notion so long as thme coasts were imperfectly known; and hence We cannot wonder at Scylnx speaking of a river named lstrmt (which he identifies with the Danube) as flowmg through the land of the letrians (Scyl. p. 6. 20); but it seems incredible that an author like Mela, writing in the days of Augustus, should not only speak of a river later as flowing into this part of the Adriatic, but should assert that its waters entered that sea with a turbulence and force similar to those of the Padus. (Mel. ii. 3. § 13, 4. § 4.) 1n point of fact, there is no river of any magnitude flowing into the upper part of the Adriatic on its eastern shore which could afford oven the slightest counteuance to such a notion; the rivers in the peninsula of lstria itself are very trifling streams, and the dry, 68le ridges which hem in the E. shore of the Adriatic, all the way from Trieste to the southern extremity of Dalmatia, do not admit either of the formation or the outlet of any considerable body of water. It is scarcely possible to account for the origin of such a table; but if the inhabitants of Istria were really called ls'rni ('Io-rpoi), as their native name, which is at least highly probable, this circumstance may have first led the Greeks to assume their connection with the great river later, and the existence of a considerable amount of traflic up the valley of the Savus, and from thence by land across the Julian Alps, or Mount Dora, to the head of the Adriatic (Strab. vii. p. 314), would tend to perpetuate such a notion.

[merged small][ocr errors]

The lstrians are generally considered as a tribe of lllyrian race (Appian, Illyr. 8; Strub. vii. p. 814; Zenss, Die Deulschen, p. 253). and the fact that they were immediatelysnrrounded by other Illyrian tribes is in itself a strong argument in favour of this view. Scymnus Chins alone calls them a Thracian tribe, but on what authority we know not. (Scymn. Ch. 398.) They first appear in history as taking part with the other lllyrians in their pimticsl expeditions, and Livy ascribes to them this character as early as 14.0. 301 (Liv. x. 2); but the first occasion on which they are distinctly mentioned as joining in these enterprises is just before the Second Punic War. They were, however, severely punished; the Roman consuls M. Minucins Rufus and l'. Cornelius were sent against them, and they were reduced to complete submission. (Eutrop. iii. 7 ; Oros. iv. 13; Yniuir.viii. 20; Appian, Illyr. 8.) The next mention of them occurs in n. c. 183, when the consul ll. Claudius Marcellus, after a succcssful campaign azuinst the Gsuls, uslrcd and obtained permission to lead his legions into Istria. (Liv. xxxix. 55.) It does not, however, appear that this invasion produced any oonsidcrabl molt; but their piratical expeditions, together with the opposition oiicred by them to the foundation of the Roman colony of Aqnilcis, soon became the pretext of a fresh attack. (ld.xl.18, 26, all. 1.) in 15. C. 178 the consul A- Manlius invaded Istrla with two legions; and though he at first sustained a disaster. and narrowly my“! the capture of his camp, he recovered his Plaition bcfore the arrival of his colleague, M. J uniusI who had been sent to his support. The two consuls MW attacked and defeated the Istrians; and their successor, C. Claudius, following up this advantage, took in succession the towns of Nessctinm, Mutila, and Faveria, and reduced the whole people to submission. For this success he was rewarded with a lfiltmph, n. c. 177. (Liv. xli. 1—5. 8—13; Flor. n. 10.) The subjection of the lstrians on this masion sccms to have been real and complete; for, lhfluuh a few years after we find them joining the Cami and anydes in complaining of the emotions of 0- Cousins (Liv. xliii. 5), we hear of no Subsequent "must and the district appears to hnve continued “nun under the Roman yoke, until it was incorP'md by Augustus, together with Vouctia and the lllKl of the Cami, as a portion of ltaly. (Strab. v.


p. 215; Pliu. iii. 19. s. 23.) It continued thenceforth to be always included under that name, though geographically connected much more closely with Dalmatia and 1llyricum. Hence we find, in the Nutitia Dignitatum, the “Consularis Venetian et Histriae" placed under the jurisdiction of the Vicarius Italiae, (Not. Dign. ii. pp. 5, 65.)

