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angaaende den Gronlandske Missions Begyndelse, published at buried in the chancel of Doddlestone Church, Chesbire. His son, Copenhagen in 1738, is rich in materials, but is in itself of a somewhat Jobn Egerton, was created Earl of Bridgewater. dry and unattractive character. Its chief recommendation is its plain Thomas Egerton was a tall and athletic man, and very handsome, sincerity. The reader is disposed to give entire confidence to the and retained his good looks to the last. Ben Jonson says, “ He was a missionary, who not only tells bim that on one occasion be laboured grave and great orator, and best when he was provoked.” Lord earnestly in bis vocation, but that on another he occupied himself for Campbell, speaking of him as an equity-judge, makes the following days in the study of alchemy, who not only speaks of the ardour of observations :-" With a knowledge of law equal to Edward the his faith at times, but tells us that at others he was seized with a Third's lay-chancellors Parnyng and Knyvet, so highly eulogised by hatred of his task and of religion altogether. This book has been Lord Coke, he was much more familiar with the principles of general translated into German, but not as yet into any other language. jurisprudence. Not less noted for despatch and purity than Sir Egede's second work, "Den gamle Gronlands nye Perlustration' | Thomas More, he was much better acquaiuted with the law of real (Copenhagen, 1741-4), was translated into English in 1745 under the property, as well as the practice of the court, in which he had long title of ' A Description of Greenland,' and the translation was reprinted practised as an advocate ; and exbibiting all the patience and suavity in 1818. It comprises bis observations on the geography and natural of Sir Nicholas Bacon, he possessed more quickness of perception, history of Greenland, and the manners of its inhabitants.

and a more vigorous grasp of intellect." ("Lives of the Chancellors, The account of the mission was continued by his son POVEL or vol. ii.) PAUL EGEDE, who, as has been stated, had gone to Greenland in 1720 EGG, AUGUSTUS, A.R.A., was born in London in 1816. After in his twelfth year, had afterwards studied at Copenhagen, returned the usual educational course in the schools of Mr. Sass and of the to Greenland in 1734, finally left it in 1740, became like his fatber Royal Academy, Mr. Egg became for the first time in 1838 a consuperintendent of the mission with the title of bishop, and died in tributor to the Academy exhibition by sending a “Spanish Girl;' he 1789. He wrote and published a Greenland Grammar and Diction also in these early years sent pictures to the Society of British ary, wbich have been since improved by Fabricius, translated the Artists, and to the provincial exhibitions. The peculiar turn of his New Testament into the language, and was the author of a work mind was perhaps first distinctly shown by the picture he exhibited • Efterretninger om Gronland('Information on Greenland '), which at the Academy in 1840, ‘A Scene in the Boars Head, Cheapside;' is one of the most interesting in Danish literature. It gives a history and he has since been a pretty constant contributor of pictures illusof the mission from 1720 to 1788 in a more interesting style than his trating scenes of bumour from the pages of Shakspere, Scott

, father was master of.

Le Sage, &c., of the order technically styled 'genre.' Their clear Another son of Hans Egede, NIELS Egede, who had spent his bright colouring, vivacity, and a certain coarse theatrical freedom and youth in Greenland, returned there in 1738 from Denmark, disgusted geniality, made them favourites with those who relish a less refined with the coldness of the reception he met with in Europe, and wished fare than was afforded by Mr. Leslie, previously the chief caterer in to spend the rest of his life among the Greenlanders, but was com the same walk. Without any marked departure from his original pelled to return by the state of Lis bealth in 1743. He fouuded wanner, Mr. Egg has shown a steady advance in the mechanical the settlement of Egedesminde, so nained in remembrance of his departments of his art, and he has on nore than one occasion shown father.

too that he has as yet done but imperfect justice to his talents. The EGERTON, THOMAS, Lord Chancellor of England, was born in following are the principal works he has contributed to the Royal 1540, in the parish of Doddlestone, Chesbire. He was the natural Acaderny exhibitions since 1840:—Scene from Romeo and Juliet,' son of Sir Richard Egerton, of an ancient family in that county. and an Italian Festa,' in 1841 ; Cromwell discovering his chaplain Having been well grounded in Latin and Greek by private tuition, be Jeremiah White making love to his daughter Frances, 1842; *The was entered in 1556 of Brazenose College, Oxford, where he remained Introduction of Sir Piercie Sbafton to Herbert Glendioning,' 1843; three years; and then, having taken his Bachelor's degree, removed to Scene from the Devil on Two Sticks, 1844, now in the Vernon Lincolu's Ion, London. In due time be was called to the bar, and Gallery ; Scene from the Winter's Tale, 1845 ; Buckingham 8000 acquired reputation and practice. It was not long before Queen Rebuffed,' 1846 ; 'The Woving of Katherine- from the Taming of Elizabeth discovered his value, and made bim one of her counsel, the Shrew,' 1847; 'Queen Elizabeth discovers she is no longer young, which entitled him to wear a silk gown, and to have precedence of 1848, a ridiculous caricature in the very lowest grade of broad farce; the other barristers,

