« السابقةمتابعة »
Italy; but we have no specific account of its production, and the fact that silver money was unknown to the ancient nations of Italy sufficiently shows that it was not. found in any great quantity. The early coinage of Italy was of copper, or rather bronze ; and this metal appears to have been extracted in large quantities, and applied to a variety of purposes by the Etruscans, from a very early period. The same people were the first to explore the iron mines of Ilva, which continued to be assiduously worked by the Romans; though the metal produced was thought inferior to that of Noricum. Of other minerals, cinnabar (miniurn) and calamine (cadmium) are noticed by Pliny. The white marble of Luna, also, was extensively quarried by the Romans, and seems to have been recognised as a superior material for sculpture to any of those derived from Greece.
The configuration of Italy is unfavourable to the formation of great rivers. The Padus is the only stream which deserves to rank among the principal rivers of Europe : even the Amos and the Tiber, celebrated as are their names in history, being inferior in magnitude to many of the secondary streams, which are mere tributaries of the Rhine, the Rhone, or the Danube. In the north of holy, indeed, the rivers which flow from the perpetual snows of the Alps are furnished with a copious and constant supply of water; but the greater part of those which have their sources in the Apennines, though large and fonnidahle streams when swollen by heavy rains or the snows of winter, dwindle into insignilicunw at other times, and prrsent but scanty streams of water winding through broad beds covered with stones and shingle. It is only by comparison with Greece that Italy (with the exception of Cisalpine Gaul) could be praised for its abundance of navigable rivers.
The PADUS, or I'o, is by far the most important river of Italy, flowing from W. to E. through the very midst of the great basin 0r trough of Northern Italy, and receiving, in consequence, from both sides, all the waters from the sonthem declivities of the Alps, as well as from the northern slopes of the Apennines. Hence, though its course does not ex med 380 geogonilm in length, and the direct distance from its sources in the Mons Vesulus (Mte. Viso) to its mouth in the Adriatic is only 230 miles, the body of water which it brings down to the sea is very large. Its principal tributaries are as follows, beginning with those 0n the N. bank, and proceeding from W. to E. :—(l) the Duris. Minor (Doria Riparia), which joins the Po near Turin ’Augusta Tourinorurn; (2 ) the Stura (Store); (3) theOrgus(()rco), (4) the Duria. Major, or Dom Bolton ,- (5) the Seasitu (Sada); (6) the Tit-inns (Ticino); (7) the Lambrus (Lambro); (8) the Addua (Adda); (9) the Ollius (Oglio); (10) the Mincius (Jlr'ncio). Equally numerous, though less important in volume and magnitude, are its tributaries from the S. side, the chief of which are :—(l) the Tanarus (Tamra), flowing from the Maritime Alps, and much the most considerable of the southern feeders of the Pa,- (2) the Trebia (Trebln'a); (3) the Tarus (Taro); (4) the Inciue (EM-a); (5) the Gabollus (Sect/lid); (6) the Scultenna(Punaro): (7) the Renus (Reno); (8) the Vatrenus (Sanlenw). (l’lin. iii. 16. s. 20.)
The first river which, descending from the Alps, does not join the l‘adus, is the Atllcsis or AdiJ/e, which in the lower part of its course flows nearly
parallel with the greater river for a distance of above 50 miles. E. of this, and flowing from the Alps direct to the Adriatic, come in succession, the Medoacus or Brenla, the Plnvis or Piano, the Tile \‘emptus (Tagliamento), and the Sontins (1mm), besides many smaller streams, which will be notiml under the article Vnmn'rm.
Liguria, S, of the Apennines, has very few streams Worthy of notice, the mountains here approaching so close to the coast as to leave but a short course for their Waters. The most considerable are, the Yarns (Var), which forms the western limit of the province; the Rutuba (Ho/a), flowing through the land of the Intemelii, and the Mncra (Mayra), which divides Liguria from Etruria.