The natural limits of lsta-ia are clearly marked by thme of the peninsula of which it consists. or by a line drawn across from the Gulf of Trieste to that of Quarnero, near F iume; but the political boundary was fixed by Augustus, when he included Istria in Italy, at the river Arsin or Ana, which falls into the Gulf of Quar-nero about 15 miles from the southern extremity of the peninsula. This river has its sources in the group of mountains of which the Monte Maggiore forms the highest point, and which constitutes the heart or nucleus of the peninsula, from which there radiate ranges of great calcareous hills, gradually declining as they approach the western coast, so that the shore of Istria along the Adriatic, though hilly and rocky, is not of any considerable elevation, or picturesque in character. But the calcareous rocks of which it is composed are indcnted by deep inlets, forming excellent harbours; of these, the beautiful land-locked basin of Pola is particularly remarkable, and was noted in ancient as well as modern timm. The northern point of Istr'is was fixed by Augustus at the river Formio, a small stream falling into the Gulf of Trieste between that city and Capo d'lstn'a. l’liny expressly excludes Tcrucste from Istria; but Ptolemy extends the limits of that province so as to include both the river Formio and Tergeste (Ptol. iii. 1. §27); and Strabo also appears to consider the 'l‘imavns as constituting the boundary of lstria (Strab. v. p.215), though he elsewhere calls Tergeste “a village of the Cami” (vii. p. 314). Pliny, however, repeatedly alludes to the Formio as having constituted the boundary of Italy before that name was ofiicially extended so as to include Istria also, and there can be no doubt of the correctness of his statement. lstria is not a country of any great natural fertility ; but its calcureuus rocky soil was well adapted for the lgrowth of olives, and its oil was reckoned by Pliny inferior only to that of Venafrurn. (l’liu. xv. 2. s. 3.) In the later ages of the Roman empire, when the seat of government was fixed at Ravcnna, lstria became of incmssed importance, from its facility of communication by sea with that capital. and fumisllcd considerable quantities of corn, as well as wine and oil. (Cassiod. Varr. xii. 23, 24.) This was probably the most flourishing period of its history. It was subsequently ravaged in succession by the Lombards, Avars, and Sclavi (1’. Disc. iv. 25, 42), but appears to have continued permanently subject to the Lombard kingdom of Italy, until its destruction in A. n. 774.

The towns in lstria mentioned by ancient writers are not numerous. Much the most important was POLA, near the extreme southern promontory of the peninsula, which became a Roman colony under Augustus. Proceeding along the coast from Torgestc to Yola, were Ascma (Capo Jillritl), subsequently called Justinopolis, and PARENTIUII (Parenzo); while on the E. coast, near thc mouth of the river Arsia,was situated NESAL’I‘IL‘M, already noticed by Livy among the towns of the independent lstrians. The two other towns, Mutila and Faveria, mentioned by him in the same passage (ali. 11), are otherwise unknown, and cannot be idcntified. Pun lemy also mentions three towns, which he places in the interior of the country, and names Pucinum, Piquentum (Hurotiwrov), and Alvnm or Alvon (’AAoi/ov). Of these, l’iquentum may be probably identified with Pingtmite. a considerable place in the heart of the mountain district of the interior; and Alvon with Albona (called Ah'ona in the Tabula), which is, however, E. of the Arm, and therefore not strictly within the Roman province of Istria. In like manner the Pucinum of Ptolemy is evidently the same place with the “castellum, nobile vino. Pncinnm " of Pliny (vii. 18. s. 22), which the latter places in the territory of the Cami. between the Timavus and Tergeste, and was perhaps the same with the modem Duino. Ningnm, a place mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary (p. 271) between Tergeste and l’arentinm, cannot be determined with any certainty. The Tabula also givm two names in the NW. part of the peninsula, Quaeri and Silvo (Silvum), both of which are wholly unknown. The some authority marks three small islands 05' the coast of Istria, to which it gives the names of Sepomana (?), Orsaria, and Pnllarin: the last in mentioned also by I'liny (iii. 26. s. 30), and is probably the rocky island, or rather group of islets, 08' the harbour of Polo. now known as Li Brioml The other two cannot be identified, any more than the Cissa of Pliny (l. 0.); the Absyrtides of the same author are the larger islands in the Golfo (Ii Quarnero, which belong rather to Liburnia than to lstria. [Ansrn'rmes]

The extreme southern promontory of Istria, now called Punta d5 Promontme, seems to have been known in ancient times as the Pnostotvromvtu PULATICUM (depwr'hpmv HoAan-utdv, Steph. B. av. Erika). Immediately adjoining it is a deep buy or harbour, now known as the Gal/'0 di Illedoiino, which must be the Portus Planaticim (probably a corruption of Flanaticus) of the Tabula.