He was

opointed solicitor general June 28, Henrietta Maria in Distress relieved by Cardinal du Retz,' and 1581, and he held this office till June 2, 1592, when he became Launce's substitute for Proteus's Dog,' 1849 ; ‘Peter the Great secs attorney-general. Meantime, in 1582, he was chosen Lent Reader to Katherine, his future Empress, for the first time,' 1850 ; Pepys's Lincoln's Ion; he was also made one of the governors of that society, Introduction to Nell Gwynne, 1851, like the last, a very clever and so continued for twelve years successively. He was knighted in rendering of a subject not remarkable for its pictorial capability; 1593, and was appointed chamberlain of the county-palatine of Dame Ursula and Margaret,' 1854; and “The Life and Death of Chester. On the 10th of April 1594 he was made Master of the Buckingham,' 1855. The Life and Death of Buckingham' is repreRolls; and on the 6th of May 1596 he succeeded Sir John Puckering sented in dramatic fashion-within the same frame the profligate duke as Lord Keeper, the queen herself delivering the great seal to him at and his sovereign revelling with the courtiers and the courtezans of Greenwich. As a special mark of her favour, he continued to hold "the merry monarch," and the death of the debauchee, according to the office of Master of the Rolls, together with that of Keeper of the Pope's version of it, "in the worst inu's worst room"- both scenes Great Seal, during the remainder of her reign. He was also sworn of being wrought out with uncompromising fidelity. In power it far her Majesty's privy council

. Besides the performance of his duties as surpassed any of Mr. Egg's previous productions, but it was sickening a lawyer and a judge, he was consulted and employed by the queen and repulsive, exactly in proportion to its truth and force. Mr. Egg in her most secret councils and most important state affairs, and con. was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1848. (See Sup. tinued an especial favourite till her death. In August 1602 she paid EGINHARDT, a native of Austrasia or East France, was instructed him a visit of three days at his country-bouse of Harefield, near by Alcuious, and by him introduced to Charlemagne, who made him Uxbridge, Middlesex, where, among other entertainments provided his secretary, and afterwards superintendent of his buildings. His for her, Shak-pere's tragedy of Othello' was played by Burbidge wife Emma, or Imma, is said by some to have been a daughter of and his company. In her last illness at Richmond, in March 1603, she that prince, and a curious story is related of their amours previous to Damed to bim the King of Scotland as her successor.

their marriage, but the whole seems an invention. Eginhardt himself After Elizabeth's death, King James, by sign-manual, dated Holyrood does not reckon Emma in his enumeration of the children of Charles. House, Edinburgh, April 5, 1603, directed him to retain the office of After the death of that monarch, Eginhardt continued to serve his Lord Keeper till further orders; and, having arrived in London, James, successor, Louis le Débonnaire, who entrusted him with the education on the 19th of July caused the great seal to be broken, and placed a new of his son Lotharius. But after a time Eginhardt resigned his offices, one in Sir Thomas Egerton's hands, accompanied by a paper in his left the court, and withdrew to the monastery of Fontenelle, of which own writing, by which be created bim Baron of Ellesmere," for his he became abbot: his wife also retired into a nunnery. After remaingood and faithful services, not only in the administration of justice, ing seven years at Fontenelle, he left it about A.D. 823, and went to but also in council.” On the 24th of July 1603 he was named Lord another monastery, but in 827, having received from Rome the relics High Chancellor of England. After being made Lord Chancellor, he of the martyrs Marcellinus and Petrus, he placed them in his residence resigned the office of Master of the Rolls, which he had held nine at Mulinheim, which he converted into an abbey, which took after. years. In 1605 Lord Ellesmere was appointed High Steward of the wards the name of Seligenstadt, where he fixed his residence. (“De City of Oxford, and on the 2nd of December 1610 was elected Translatione SS. martyrum Marcellini et Petri,' in the Acta Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

Sanctorum' of Bollandus. The account is written by Eginhardt.) On the 7th of November 1616, the king, with much reluctance, Eginhardt seems to have still repaired to court from time to time, granted him permission to retire from office, and at the same time when his advice was needed, and he appears by bis own letters to created him Viscount Brackley. On the 3rd of March 1617 he have endeavoured to thwart the conspiracy of Louis's sons against resigned the great seal, when Lord Bacon was appointed his successor. that unfortunate monarch. He spent his latter years in retirement Wbile he lay ill the king sent Buckingham and Lord Bacon to offer and study : according to one account he was still living in 848, when him the title of Earl of Bridgewater, and a pension of 30001. a year. he attended the council of Mayence, but by others he is said to have He refused both, saying "these things were now to him but vanities." died about 841. His wife had died before him, a loss by which ha He expired at York House, London, March 15, 1617, in the seventy: was greatly grieved, although they had lived separately for many seventh year of his age, having held the great seal for a longer period years. Eginhardt wrote, 1, Vita et Conversatio gloriosissimi Impecontinually than any of his predecessors or successors, He was ratoris Karoli Regis wagni, divided into two parts, one relating to





among them.

the public and the other to the private life of his hero. It has gone than many thousand frogs.” But the perfidy of the monarch proved through many editions, and has been also translated into various to be an ill policy. The judicial murder of Egmont and Horn languages. The style is remarkably good for the times. 2, 'Annales exasperated the people beyond all endurance, and the revolt became Regum Francorum, Pipini, Karolimagni, et Ludovici Pii, ab anno 741 general and irrepressible, and the last years of Philip were rendered ad annum 829.' 3, Epistolæ,' which are found in Duchesne's miserable by the failure of all his efforts to restore his authurity in * Historiæ Francorum Scriptores,' vol. ii. These letters, of which the Netherlands. only sixty-two have been preserved, show Eginhardt's character to The death of Egmont bas supplied to Göthe an admirable subject great advantage, and afford considerable information on the manners for one of the best of his historical tragedies, for which Beethoven of that period. 4, Breviarium Chronologicum ab orbe condito ad composed one of his finest overtures and some beautiful melodies to ann. D. 829,' which is an abridgment of Bede's Chronicle. There is the songs interspersed through the play. a notice of Eginhardt by Duchesne, prefixed to bis life of Charlemagne, The latest life of Egmont is that by Clouet, «Éloge historique du in the collection already mentioned. There is also a life of Eginhardt Comte d'Egmont,' Bruxelles, 1825. by M. Teulet, prefixed to his edition, with a translation into French, * EHRENBERG, CHRISTIAN GODFREY, the celebrated German of the works of Eginbardt, in 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1840.