The rivers of Central Italy, as already mentioned, all take their rise in the Apennines, or the mountain groups dependent upon them. The two most important of these are the Arnus (Ar-1w) and Tiber-is (T were). The Ausar (Serchio), which now pursues an independent course to the sea a few miles N. of the Arnus, was formerly a continent of that river. Of the smaller streams of Etrurin, which have their sources in the group of hills that separate the basin of the Arno from that of the Tiber, the most considerable are the Caeeina (Cecino), the Umbro (Ombrone), and the Arminia (I'r'ora). The great volley of the Tiber, which has a general southerly direction, from its sources in the Apenninea on the confines of Etruria and Umbn'a to its mouth at Ostizi, a distance in a direct line of HO gmg- mil“! is the most important physical feature of Central Italy. That river receives in its course many tributary strmms, but the only ones which are important in a geographical point of view are the Cums, the Nan, and the Arno. Of these the Nat brings with it the waters of the Velinus, a stream at least as considerable as its own.
South of the Tiber are the Lnns (Garigh'lmo 01‘ Liri), which has its sources in the central Apennines near the lake Fucinus; and the VnL'runnus (Volturno), which brings with it the collected waters of almost the whole of Somninm, receiving near Beneventum the tributary streams of the Color (Colors), the Salnitus (Sobbato), and the 'l‘arnarln (Tamara). Both of these rivers flow throngll’i-lje plain of Campania to the sea: south of that provmfl’, and separating it from Luoania, is the SIX-Am (so), which, with its tributaries the can: (Calm) and Tanager (Negro), drains the western valley! 0! the Lucanian Apennines. This is the last river any magnitude that flows to the western coast 1" Italy: further to the S. the Apennines approach 5° near to the shore that the streams which descend from them to the sea are mere mountain torrent! "5 trifling length and size. One of the most considerable of them is the Laiis (Lao), which form! ti" limit between Lucania and Bruttium. The 0‘1"" minor streams of those two provincu are enummwd under their respective articles.
Returning now to the eastern or Adriatic coast "i Italy, we find, as already noticed, a large number streams, descending front the Apennines to the 8’3but few of thorn of any great magnitude, though thew which have their sources in the highest parts of the range are formidable torrents at particular season-‘1 "f the year. Beginning from the frontiers of Cisalplnfl Gaul, and proceeding from N. to S., the IIIQBKW‘ portnnt of these rivers are : —(l) the Arimmus (Marccchia); (2) the Crustumius (6mm); (3) the I’isnurus (l'bglr'u); (4) the Metuurus (Ma'ka);
(7)the Flumr(Cbientt'); (8)the anentua(7‘mnto); (9) the Vomanus (Vomono); (10) the Atenrrrs (Atom orl’cmm); (ll) the Sugrus (Songro); (12) the Trinius (Tr-(9m); (13) the Tifemus (Bi/mo); (14) the Frento (Form); (15) the Cerbshrs (Ca-mo); (16) the Anfidus (Ofaato), which has much the longest course of all the rivers falling into the Adriatic.
Beyond this, not a single stream worthy of notice flows to the Adriatic; those which have their sources in the central Apennines of Lucsnis all descending towards the Turcutine gulf; these are, the Bradnnus (Bradono), the Cnsuentns (Barierrta), the Aciris (Agri), and the Siris (Sinno). The only rivers of Bruttium worthy of mention are the Crsthis (Crud) and the Nesethus (New).