The Geographer of Bavennn,writing in the seventh century, but from earlier authorities, mentions the names of many towns in Istria unnoticed by earlier geographers, but which may probably have grown up under the Roman empire. Among these are Humago, still called Umugo, Neapolis (Cma Nuova), Ruvignio (Roviyno), and Piranon (l’t'rarw), all of them situated on the W. coast, with good ports, and which would naturally become places of some trade during the flourishing period of lstria above nlluded m. (Anon. Ravenn. iv. 30, 31.) [15. H. 13.]


ISTRIA'NUS ('lo‘rptavdr, Ptol. iii. 6. §3), a river of the Tauric Chersonese, which has been identified with the Kiidk Tep. (Forbiger, vol. iii. pp. 1117, 1121.) [15. B. J.

ISTBO'I’OLIS, ISTRIO'POLIS, HISTRIO’I’O. LIS ('Izrrpdn'oMr, ’ltr'rpia. “miMs, or simply'ltr-rpos: Jstcre), a town of Lower Moesia, at the southern extremity of lake Halmyris, on the coast of the Euxine. It was a colony of Miletus, and, at least in Stmbo's time, a small town. (Strait. vii. p. 319 ; Plin. iv. 18. 24; Mela. ii. 2; Eutrop. vi. 8; Herod. ii, 33; Arrian, Perip. Ema. p. 24 ; Geog. Bav. iv. 6 ; Lymph. 74 ; I’tol. iii. 10.§ 8; Scyrnlt F ragm. 22 ; Strph. B. r. 0.; AmmMarc. xxii. 8; Hierocl. p. 637.) But the frequent mention of the place shows that it must have been a commercial town of some import~ once; of its history, however, nothing is known. Some modern writers hava identified it with Kiostenm or Koatendg'e, the ancient Constantino,


which, however, was in all probability situated to the south of Istropolis. [L 8.] ISTBUS ('lorpns), a Cretan town which Art midorus also called lsrnutu. (Steph. B. s. v.) The latter form of the name is found in an inscription (up. Chishull. Antiq. Asial. p. 110). The site is placed near Minna: " Among the ruined edifices and columns of this ancient city are two immense marble blocks, half buried in the earth, and measuring 54 by 15 feet." (Cornelius, Crew Sacra, vol. i. p.11; op. Mus. Class. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 273; comp. ll'ock, Krela, vol. i. pp. 17, 421.) [13. B. J.]

[graphic][graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Roman remains, both within and without the walls, are abundant and considerable at Aldborwyh; lhe Stodhart (or Studforth), the Red Hill, and the Borough Hill. being the chief localities. Tcsselalfll pavements, the foundations of large and spacious buildings, ornaments, implements, Samian ware, and coins with the names of nearly all the emperors from Vespasian to Constantine, have given to Isurium an importance equal to that of York, Cireneestcr, and other towns of Roman importance. [R G. L.]

ISUS ('loos), a spot. in Boeotia, near Anthedon, with vestiges of a city, which some commentstors identified with the Homeric Nisa. (Stroll-i1p. 405 ; Horn. 11. ii. 508.) There was apparently also a town Isus in Megaris ; but the passage 111 Strabo in which the name occurs is corrupt. (smilil. c.)

ITA'LIA (Innis), was the name given in ahcient as well as in modern times to the country sllll called Italy ,- and was applied, from the time of Angustus, both by Greek and Latin writers, in ahnust exactly the some sense as at the present day. It was, however, at first merely a geographical term; the countries comprised under the name, though strongly defined by natural limits, and common na~ tuml features, being from the earliest ages people! by different races, which were never politically united, till they all fell under the Roman yoke, and were gradually blended, by the pervading influence 0t Ilonuirl institutions and the Latin language, into one common nationality.