naturalist and microscopist, was born on the 19th of April 1795, at EGMONT, Count of Lamoral, Prince of Gavre, a descendant of Delitsch in Prussian Saxony. He received his early education at those dukes of Guelders who had signalised themselves against the Schulpforte, and commenced the study of medicine at Leipzig in 1815. house of Austria, was born in 1522 in Amsterdam. The fame of his lu 1817 he was called to Berlin by the law of military service. Here ancestors is celebrated in the annals of his country, one of whom he became acquainted with the celebrated Hemprich, and afterwards enjoyed, during the reign of Maximilian, the supreme magistracy of accompanied him in his travels in the East. At Berlin Ehrenberg Holland.

gave himself up to the study of organic life, and his first essay was ‘On Egmont's marriage with Sabina, duchess of Bavaria, reflected the Structure and Classification of the Fungi.' This paper appeared additional lustre upon his noble birth, and increased his influence by in the ' Annales des Botanique' of Schroeder, Sprengel, and Link in powerful alliances. In the year 1546 Charles V. conferred upon him the year 1818. He took his degree of Doctor of Medicine the same the order of the Golden Fleece. Under this emperor he learned the year, taking as the subject of his inaugural thesis, 'Sylvæ Mycologicæ art of war, and, being appointed by Philip II. commander of the Berolinenses.' In this paper he described two hundred and forty-eight cavalry, he gathered his first laurels in the fields of St. Quentin and species of cryptogamic plants, sixty-two of which were new. In 1819 Gravelingen (1557, 1558).

and 1820 be published other papers on cryptoganic botany, more The Flemish people, chiefly occupied with commerce, and indebted especially one on the Flora of Ratisbon, in the 10th volume of the for the preservation of their prosperity to these victories, were justly Memoirs of the Leopoldine Academy of Naturalists of Berne, of proud of their countryman, whose fame was spread through all which academy he had at that time been elected a member. Europe. The circumstances of Egmont being the father of a numerous In April 1820 he embarked with bis friend Hemprich on his travels family served also to increase their affection, and they saw with in Egypt. They first visited Alexaudria, and explored the coasts of delight the prospect of this illustrious family being perpetuated Libya, and in 1821 visited Middle Egypt, especially the Pyramids.

They arrived at Dongola in February 1822, where the governor Egmont's demeanour was courteous and noble; his open counte- was so much struck with the genius of M. Ehrenberg that he insisted dance was an index of the singleness of his mind; his life was one of on his giving him a plan of a fortress. The naturalist pleaded in mercy and pbilanthropy; far from being a bigoted Romanist, or a vain his want of knowledge, and at last gave the plan of the fortress reckless reformer, he elevated himself above the contending parties, of Kasr-Dongola-el-Gedide, which to this day is the residence of the and laboured to bring about a peaceful reconciliation. It was only governor. Under the protection of the governor, the travellers towards the close of bis life, when all attempts to disarm the fury of penetrated as far as Ambukohl, in Upper Dongola. The travellers the Spaniards against bis Protestant countrymen had failed, that he after returning to Cairo visited Sinai, the height of which mountain showed himself willing to defend them against their oppressors. His Ehrenberg accurately ascertained by means of the thermometer. motives however do not appear to bave been any predilection for the Various scientific expeditions were made into Syria and Arabia, and Protestant doctrine, but pure love of justice, peace, and humanity. Ehrenberg returned to Berlin in 1826. He lost however his friend

A man possessed of such qualities, and enjoying so much popular Hemprich, who died of a fever at Massawa, an island in the Arabian influence, naturally awoke suspicion and jealousy in the hearts of the Gulf. Berghaus has given to two groups of islands to the south and Spanish despots whenever the interests of the Flemish came into north of Dhalak the names of the islauds of Hemprich and the islands collision with those of the crown. Philip however, in order to conceal of Ebrenberg. bis dark designs against the supposed protectors of the religion of bis On his return Ehrenberg was named one of the professors of the rebellious subjects, on visiting Brabant gave to Egmont the govern. Faculty of Medicine, a position he still occupies. Soon after arranging ment of Artois and Flanders, and exempted his estates from taxation. his materials he commenced publishing his observations upon various But upon his return to Madrid the tyrant changed his plans, and sent departments of natural history. Besides a complete history of bis favourite, Alva, to Flanders, with instructions to get rid of Egmont his travels he produced many monographs on various branches of and his friend Count Horn.