(The minor streams nnd those noticed in history, but of no geognphical importance, rrre enumerated in the descriptions of the several province)
The Italian lakes may beconsidered as readily amnging themselves into three grouper—l. The labs of Northern Italy, which are on a far larger scale then my of the others, are all basins formed by the rivers which descend from the high Alps, and the ntern of which are arrested just at their exit from the mountains. Hence they are, as it were, valleys filled with Water,snd are of elongated form and considerable depth: whrle their superfluous waters on: carried off in deep and copious streams, which become some of the principal feeders of the Po. Such era the Lscus Verbsnna (Logo Magyr'twe), formed by the Ticinns; the Locus Lurius (Logo (15 Conn), by the Addus; the Locus Sebinus (Logo (flue), by the Ollius; and the Lacus Benncrrs (Lago di Gerda), by the Mincius. To these Pliny adds the Lacua Eupilis, from which flows the Lumber or Lambro, it very trifling sheet of water (Plin. iii. 19. s. 23); while neither he, nor any other ancient writer, mentions the Lago di Lugano, situated between the Lake of Como and Logo Moggt'ore, though it is inferior in magnitude only to the three great lakes. It is first mentioned by Gregory of Tours in the 6th century, under the name of Ceresins Imus, an appellation probubly ancient, though not now found in any earlier author. 2. The lakes of Central Italy are, with few exceptions, of volcanic Willi", and occupy the craters of long extinct volfllmea. Hence they are mostly of circular or oval 5111". "i no great extent, and, not being fed by perennial streams, either require no natural outlet, or have their surplus waters curried oil" by very inOonlidemble streams. The largest. of these volcanic lakes in the Locus Vulsiniensis, or Lago di M. in Southern Etrrrria, a basin of room so miles in circumference. Of similar character and “Kill Hr, the Lacus Snbatinus (Lago di BrucMM) and Laws Ciminus (Logo di Vice), in the WM district; the Lacus Albunus (Logo d'Albono) ind Locus Nemorensis (Logo dr' Nemi), in ertium; ")6 the Lake Aver-nus in Campsnis. 3. Wholly dffllring from the preceding are the two most conllitrjlble lakes in this portion of Italy, the Lambs Tl‘mmenns (Logo 111' Perugiu) and Locus F ucinus (1490 no» or Logo a; mum); both of which we basins surrounded by hills or mountains, leaving no natural outlet for their waters, but wholly ununnrcted with volcanic agency
> The mountains of Italy belong almost exclusively trtber to the great chein of the Alps, which bounds it “=1 lhe N., or to that of the Apennines. The prin
cipnl summits of the. letter range hnr'e been already noticed under the article Arrzxsmvs. The few outlying or detached summits, which do not properly belong tothe Apennines are :—(l) the Monte Aminla or Monte di Santa Fiora. in the heart of Etruris, which rises to n height of 5794 feet above the sea. ; (2) the Moss Crmrxus, a volcanic group of very inferior elevation ; (3) the Moss Annnrvus, rising to above 3000 feet; (4) the Moss VESUVIL‘S, in Carnpunia, attaining between 3000 and 4000 feet ; (5) the Mons VULTUR, on the opposite side of the Apennines, which measures 4433 feet; and (6) the Moss GARGAHUS, an isolated mess, but geologically connected with the Apennines, while all the preceding are of volcanic origin, and therefore geologically, as well as geographically, distinct from the neighbouring Apeunines.
To these may be udded the two isolated mountain promoutnries of the Mons Argentsrirrs (Monte Argentaro) on the coast of Etrurin, and Mons Circeius (Monte Cx'rcello) on that of Latiurn,-—botlr of them rising like rocky islands, joined to the mainland only by low strips of alluvial soil.