I. Name.

The name of Italy was very far from being uriginally applied in the same extensive signification which it afterwards obtained. It was confined, in the first instance, to the extreme southern point of the Italian peninsula, not including even the whole of the modern Calabria, but only the southern peninsular portion of that country, bounded on the N.by the narrow isthmus which separates the Terinmn and Scylletisn gulfs. Such was the distinct statement of Antiochus of Syracuse (up. Strab. \i. p. 255); nor have we any reason to reject his testimony upon this point, though it is certain that this usage must have ceased long before the time of that historian, and is not found in any extant ancient author. At a subsequent period, but still in very early times, the appellation was extended to the whole tract along the shores of the Turentine gulf, as far as Metapontum, and from thence acmss to the gulf of Posidonia on the western sen; though, according to other statements, the river Laiis was its northern limit on this side. (Strab. v. p. 209. vi. 1). 254; Antiochus,ap. Dionys. i. 73.) This appears to have been the established usage among the Greeks in the fifth century B. c. Autiochus expressly excluded the Iapygian peninsula from Italy, and Thucydides clearly adopts the same distinction (vii. 33). The countries on the shores of the Tyrrhenian sea, north of the Posidonian gulf, were then known only by the names of Opica and Tyrrhenia; thus Thucydidcs calls Cumae a city in Opicia, :md Aristotle spoke of [.atiuni as a district of Upica. Even Theophrastus preserves the distinction, and speaks of the pine-trees of Italy, where those of the Bruttian mountains only can be meant, as opposed to those of Latium (Thnc. vi. 4; Arist. ap. Dunn/a. i. 7‘2; Theophr. H. P. v. 8.)

The name of ltalia, as thus applied, seems to have been synonymous with that of Oenotria; for Antiochus, in the same passage where be assigned the narrowest limits to the former appellation, confined that of Oenotria within the same boundaries, and spoke of the Ornotri and Itali as the same people (up. Slrab. vi. p. 2.54; up. Dionys. i. 12). This is in perfect accordance with the statements which represent the Ocnotrians as assuming the name of Italians (ltali) from achief of the name of Italus (Dionys. i. l2, 35; Vii-g. Am. i. 533; Arist. 1’01. iii. 10), as well as with the mythical genealogy according to which Itulus and Ocnotrns were brothers. (SPW- 1111 Am. I. 0.). Thucydides, who represents Italus as coming from Arcadia (vi. 2), probably hiopted this last tradition, for the ()enotrians were {EM-ally represented as of Arcadian origin. Whether the tWo name-1 were originally applied to the WM people, or (as is perhaps more probable) the ll-liiwere merely a particular tribe of the Oenotrians, 'h'm name gradually prevailed till it was extended to the whole people, we have no means of determin"11- But in this case, as in most others, it is clear lhlt the name of the people was antecedent to that ofthc country, and that Italin, in its original signification, meant merely the land of the Itali; though It a later period, by its gradual extension, it had allocather lost this national meaning. It is imrosible for us to truce with accuracy the sucmire steps of this extension, nor do we know at "hot time the Romans first adopted the name of llf‘liaas that of the whole peninsula. It would be Still more interesting to know whether they received


this usage from the Greeks, or found it already prevalent among the nations of Italy; but it is dificult to believe that tribes of different races, origin, and language, as the Etruscnns, Umbrians, Sabellims, and Ocnotrians, would have concurred in calling the country they inhabited by one general appellation. If the Greek account already given, according to which the name was first given to the Oenotrian part of the peninsula, is worthy of confidence, it must have been a word of Pelasgic origin, and subsequently adopted by the Sabellian and Oscan races, as well as by the Romans themselv.