natural history. The principal series was the 'Symbolæ Fhysicæ eeu In order to secure them both, Alva invited them to dinner, under Icones et Descriptiones Animalium ex Itinere per Africam borealem the pretence of wishing to consult them on public affairs, When et Asiam occidentalem,' &c., published at Berlin from 1828 to 1832. they had entered his private room, they were seized, and thrown into Another paper should be mentioned, 'On the Acalepbæ of the Red prison in Ghent, wbere they remained during nine months. At the Sea,' in which he contributed largely to the existing knowledge of the expiration of this time they were carried to Brussels under an escort Medusc. During his travels Ehrenberg made many observations, of ten companies of Spanish soldiers. Here Alva, invested with the which have been published, on the useful plants growing in the power of captain-general and supreme judge, compelled the criminal districts which he visited. court to pronounce Egmont guilty of high treason and rebellion, and In 1829 he accepted an invitation to join in the journey of Alexander to sentence him to be beheaded. Tbis sentence was pronounced on von Humboldt into the Ural Mountains, an expedition which was the 4th of June 1568, without any substantial evidence, and was prolonged into the Altaï. It was during this journey that Ehrenberg's supported only by the depositions of his accusers. His estates were attention was more especially directed to the importance of investialso confiscated. During his imprisonment the emperor of Germany, gations with the microscope. This instrument, which was gradually the knights of the Golden Fleece, the electors, the duchess of Parma, attracting attention, more especially through the important labours of and his wife, used every possible exertion to save his life; but Philip our own countryman, Robert Brown (Brown, ROBERT), became in his was immovable. The sentence was executed on the 5th of June 1568, hands a mighty instrument of research. It would not be consistent and both Egmont and Horn fell by the sword of the executioner on a with our present notice to refer to all Ehrenberg's papers on microscaffold erected in one of the principal squares of Brussels. Egmont scopic objects. Between sixty and seventy are referred to in Agassiz's died with courage, after baving written a dignified letter to the king . Bibliography,' and probably as many more are extant. They are and a tend r one to bis wife,

diffused throughout the transactions of the scientific societies and the He was but forty-six years of age. The people, who assembled in pages of the scientific jouroals of Europe. When Ehrenberg comcrowds to witness this mournful spectacle, were loud in their lamenta- menced his labours, little had been done towards studying the structure tious; they rushed towards the scaffold and dipped their handkerchiefs of or classifying the organic beings whose existence could only be in the blood of the martyrs of Flemish independence. His friend, learned by the aid of the microscope. This instrument opened up to Count Horu, was executed immediately after him. Egmont's wife his view a new world, and if in his enthusiasm he too rapidly inter. died the 19th of June 1598. It is said that the bishop of Ypres, a preted some of the phenomena, it should never be forgotten that most pious and upright prelate, who had been deputed by Alva to Ehrenberg was the first to demonstrate the existence of the large mass prepare the two prisoners for their execution, after hearing the con- of beings known as microscopic plants and animals. His observations, fession of Egmont, was so persuaded of bis innocence that he went as far as they had gone, were published in his great folio work in to Alva and begged him on his knees to suspend the execution. But 1838, entitled "Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen Alva, besides his natural ferocity, bore a mortal enmity to Egmont on an den Grenzen der Seh-Kraft.' This work comprised a general account of his military reputation, and rejected the bishop's inter history, with a detailed account, of the structure of several hundred Cession with insolent contempt. When Philip II. heard that these species of organic beings. He regarded these all as animals, and two poble lords had been executed he exclaimed, “I have caused these included them all in one group, which he called Infusoria. Since the two heads to fall because the heads of such salmons are worth more publication of this work it has been shown that a portion of these



746 organisms, the Wheel-Animalcules (ROTIFERA, in Nat. Hist. Div.), are the fifth part, of a similarly extensive and uncompleted work, were much higher in organisation than the rest. His division Polygastrica, written by Eichhorn, nainely, the history of literature, ancient and or many-stomached, has also been shown to be unfounded; whilst mo lern, fro:n its commencement to the present time ("Geschichte der a large number of them have been demonstrated to belong to the Litteratur von ihrem Ursprunge bis auf die neuesten Zeiten '); 6 vols., vegetable kingdom. [INFUSORIA, DIATOMACEÆ, DESMIDEÆ, in Nat. Göttingen. 1805-11. He also wrote literary history (“Literargeschichte'), Hist. Div.]

2 vols., Göttingen, 2nd edition, 1813-14; a history of all parts of the A very imperfect idea would be formed of Ebrenberg's labours from world during the last three centuries ("Geschichte der drey letzten his great work on 'Infusorial Animalcules.' Since the publication of Jahrhunderte,' &c.), 6 vols., Göttingen, 3rd edition, 1818; an historical that work he has devoted himself with great success to the investi. survey of the French revolution ( Uebersicht der franz. Revolution'), gation of the fossil forms of microscopic organic beings, and shown 2 vols., Göttingen, 1797; and a universal history (“Weltgeschichte') that their siliceous and calcareous skeletons constitute a very important on the plan of Gatterer's universal statistics ("Weltstatistik'), 4 vols., element in the constitution of many of the strata of the earth's surface. Göttingen, 3rd edition, 1818-20. The two following laborious and These researches he has also published in a large work entitled judicious compilations have obtained a high repute in the schools of Micro-geologie.'

Germany, namely, a history of ancient Rome, composed entirely of EICHHORN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, an eminent professor of connected passages from the ancient Roman writers (' Antiqua Historia oriental and biblical literature in the University of Göttingen, and one ex ipsis veterum script. Roman. narrationibus contexta), 2 vols., of the most learned and distinguished scholars of Germany, was born Göttingen, 1811; and à history of ancient Greece, constructed on the in October 1752 at Dorrenzimmern, in the principality of Hohenlohe same plan, from the ancient Greek historians (‘Antiqua Historia,' &o.), Deringen, and at first was rector of the school at Ohrdruf, in the 4 vols., Leipzig, 1812. His last historical work was a curious research principality of Gotha. Having applied with great success to the study on the early history of the illustrious house of the Guelphs, in which of the oriental languages, he obtained in 1775 a professor's chair in the the ancestors of the present royal family of England are traced up to University of Jena, where he continued thirteen years, giving instruction the middle of the 5th century ("Urgeschichte des erlauchten Hauses in Hebrew, Arabic, &c., and was made in 1783 a court councillor by der Welfen, von 449-1055'), 4to, Hanover, 1817. From the year 1813 the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. In 1788 he was appointed to the professor- to his death in 1827, Professor Eichhorn was the editor of the Göttingen ship previously held by Michaelis in the University of Göttingen, of 'Literary Gazette' (Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen'). His critical which institution he continued a very distiuguished ornament during writings display extensive and exact learning, which in his biblical the remainder of his life, as professor of oriental and biblical literature. treatises he employs for the development of doctrines often the reverse