IV. ETHXOGRAPIIY or ANCIENT ITALY.
The inquiry into the origin and afiinities of the different races which peopled the Italian peninsula before it fell altogether under the dominion of Rome, and the national relations of the difl'erent tribes with which the rising republic came successively into corrtuct, is s. problem which has more or less attracted the attention of scholars ever since the revival of letters. But it is especially of late years that the impulse given to comparative philology, combined with the spirit of historical criticism, has directed their researches to this subject. Yet, after all that has been written on it, from the time of Niebuhr to the present day, it must be admitted that. it is still enveloped in great obscurity. The scantincss of the monuments that. remuin to us of the languages of these different nstions; the various and contradictory statcments of ancient authors concerning them; and the uncertainty, even with regard to the most apparently authentic of these statements, on whnt authority they wore really founded; combine to emblrrsss our inquiries, and lend us tomistrust our conclusions. It will be impossible, within the limits of an article like the present, to enter fully into the discussion of these topics, or examine the arguments that have been brought forward by ditferent writer-n upon the subject. All that can be attempted is to give such a summary view of the most probable results, as will assist the student in forming a connected idm of the whole subject, and enable him to follow with sdvnntege the resesrches of other writers. Many of the particular points here briefly referred to will be more fully investigated in the several articles of the ditTerent regions and races to which they relate.
Leaving out of view for the present the inhabitants of Northern Italy, the Guuls, Ligurisns, and Veneti, the difi'erent nations of the peninsula may be grouped under five headsz—(l) the Pelasgians; (2) the Oscans; (3) the Sabellisns; (4) the Umbrinns; (5) the Etruscans.
l. l’KLABGlANS-—All sncient writers concur in "scribing s Pslssgic origin to many of the most ancient tribes of Indy, and there seems no reason to doubt that a large part of the population of the peninsula was really of I’elesgic ruce, that is to say, that it belonged to the same great nation or family which fanned the original population of Greece. as well asthat of I'Ipiriis and Macedonia. and iii a part at least of Thrace and Asia Minor. The statements and arguments upon which this inference is based are more fully discussed under the article PELABGI- It may here suffice to say that the general fact is put forward prominently by Dionysius and Strlbo, and has been generally adopted by modern writem from Niebuhr downwards. The Pclasgian population of Italy appears in historical times principally, and in its unmixed form solely, in the southern part of the peninsula. But it is not improbable that it had, as was reported by traditions still current in the days of the earliest historians, at one time extended much more widely, and that the Pelasgian tribes had been gradually pressed towards the smith by the successively advancing waves of population, which appear under the "all": of the Oscans or Ansonians, and the Subcllians. At the time when the first Greek colonies were established in Southern Italy, the whole of the country subsequently known as Lucania and Bruttium was occupied by a people whom the Gieeks called 01:210Tniiixs (OIVMpOI), and who are generally represented as a Pchisgic race. Indeed we learn that the colonists themselves continued to call this people, whom they had reduced to a state of scrfdom, l’elasgi. (Steph. Ii. 1.". Xios.) We find, however, traces of the tradition that this part of Italy was at one time peopled by a tribe called Srcum, who are represented as passing over from thence into the island to which they gave the name of Sicily, and where alone they are found in historical times. [SICILLL] The name of these Siculi is found also in connection with the earliest population of Latium [LATXUM]: both there and in Ocnotria they are represented by some authorities as a branch of the Pelasgic race, while others regard them as a distinct people. In the latter case we have no clue whatever to their origin or national afiinities.
Next to the ()cnotrians come the Messapians or Igpygianfl, who are represented by the Greek legends and traditions as of l‘elasgic or Greek descent: and there seem reasonable grounds for assuming that the condition was comet, though no value can be attached to the mythical legends connected with it by the logographers and early Greek historians. The tribes to whom a l’clasgic origin is thus assigned are, the Messapians and Sulentines, in the Inpygiaii peninsula; and the Pencetians and Daunians, iii the country called by the Romans Apulia. A strong confirmation of the inference derived in thiscase from other authorities is found in the tracer still remaining of the Messapian dialect, which appears to have home a close affinity to Greek, and to have ditl'ered from it only in much the same degree as the Macedonian and other cognate dialects. (Mommsen, Unter Italiache Dialekten, pp. 41—98.)