The etymology of the name is wholly uncertain. The current tradition among the Greeks and Romans, as already noticed, derived it from an Oenotrian or l’elasgic chief, Itnlus; but this is evidently a mere fiction, like that of so many other eponymous heroes. A more learned, but scarver more trustworthy, etymology derived the name from Imlos or Itulos, which, in Tyrrhenisn or old Greek, is said to have signified an ox; so that Italia would have meant " the land of cattle." ('l‘imaeus, up. 0211. xi. 1; Van. R. R. ii. I. § 9.) The ancient form here cited is evidently connected with the Latin “vitulus ;" and it is probable that the name of the people was originally Vitulos, or Vitalos, in its Pelascic form; we find the same form retained by the Sabellian nations as late as the first century B. 0., when the Samnite denarii (struck during the Social War. a. 0. 90—88) have the inscription “ Vitclu " for Italia. '

It is probable that the rapid extension of the Roman power, and the successive subjugation of the different nations of Central and Southern Italy by its victorious arms, tended also to promote the extension of the one common name to the whole; and there seems little doubt that as early as the time of I’yrrhus, this was already applied in nearly the some sense as afterwards continued to be the usage—as comprising the whole Italian peninsula to the frontiers of Cisalpine Gaul, but excluding the latter country, as well as Ligurin. This continued to be the customary and official meaning of the name of Italy from this time till the clmc of the Republic ; and hence, even after the First Triumvirate, Gallia Cisalpina, as well as Transalpina, was allotted to Caesar us his province, a term which was never applied but to countries out of Italy, but long before the close of this period, the name of Italy would seem to have been often employed in its more extensive, and what may be termed its geographical, meaning, as including the whole land from the foot of the Alps to the Sicilian straits. Polybius certainly uses the term in this sense, for he speaks of the Romans as having subdued all Italy, except the land q/‘the Gaul: (Gallia Cisalpina), and repeatedly describes Hannibal as crossing the Alps into Italy, and designates the plains on the banks of the I’adus as in Italy. (Pol. i. 6, ii. I4, iii. 39, 54.) The natural limits of Italy are indeed so clearly marked and so obvious, that as soon as the name came to be once received as the designation of the country in general, it was almost inevitable that it should noquire this cxtension; hence, though the official distinction between Italy and Cisulpine Gnul was retained by the Romans to the very end of the Republic, it is clear that the more extended use of the name was already familiar in common usage. Thus, al. ready in n. C. 76, I’ompcius employs the expression “ in cervicihus Italiac,” of the {£15505 of the Alps into Cisalpinc Gaul (Sail. Hist. iii. 1 I); and Decimus Bru. us, in n. c. 43, distinctly uses the phrase of quitting Italy, when he crosses the Alps. (Cic.adFum.xi. 20.) Soalso both Caesar and Cicero, in his Pbilippics, repeatedly use the name of Italy in thowider and more general sense, though the necessity of distinguishing the province of Cisalpine Gaul, leads the latter frequently to observe the official distinction. (Cues. B. G. v. 1, vi. 44, vii. 1; Ole. Phil. iv. 4. v. )2.) But, indeed, had not this use of the name been already common, before it came to be ofiicially adopted, that circumstance alone would scarcely have rendered it so familiar as we find it in the Latin writers of the Augustau age. Virgil, for instance, in eclebrating the praises of Italy, never thought of excluding from that appellation the plnins of Cisalpine Gaul, or the lakes at. the foot of the Alps. From the time, indeed, when the rights of Roman cit-inns were extended to all the Cisalpine Gauls, no real distinction any longer subsisted between the different parts of Italy; but Cisnlpine Gaul still formed a separate province under D. Brutus in n. c. 43 (Cic. Phil. iii. 4-, 5, iv. 4, v. 9, &c.), and it is probable, that. the union of that province with Italy took place in the following year. Dion Cassius speaks of it, in 5.0. 41, asan already established armngement. (Dion Cass. xlviii. l2; Savigny, Vorm. Schr. iii. p. 318.)

From the time of Augustus onwards, the name of Italia. continued to be applied in the same sense throughout the period of the Roman empire, though with some slight modifications of its frontiers on the tide of the Alps; but during the last ages of the Western empire, a singular change tmlt place, by which the name of ltalia came to be specially applied (in official language at lent) to the northern part of what we now call Italy, comprising the five provinces of Aemilin, Flaminia, Liguria, Venetia, and Istria, together with the Cottian and Rhsetian Alps, and thus excluding nearly the whole of what had been included under the name in the days of Cicero. This usage probably arose from the division of the whole of Italy for administrative purposes into two great districts, the one of which was placed under an oflicer called the “ Vicarius Urbis Itomae,“ while the other, or northern portion, was subject to the “ Vicarius Italine." (Not. Dig. ii. 18; Gothofr. ad Cod. Theod. xi. I, leg. 6; Niebultr, vol. i. p. 21.) The practice was confirmed for a time by the air. cumstance that. this part of Italy became the seat of the Lombard monarchy, which assumed the title of the kingdom of Italy (“ Regnurn Italiae ") ; but the ancient signification still prevailed, and the name of Italy was applied throughout the middle ages, as it still is at the present day, within the boundaries established by Augustus.