His reputation was equally high as a proficient in oriental, classical, of those which are generally regarded as orthodox. Eichhorn applies and scriptural antiquities; in philosophical criticism; in the history to the Hebrew Scriptures the principles on which Heyne explained the of pations, and of ancient and modern literature and science; and in mythology of the Greeks, and his name is conspicuous in the theouniversal bibliology. He was made in 1811

a doctor of divinity; in logical school commenced by Michaelis and Semler, and extended by 1813 the directorship of the Royal Scientific Society of Göttingen was Rosenmüller, Kuhnoel, Döderlein, Rohr, Teller, Schmidt, Henke, conferred on him, and he received the appointment of pro-rector of Ammon, Steinbart, Wegscheider, &c., as an ultra-rationalist, and á the University of Göttingen; in 1819 he was appointed privy councillor promoter of the system of logical religion and morality, founded on of justice for the kingdom of Hanover (Geheimer Justizrath). He died the Kantian transcendental theory of ideology, at that time so generally on the 25th of June 1827, at the age of seventy-five. In completing prevalent in the universities of Germany, and which in truth is a the present notice it is only necessary to enumerate the principal system of mere moral philosophy and philosophical theism, exhibited works of Eichhorn, and to give a brief and general account of his under the ostensible profession of Christianity ; since all traditionary doctrines as a divine and a critic.

doctrines and statements are made to give way to the operation of While at Jena, Eichhorn first displayed his knowledge of oriental “ abstract, universal, and eternal principles of reason." By bis superior literature in a history of East Indian commerce prior to the time of knowledge of oriental antiquities, and by his bold mode of thinking, Mohammed (Geschichte des Ostindischen handels vor Mohammed'), Eichhorn established a new system of scriptural explication, in which Gotha, 1775. This was followed by a survey of the most ancient monu- be displays a degree of learned and philosophical scepticism much ments of the Arabs ( Monumenta antiquissimæ Historiæ Arabum, post beyond that of his predecessor Micbaelis. He denies all supernatural Schultensium collecta atque edita, cum animadversionibus '), Gotha, revelation to the Hebrew prophets, believing them to bave been clever 1775; and a treatise on the ancient numismatical history of Arabia, and experienced persons, who, from their peculiar abilities, were likely Gotha, 1775. He next published a large collection of learned and to foresee political and other events. He examines, questions, and valuable treatises, entitled a repertory of biblical and oriental literature rejects the authenticity of several books of the Old Testament, and of (Repertorium für biblische und morgenländische Litteratur '), 18 some of the epistles in the New Testament; and asserts generally that vols., Leipzig, 1777-86. After removing to Göttingen he devoted his miraculous appearances, visions, voices, &c., are explainable by the attention almost exclusively to the archæology of biblical literature, laws of nature and the principles of human physiology and psychology, and the results of his studies appeared in a general repository of and that supernatural communications are chiefly referable to the biblical literature ( Allgemeine Bibliothek der biblischen Litteratur'), mysterious traditions and superstitious notions common to all people 10 vols., 1788-1801; and in a disquisition on primitive history in a state of ignorance and barbarism. His theory of the origin of ("Urgeschichte'), 2 vols., Altdorf and Nürnberg, 1790-93, with an the canonical gospels, which regards them as compilations from anterior introduction and notes by the learned Gabler. This work contains a documents, has been adopted by many subsequent critics. (See Dr. searching and bold criticism of the Mosaic Pentateuch. The two next Schleiermacher's work on the Gospels.') Many of the sceptical are among the most important of the author's productions, namely, positions of Eichhorn have been attacked in Germany by the antithe introduction to the Old Testament (Einleitung in das Alte Test.'), rationalist class of divines. On this point see 'The Present State of of which he published a fourth and improved edition in 5 vols. at Protestantism in Germany,' by the Rev. Hugh Rose, 2nd edition, 1829, Gotha, in 1824; and the introduction to the New Testament and the controversial publications which it elicited. (Einleitung in das Neue Test."), new edition, in 2 vols., 1827. These EICHHORN, CHARLES FREDERICK, son of the preceding, were accompanied with an introduction to the apocryphal writings of obtained considerable celebrity as an able and learned jurisconsulist. the Old Testament (* Einleitung in die apokryphischen Schriften des He was born at Jena on the 20th of November 1781 ; and after passing Alten Test.'), Leipzig, 1795, Göttingen, 1798; and a revised and through the usual course of academic and legal training, was named uniform edition of the three, with the title of critical writings in 1805 Professor of German Law at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder. In 1811 ("Kritische Schriften'), was published at Leipzig in 7 vols., 1804-14. he removed to Berlin, and in 1817 to Göttingen, in each place holding