It is far more diflicult to trace with any security the Pelasgic population of Central Italy, where it. appears to have been very early blended with other national elements, and did not anbeere subsist in an unmingled form within the period of historical record. But various as have been the theories and suggestions with regard to the population of Etruria, there seems to be good ground for assuming that. one important element, both of the people and lan~ Snags, was Pelasgic, and that this element was pro. dominant in tlic soutbem part of Etruria, while it was more feeble, and had been comparatively efl‘md in the more northern districts. [ETRL'izi.\.] The
' very name of Tyrrlicnians, universally given by the Greeks to the inhabitants of Etruria, appura indissolnbly connected with that of l’clasgians; and the evidence of language affords some curious and iiiteresting facts in corroboration 0f the same view. (Donaldson, Vorrominmu, 2d edit. pp. [66—l70; Lepsius, Tyn-Iien. Pelasger, pp. 40—48.)
If the Pelasgic element was thus prevalent in Southern Etruria, it might. naturally be expected that its existence would be traceable in Latium also; and accordineg we find abundant evidence that one of the component ingredients in the population of Latium was of Pelasgic extraction, though this did not subsist within the historical period in a sepirate form, but was already indissolubly blended with the other elements of the Latin nationality. [LATIUhL] The evidence of the Latin language, u pointed out by Niebuhr, in itself indicates the combination of a Greek or Pclasgic race with one of a ditferent Origin, and Closely akin to the other nations which we find predominant in Central Italy, the Umbriansv Oscans, and Sabiues.
There seems to be also sufficient proof that a Peliisgic or Tyrrhenian population was at an early period settled along the coasts of Cainpunia, and was pro beny at one time conterminous and connected with that of Lucania, or Oenotria; but the notices of these Tyrrheniau settlements are rendered obscure and confused by the circumstance that the Greeks applied the aame name of 'I'yri-henians to the Etruscnns, who subsequently made themselves matters for some time of the whole of this country. [CroiPANIAJ _
The notices of any Pelasgic population in the interior of Central Italy are so few and vague ash.) be scarcely worthy of investigation; but the tradition! collected by Dionysina from the early Greek historiuns distinctly represent them as having been It one time settled in Northern Italy, and espccufll! point. to Spin on the Adriatic u a l‘elusgic city. (Dionys. i. l7—2l; Strab. v. p. 214.) Nevertheless it hardly appears probable that this Pelasgic rate formed a permanent part of the population of thine regions. The traditions in question are more fully investigated under the article I’icusoi. There's some evidence also, though very vague 8"? "1' definite, of the existence of a Pelasgic population on the coast of the Adriatic, especially on the shorei of Human (These notices are collected by Niebulir, vol. i. pp. 49, 50, and are discussed under I‘icuNine.)
2. Oceans—At a very early period, and w" tainly before the commencement of historical fwdi a considerable portion of Central Italy appear! to have been in the possession of a people who we” called by the Greeks Opicans, and by the thfnl Owns, and whom we are led to identify also Illh the Auaonians [Absence] of the Greeks, and the Auruncana of Roman writers. From them we! derived the name of Opicia or Opica, which appefl‘l to have been the usual appellation, iii the days b'fih of Thucydides and Aristotle, for the central portion 0f the peninsula, or the country north of who? “as then called Italy. (Thuc. vi. 4; ArisLPoL vii. IQ) All the earliest authorities concur in represwilflg the Opicans as the earliest inhabitants of Canipaflfl' and they were still in possession of that fertile disc ti-irt when the Greek colonies were planted them (Sirab. v. p. 242.) We find also statementB, “Mb have crcry character of authenticity, that this aiunl
people then occupied the mountainous I11ng “up
wards called Samnittm, until they were expelled, or rather subdued, by the Sabine colonists, who assumed the name of Samnites. (ld. v. p. 250.) [SAMNIUIL] Whether they were more widely extended we have no positive evidence; but there seems a strong presumption that they had already spread themselves through the neighbouring districts of Italy. Thus the Hirpini, who are represented as a Sarnnite or Sabollian colony, itr all probability found an Oscan population established in that country, as did the Samnites proper in the more northern province. There are also strong arguments for regarding the Volscians as of Oscan race, as well as their neighbours and inseparable allies the Aeqnians. (Niebuhr, vol. i. pp. 70—73; Donaldson, Vnrroniom, pp, 4, 5.) It was probably also an Oscan tribe that was settled in the highlands of the Apenniner about Route, and which from thence dasmnded into the plains of lAtium, and constituted one important element of the Latin nation. [La'nusa] It is certain that, if that people was, as already mentioned, in part of Pelasgic origin, it contained also a very strong admixture of a non-Pelagic race; and the analogy of language leads us to derive this latter element from the Uscan. (Donaldson, Le.) Indeed the extant monuments of the Oscnn language are sufiicient to prove that it bore a very close relation to the oldest form of the hfin; and Niebuhr justly remarks, that, had a single book in the Oscan language been preserved, we should have had little difficulty in deciphering it. (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 68.)