The other names applied by ancient writers, especially by the Latin and later Greek poets, to the Italian peninsula, may be very briefly disposed of. Dionysius tells us that in very remote ages Italy was called by the Greeks Hesperia, or Ausonia, and by the natives Saturnia. (Dionys. i. 35.) Of these three names, HESI‘ERIA ('Eorrzpla), or “ the Land of the West," was evidently a mere vague appellation, employed in the infancy of geographical discovery, and which was sometimes limited to Italy, sometimes used in a much wider sense as comprising the whole West of Europe, including Spain. [HtsPAMAJ But there is no evidence of its having been employed in the more limited sense, at. a very early period. The name is not found at all in Homer or Hesiod; but, according to the Iliac Table, Stesichorns represented Aeneas as deluu'ting from


Troy for Harper-in, where in all probability Italy is meant; though it is very uncertain whether the poet conducted Aeneas to Latium. (Schwegler, Ra‘m. Gl'sC/l. vol. i. p. 298.) But even in the days at Stcsichorus the appellation was probably one confined to the poets and logographers. At a later period we can trace it as used by the Alemndrian poets, from whom in all probability it passed to the Homans, and was adopted, as we know, by Eunius, an well as by Virgil and the writers of the Augustan age. (Agathyllus, ap. Dizmys. i. 49; Apollon. Rhodiii. 311; Ennius, Arm. Fr. p. 12; Vii-g. Am. i. 530. iii. 185, &c.)

The name of AL'sontA, on the contrary, was one derived originally from one of the races which inhubited the Italian peninsula, the Anrunci of the Romans, who were known to the Greeks as the Ausones. These Ausonians were a tribe of Opican or Oscan race, and it is probable that the name of Atlsrlnia was at first applied much as that of Opicia or Opica was by 'I‘hucydides and other writers of the fifth century B. 0. But, as applied to the whole peninsula of Italy, the name is, so far as we know, purely poetical; nor can it be traced farther back than the Alexandrian writers Lycophron and Apollonius Rhodius, who employed it familiarly (as did the Latin pocts in imitation of them) as a poetical equivalent for Italy. [Ausosua]

As for the name of SATURNIA, though it is found in a pretended Greek oracle cited by Dionysius (Zaropviav aiav, Dionys. i. 19), it. may well be doubted whether it was ever an ancient appellation at all. Its obvious derivation from the name of the Latin god Saturnus proves it to have been of native Italian, and not of Greek, invention, and probably this was the only authority that Dionysius had for saying it was the native name of Italy. But all the traditions of the Roman mythology connect Satumufi so closely with Latium, that it seems almost certain the name of Satumia (if it was ever more than! poetical fabrication) originally belonged to Latium only, and was thence gradually extended by the Romans to the mat of Italy. Ennius seems to have used the phrase of “ Saturnia term " only in referean to Latium; while Virgil applies it to the whole of Italy. (Ennius,np. Varr. L. L. v. 42; Virg. Georg/ii. 173.) It is never used in either sense by Len" Prose writers, though several authors state, as Dio— nysius does, that it was the ancient name of Italy. (F estus, o. Satan-ruin, p. 322; J ustin- xliii. 1.)

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

and this single line at once enumerates all the principal physical features that impart to the country its Peculiar physioguomy. Italy consists of a mat peninsula, projecting in a SE. direction into tlw Mediterranean sea, and bounded on the W- by the portions of that sea commonly known as the Tyrthnian and Sicilian seas, but comprised by the Roma“; under the name of Mare lnt'erum, or the Lower Sea; on the E. by the Adriatic, or the Upper Sea (Mm Superum). as it was commonly termed by the ROmans; while to the N. it spreads out into a broad expanse, forming, as it were, the base or root by which it adheres to the continent of Europe, and

« السابقةمتابعة »