The other works of Eichhorn on biblical criticism and philology the same chair as at Frankfurt. Ill-health however compelled him in are a commentary on Revelations (Commentarius in Apocalypsin 1828 to resign, and to retire to an estate he possessed near Tubingen. Joannis '), 2 vols., Göttingen, 1791; à revised and enlarged edition of Having somewhat recovered, he was in 1831 again summoned to Berlin, Professor Simon's Hebrew and Chaldaic Lexicon, Halle, 1793; a critical and along with his professorship he received an appointment in the translation and exposition of the writings of the Hebrew prophets ministry of foreign affairs. At length in 1833 he resigned his professor, ("Die Hebraischen Propheten '), 3 vols., Göttingen, 1816-20; commen- ship, and devoted himself entirely to his official duties and to writing. taries on the prophetic poetry of the Hebrews ( Commentationes de About this time he was made a member of the Prussian council Prophetica Poesi Hebræorum'), 4to, Göttingen, 1823; preface to the of state, and of the commission of legislation. He died in July Nova Bibliotheca Hebraica' by Koecherus; and numerous critical 1854. treatises in a learned periodical work entitled 'Mines of the East' Charles Eichhorn was one of the most erudite expounders of tha (* Fundgruben des Orients'), and in the Commentaries of the Göttingen ancient Germanic law, of its origin, its growth, and its various bearingu. Royal Society of Sciences (“Commentarii Societat. Reg. Scientarium As the associate and fellow.labourer of Saviguy, though taking a someGottingensis ').

what different branch of the subject as the main object of his investiIn 1796 he published the plan of a comprehensive history of arts gations, and as holding the chair of German law for so many years, and sciences from their revival in Europe to the end of the 18th Eichhorn exercised an important influence on the study of law in century, and wrote as a part of the work a general history of civilisation Prussia. His principal writings are—Deutsche Staats und Rechtsand literature in modern Europe (' Allgemeine Geschichte der Culturgeschichte,' 4 vols. 8vo, Göttingen, 1808-18, which work has passed und Litteratur des neuern Europa”), 2 vols., Göttingen, 1796-99. The through eight editions; 'Grundsätze des Kirchenrechts der Katho* History of Modern Poetry and Eloquence' by Bouterwek, and the lischen und Evangelischen Religionspartei in Deutschland, 2 vols. History of Military Science' by Hoyer, constituted other parts of the 8vo, Göttingen, 1831-33; and 'Einleitung in das Deutsche Privatrecht undertaking, which was left unfinished. The first three parts, and mit Einschluss des Lehörechts.' In conjunction with Savigny and


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Goschen he also carried on the .Zeitschrift für geshichtliche Rechts- with his mother and fayourites, and his body was thrown ioto the wissenschaft,' Berlin, 1815-1843.

Tiber, March, A.D. 222. He was succeeded by Alexander Severus. * EICHWALD, EDWARD, a Russian naturalist, was born at [SEVERUS.] The coins of Elagabalus bear the names of Marcus AureMittau on the 4th of July, 1795, and was educated in the gymnasium lius Antoninus, like those of Caracalla, with which they are often con. of that town till 1814, when he went to Berlin, where he studied founded. The names of Varius Avitus Bassianus, which he also bore medicine and natural history. In 1817 he began to travel, and visited before his elevation to the throne, are not found on his medals. He Germany, Switzerland, France, and England. After residing at Wilna took the name of Varius from Sextus Varius Marcellus, who was his and Dorpat during the years 1819.23, he was appointed professor of mother's husband. zoology and midwifery in the university of Casan. Two years afterwards he undertook a scientific journey to the Caspian Sea, to the Caucasus, and into Persia. On his return in 1827 he was made professor of zoology and comparative anatomy in the university of Wilna, and again set out to investigate the western provinces of Russia as far as the Black Sea. The university of Wilna was suppressed, but Eich. wald remained as secretary of the Medico-Chirurgical Academy there till 1838, when he removed to St. Petersburg as professor of mineralogy and zoology in the academy of that city. On receiving the appointment he undertook a new journey and traversed Esthonia, Finland, the government of St. Petersburg, and the Scandinavian provinces. In 1840 he made a geological journey through. Italy, Sicily, and Algeria. The results of his journeys have been published in numerous works, of which the more important are— Zoologia specialis,' 1829;

Coin of Elagabalus. *Sketches of Natural History from Lithuania, Volhynia, and Podolia,'

British Museum. Actual size. Copper. Weight 380 grains. 1830; 'Plantarum novarum quas in Itinere Caspio-Caucasio observabit,' 1831-33; Memoria Bojani,' 1835; Treatise on the Mineral ELDON, JOHN SCOTT, EARL OF, rose to the eminent station Wealth of the Western Provinces of Russia,' 1835; 'Ancient Geogra- which he ultimately held from a humble beginning. All that is phy of the Caspian Sea, of the Caucasus, and of the Southern Provinces known about his ancestry is that his grandfather is reported by tradiof Russia,' 1838; 'On the Strata of the Silurian System of Esthonia,' tion to have been a clerk in the office of a coal-fitter at Newcastle, 1840; Faunia Caspio-Caucasia,' 1846 ; 'Observations in Natural and a man of very good repute; he is described in a written docuHistory during a Journey through the Tyrol,' 1851 ; ‘The Paleontology ment, of the year 1716, as William Scott, of Sandgate (one of the of Russia,' 1851. Eichwald has been created a councillor of state by streets of that town), yeoman. His son, Mr. William Scott, the father the Emperor of Russia, and he is member of a number of scientific of Lord Eldon, followed the business of what is called a coal-fitter, societies.