lt is ditficult to determine the precise relation which this primitive Oscan race bore to the Sabines or Sabellians. The latter are represented as conquerors, making themselves masters of the countries previously occupied by the Oscans; but, both in Somnium and Campania, we know that the language affirm in historical times, and even long after the Roman conqnut, was still called Oscau; and we even find the Sumnites mrrying tltc same language with them, as they gradually extended their conquests, into the t'nrthmt recesses of Bruttium. (Feat. l. s. Bilingual Brulates, p. 35.) There seems little doubt that the Samnite conquerors were a comlll'ltiwly small body of warriors, who readily adopted the language of the people whom they subdued, like the Norman: in France, and the Lombards in Northern Italy. (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 67.) But, at 1116 same time, there are strong reasons for supP'Illlg that the language of the Sabines themselves, "Id therefore that of the conquering Sabellian race, was not radically distinct from that of the Oscans, but that they were in fact cognate dialects, and that the two nations were members of the some family "I I'm. The quations conceming the Oscan lanlelt, w for as it is known to us from existing monumentst more fully adverted to under the article 0561'; but it must be borne in mind that all such Wumm's are of a comparatively late period, and “WM only the Sabellescan, or the language 5PM" by the combined people, long after the two “hill been blended into one; and that we are ahth wholly without the merits of distinguishing
“it?! Portion was derived from the one source or the Ul ll'.
3. The SABELLL\N$.—-Tlll5 name, which is sometimes used by ancient writers as synonymous with that of the Sabine-s, sometimes to designate the Samnites in particular (Plin. iii. 12. s. 17; Virgil, Georg. ii. [67 ; Hor. Sat. i. 9. 29, ii. I. 36: Heindorf. ad 100.), is commonly adopted by modern historians as a general appellation. including the Sabines and all those races or tribes which, according to the distinct tradition of antiquity, derived their origin from them. These traditions are of a very difl‘erent clramcter from most of those transmitted to us, and have apparently every claim to be received as historical. And though we have no means of fixing the date of the migrations to which they refer, it seems certain that thew cannot be carried back to a very remote age; but that the Sabellian races had not very long been established in the extensive regions of Central ltaly, where we find them in the historical period. Their extension still further to the S. bolongs distinctly to the historical age, and did not. take place till long after the establishment of the Greek colonies in Southern Italy.