defined by his son's biographer to be “the factor who conducts the ELAGABAʼLUS, called also HELIOGABAʼLUS, was the grandson sales between the owner and the shipper, taking the shipper's order of Mæsa, sister to the empress Julia, the wife of Septimius Severus. for the commodity, supplying the cargo to him, and receiving from Mæsa had two daughters, Sæmis, or Semiamira, the mother of Varius him the price of it for the owner.” In this line he prospered so much Avitus Bassianus, afterwards called Elagabalus, who was reported to that at his death, at the age of seventy-nine, 6th November 1776, he be the illegitimate son of Caracalla and Mammæa, mother of Alexander appears to have left to his family, including what some of them had Severus. Elagabalus was born at Antioch a.d. 204. Mæsa took care previously received from him, property to the amount of between of his infancy and placed him, when five years of age, in the temple thirty and forty thousand pounds. Mr. William Scott was twice of the Sun at Emesa to be educated by the priests; and through her married. By his first wife, Isabella Noble, who died January 1734, he influence he was made, while yet a boy, high priest of the Sun. That had three children, all of whose descendants are extinct; by his second, divinity was called in Syria 'Elagabal,' which name the boy assumed. Jane Atkinson, daughter of Henry Atkinson, Esq., of Newcastle, whoin After the death of Caracalla and the elevation of Macrinus, the latter he married in August 1740, he had thirteen children, of whom the having incurred by his severity the dislike of the soldiers, Mäsa availed eldest son, William, afterwards Lord Stowell, was born in 1745, and herself of this feeling to induce the officers to rise in favour of her of whom John, the future chancellor, was the eighth. grandson, whom she presented to them as the son of the murdered John Scott was born in 1751-as he believed, on the 4th of JuneCaracalla. Elagabalus, who was then in his fifteenth year, was proclaimed at his father's house in Love-lane, Newcastle, the site of which is now emperor by the legion stationed at Emesa. Having put himself at partly occupied by other smaller houses, partly taken in to widen their head he was attacked by Macrinus, who at first had the advantage, Forster-street. He was educated, with his elder brothers, William and but he and his mother Sæmis, with great spirit, brought the soldiers Henry, at the grammar school of his native place, commonly called again to the charge, and defeated Macrinus, who was overtaken in his the Head School, where the head master was the Rev. Hugh Moises, a flight and put to death A.D. 218. Elagabalus having entered Antioch, respectable scholar and an excellent teacher, but one who did not wrote a letter to the senate, professing to take for his model Marcus spare the rod. William went to Oxford in 1761. (STOWELL, LORD.) Aurelius Antoninus, a name revered at Rome : Elagabalus also assumed It was their father's intention to bring up John to his own business; that emperor's name. The senate acknowledged him, and he set off but when he was making arrangements for that purpose in 1766, for Rome, but tarried several months on his way amidst festivals and William wrote home from Oxford, advising that he should be sent up amusements, and at last stopped at Nicomedia for the winter. In the to him : "I can,” he said, “ do better for Lim here.” Accordingly, following year he arrived at Rome, and began a career of debauchery, on the 15th of May of that year, he was entered a commoner of extravagance, and cruelty, which lasted the remaining three years of University College. On the ilth of July 1767, he was elected to a his reign, and the disgusting details of which are given by Lampri- fellowship in his college, having then just completed his sixteenth dius, Herodianus, and Dion. Some critics have imagined, especially year; he took bis Bachelor's degree 20th February 1770; gained, in froin the shortness of bis reign, that there must be some exaggeration 1771, the chancellor's prize of 201. for an English prose essay on The in these accounts, for he could hardly have done in so short a time Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreigu Travel (published in Talall the mischief that is attributed to him. That he was extremely boys's Collection of the Oxford English Prize Essays,' 1830); but fordissolute and totally incapable is certain; and this is not to be feited his fellowship by running off, on the 18th of November 1772, wondered at, from his previous eastern education, his extreme youth, with Miss Elizabeth Surtees, daughter of Aubone Surtees, Esq., banker the corrupt example of his mother, his sudden elevation, and the of Newcastle, whom he married at Blackshiels, in Scotland, the next general profligacy of the times. He surrounded himself with gladia- day. The lady's father was very angry; and it was some little time tors, actors, and other base favourites, who made an unworthy use of before he was reconciled; but at last he agreed to give his daughter a their influence. He married several wives, among others a ves portion of 10001., Mr. Scott raking over to his son an equal sum. The imperial palace became a scene of debauch and open prostitution. Meanwhile, it is said, a groc r of Newcastle, a friend of the family, Elagabalus being attached to the superstitions of the East, raised a who was well to do in the world, had kindly offered to take the young temple on the Palatine hill to the Syrian god whose name he bore, man into partnership; and it was only another interference of his and plundered the temples of the Roman gods to enrich his own. He elder brother William which prevented the father closing with this put to death many senators; he established a senate of women, under proposal

. It was then determined that he should enter into holy the presidency of his mother Sæmis, which body decided all questions orders if a University College living fell vacant during the twelve relative to female dresses, visits, precedence, amusements, &c. He months of grace, as they are called, for which he was still allowed to wore bis pontifical vest as high priest of the Sun, with a rich tiara hold his fellowship; that event did not happen, and he then made up on bis head. His grandmother Mæsa, seeing his folly, thought of con- his mind, it is said with some reluctance, to try the profession of the cliiating the Romans by associating with him as Cæsar his younger law. He had entered himself a student of the Middle Temple in cousin, Alexander Severus, who soon became a favourite with the January 1773; and he took his degree of Master of Arts on the 13th people. Elagabalus, who had consented to the association, became of February in the same year. afterwards jealous of his cousin, and wished to deprive him of his During the years 1774 and 1775 he held the office of a tutor of honours, but he could not obtain the consent of the senate. His University College, where his brother William was at the time senior next measure was to spread the report of Alexander's death, which tutor; but it is believed that all he did in that capacity was to attend produced an insurrection among the prætorians, and Elagabalus having to the law studies of some of the members of the college. He Tepaired to their camp to quell the mutiny, was murdered together received none of the emoluments of the office. One or both of these