The Sabinea, properly so called, had their original ubodes, according to Cato (ap. Dionys. ii. 49), in the lofty ranges of the central Apermincs and the upland valleys about Amiternum. It was front thence that, descending towards the western sea, they first began to press upon the Aborigines, an Oscan race, whom they expelled from the valleys about Beale, and thus gradually extended themselves into the country which they inhabited under the Romans, and which still preserves its ancient name of La Sabina. But, while the nation itself had thus shifted its quarters nearer to the Tyrrhenian Sea, it had sent out at different periods colonies or bodies of emigrants, which had established themselves to the E. and S. of their original abodes. Of these, the most powerful and celebrated were the Samnites (Int/viral), a people who are universally represented by ancient historians as descended from the Sabines (Strab. v. p. 250; Fest. 1:. Samm'tes ; Varr. L. L. vii. § 29); and this tradition, in itself sufficiently trustworthy, derives the strongest continuation from the fact already noticed, that the Romans applied the name of fisbclli (obviously only another form of Snbitri) to both trations indiscriminately. It is even probable that the Snmnites called themselves Sabini, or Savini, for the Ocean name “ Safinim" is found on coins struck during the Social War, which in all probability be~ long to the Samnites, and certainly not to the Stbines proper. Equally distinct and uniform are the testirnonits to the Sabine origin of the Piceni or Picentes (Plin. l3. s. 18 ; Strab. v. p. 240), who are found in historical times in possession of the fertile district of l’icenum, extending from the central chain of the Apennines to the Adriatic. The Peligni also, as we learn from the evidence of their native poet (Ovid, Fast. iii. 95), claimed to be of Sabine descent; and the same may fairly be av sumed with regard to tho Vestini, a tribe whom we find in historical times occupying the very valleys which are represented as the original abodes of the Sabines. We know nothing historically of the origin of this people, any more than of their neighbours the Marrucini; but we find them both associated so frequently with the Peligni and the Marni, that it is probable the four constituted a common league or confederation, and this in itself raises a presumption that they were kindred races. Cato already remarked, and without doubt correctly, that the name of the Marmcini was directly derived from that of the Marsi (Cato, op. Priscian. ix. 9); and there can be no doubt that the same relation subsisted between the two nations: but we are wholly in the dark as to the origin of the Marsi themselves. Several circumstances, however, combine to render it probable that they were closely connected with the Sabines, but whether as a distinct offset from that people, or that the two proceeded from one common stock, we have no means of determining. [binnsn]
The Frentuni, on the other hand, are generally represented as a Snmnite race; indeed, both they and the Hirpini were so closely connected with the Samnites, that they are often considered as forming only a part of that people, though at other times they figure as independent and separate nations. But the traditions with regard to the establishment of the Hirpini and the origin of their name [Hrnrmr], seem to indicate that they were the result of a sepas rnte migration, subsequent to that of the body of the Sarnnitos. South of the Hirpini, again, the Lucanians are universally described as a. Samnite colony, or rather a branch of the Sumnites, who extended thcir conquering arms over the greater part of the country called by the Greeks Oenotria, and thus came into direct collision with the Greek colonies on the southern coasts of Italy. [Maona GRAECIA.] At the height of their power the Lucanians even made themselves masters of the Bruttian peninsula; and the subsequent revolt of the Bruttii did not clear that country of these Sabellian invaders, tho Bruttian people being apparently a mind population, made up of the Lucnnian corrqnerors and their Oenotrian serfs. [Bkll'l'l‘ll] While the Samnites and their ananian progeny Were thus extending their power on the S. to the Sicilian strait, they did not omit to make themselves masters of the fertile plains of Campaniu, which, together with the flourishing cities of Cnpun and Cumnc, fell into their hands between 440 and 420 B. c. [CatrPANIAJ
The dominion of the Sabellian race was thus est» hlished from the neighbourhood of Ancona to the southern extremity of Bruttium : but it must not be supposed that throughout this wide extent the populrrtiorr was become essentially, or even mainly, Snbclllnn. That people appears rather to have been ; race of conquering warriors; but the rapidity with which they became blended with the Oscan populations that they found previously established in some parts at least of the countries they subdued, seems to point to the conclusion that there was no very wide difference between the twu. EVen in Sarnnium itself (which probably formed their stronghold, and where they were doubtless more numerous in proportion) wo know that they adopted the Oscan Iangringo; and that, while the Romans speak of the people and their territory as Sabellinn, they designate their speech as Oscan. (Liv. viii. 1, x. 19, 20.) In like manner, we know that the Lucunian invaders carried with them the same language into the wilds of Brutlinm; where the double origin of the people
was shown at a late period by their continuing to ;
speak both Greek and Oscau. (Fest. p. 85.) The relations between these Sabellian conquerors and the Oscan inhabitants of Central Italy render it, on the whole probable, that the two nations were only branches from one common stock (Niebuhr, vol i_ p. 104), related to one another very much like the Normans, Dunes, and Scions. Of the language Oh the Sabines themselves we have urrlortunntelysmrccly
cicnt authors as being at once Sabine and Oscan ; and Vrrrro (himself a native of Beale) bears distinct tes~ timony to a connection between the two. L. L. § 28, ed. Mliller.) 0n the other hand, there are evidences that the Sabine huge-gs had considerable affinity with the Umbrisn (Donaldson, Vm-ron. p. 8); and this was probably the rum why Zenodotus of Trouen (ap. Dionys. ii. 49) derived the Sabines from an Umbrian stock. But, in fact, the Umbrian and Oscau languages were themselves by no means so distinct as to exclude the supposition that the &bine dialect may have been intermediate between the two, and have partakcu largely of the characters of both.
4. UMBRIAN8.—Th8 general tradition of antiquity appears to have fixed upon the Umbriansas the most ancient of all the races inhabiting the Italian peninsula. (Plin. iii. 14. s. 19; Flor. i.l7; Dionys. i. 19.) We are expressly told that at the earliest period of which any memory was preserved, they occupied not only the district where we find them in historical times, but the greater part of Etruria also; while, across the Apennines, they held the fertile plains (subsequently wrcsted from them by the Etruscans and the Gauls) from the neighbourhood of Revenue. to that of Aneona, and splw rently a large part of Picenum also. Thus, it ibis time, the Umbrians extended from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian sea, and from the mouths of the Pudus nearly to those of the Tiber. Of their origin or national aflinitim we learn but little from ancient authors ; a notion appears to have arisen among fills Romans at a late period, though not alluded tub] any writer of authority, that they were I Celtic 01‘ Gaulish race (Solin. 2. § ll ; Serv. ad Aen. Xll.753i lsidor. Orig. ix. 2), and this view has been adoptfll by many modern authors. (Walckenaer, 6609124“ Gaulu, vol. i. p. 10; 'l'hierry, Hist. da Gauler vol. i.) But, in this instance, we have a much safer guide in the still extant remains of the Umbnfln language, preserved to us in the mlebratcd Tubulila Eugnbinac [louvrtm] ; and the researches of modern philologera, which have been of rm years 55?" cially directed to that interesting monument. 1W" sufficiently proved that it has no such close 85m! with the Celtic as to lead us to derive the Umbrimi from a Gaulish stock. On the other hand, film inquiriu have fully established the existence of 8 general resemblance between the Urnbrian, 086m, and oldest Latin languages ; a resemblance not confined to particulnr words, but extending to the grammatical forms, and the whole structure of the 1M!gnage. Hence we are fairly warranted in concluding that the Umbriuns, Oscans, and Latins (one im~ portant element of the nation at least), as we" I! the Sabines and their descendants, were only branches of one race, belonging, not merely to the same gm; family of the IndoTeutonie notions, but to the same subdivision of that family. The Umbrian may "’7 probably have been, as believed by the Hamill-5i the most ancient branch of these kindred tribes; find its language would thus hear much the same relation to Latin and the later Oscsn dialect! lhli Moesmflothic does to the several Teutonic tongues(Donnldson, Varron. pp. 78, 104, 105; Sch'wglfl'i Ro'mr'srhe Geochicblq vol. i. p. thi.)
5. lirnuscasa—JVbile there is good reason i" suppose a general and even close affinity between the nations of Central Italy which have just been 18' Viewcd, there are equally strong grounds for re