years also be read the law lectures, as deputy for Sir Robert Chambers, In March 1787 Mr. Scott was appointed chancellor of the bishopric the Vinerian professor; and for this service he had 601. a year. and county palatine of Durham, by the bishop, who was a brother of Awkwardly enough, the first lecture he had to read was upon the Lord Thurlow, and had just been translated to the see. In June statue 4 and 5 Phil. and M., c. 8, .of young men running away with 1788, on Lord Mansfield's resignation and the appointment of Sir maidens;' and it so chanced that he had to deliver it immediately Lloyd Kenyon as his successor in the chief-justiceship of the King's after it was put into his hands, and without knowing a word that Bench, the attorney-general, Mr. Pepper Arden, was made master of was in it. "Fancy me reading,” he said, when telling the story long the rolls, in room of Kenyon; the solicitor-general, Sir Archibald afterwards, “with about 140 boys all giggling at the professor. Such Macdonald, became attorney-general ; and the office of solicitor-general a tittering audience no one ever had."

was conferred on Scott. At the same time he was also knighted. A Mr. Scott was called to the bar on the 9th of February 1776, on few days afterwards he was re-elected for Weobly; and he was a which he came up with his wife to London, and took a small house fourth time returned for the same place to the new parliament which in Cursitor-street, from which he soon after removed to another in met in November 1790. He held the office of solicitor-general till Carey-street. He naturally joined the Northern Circuit; but it was, February 1793, when he was made attorney-general on the promotion as usual, some time before he began to make much by his practice of Sir Archibald Macdonald to the place of Chief Baron of the Indeed after a trial of two or three years his prospects of success in Exchequer. On this occasion he was returned a fifth time for Weobly. London seemed so unpromising, that he had made arrangements for To the next parliament, which met in September 1796, the last in settling as a provincial counsel in bis native town, when, in July 1778, which he sat as a member of the House of Commons, he was returned, he was brought into considerable notice by his argument in the cause along with Sir Francis Burdett, for the Duke of Newcastle's borough of Ackroyd v. Smithson (1 Bro. C. C. 503), heard before Sir Thomas of Boroughbridge. Sewell, Master of the Rolls; and he obtained still more repute when The period of Sir John Scott's tenure of the office of attorney. Sir Thomas's judgment, which was adverse to his client, was reversed general extends to the year 1799. It is memorable for the state trials in March 1780, by Lord Chancellor Thurlow, in accordance with connected with the political excitement produced in this country by Scott's reasoning, which has decided all similar questions ever since. the breaking out of the French Revolution. Muir, Palmer, Skirving, The question was what should be done with one of a number of shares Margarot, and Gerald, had all been convicted of sedition in Scotland, into which a testator bad directed that the money obtained by the and sentenced to fourteen years transportation, when in October 1794, sale of his real estates should be divided, the party to whom he had Hardy, Horne Tooke, Thelwall

, Holcroft, and their associates, were given the share by his will having died in the testator's lifetime. Mr. indicted for high treason at the Old Bailey. Only Hardy, Tooke, and Scott contended that the share, being land, at the death of the testator Thelwall were tried; all three were acquitted; and the prosecutions caine to the heir-at-law. Even for some time after this success how against the other prisoners were dropped. There has been much ever he still retained the idea of settling in Newcastle; and had difference of opinion as to the wisdom of the course taken by the actually made a house be taken for him in that town, of which he government on this occasion, but perhaps too much stress has comhad also accepted the Recordership. One year, apparently 1780, he monly been laid on the single fact that none of the trials issued in a did not go the circuit, because he could not afford it; he had already, conviction. There can be no doubt that the evidence, although it to use his own words, borrowed of his brother for several circuits, was held insufficient to support the charge of high treason, produced without getting adequate remuneration. But when matters were in an immense effect upon the public mind; and the accused were disthis state he unexpectedly found such an opportunity of distinguishing missed from the bar unharmed, but to a great extent disarmed. The himself in an election case (that of Clitheroe) before a committee of attorney-general naturally came in for a principal share of the obloquy the House of Commons as at once changed his position, and with that which the proceedings excited; but his demeanour in the conduct of his plans for the future. Having been applied to in the absence of the trials was admitted on all hands to have been characterised by the counsel who was to have led, Mr. Scott, upon the refusal of the moderation and good temper. His answer to the question so often next counsel to lead because he was not prepared, was persuaded to asked, -Why he had not prosecuted for a misdemeanour? always take the conduct of the case at a few hours' notice. It lasted for was, that in his deliberate opinion the offence was treason or nothing; fifteen days. . " It found me poor enough,” said he, relating the but he never could get over the next question, How could anyone circumstances in his old age, “but I began to be rich before it was expect a jury to convict of treason, when it required a speech of done: they left me fifty guineas at the beginning; then there were eleve hours to state the charge? In his own written account howten guineas every day, and five guineas every evening for a consulta- ever, as quoted by Mr. Twiss from the 'Anecdote-Book,' vol. i. tion-more money than I could count. But, better still, the length pp. 282-86, he lays the principal stress upon the desirableness of of the cause gave me time to make myself thoroughly acquainted with bringing out all the evidence. His words are, “The mass of evidence, the law." He was beaten in the committee by one vote; but the in my judgment, was such as ought to go to the jury for their ability he had shown did not the less establish his reputation. opinion, whether they were guilty or not guilty of treason. Unless

All thought of leaving London was now abandoned; his practice the whole evidence was laid before the jury, it would have been from this time increased rapidly; and in June 1783, on the formation impossible that the country could ever have been made fully acquainted of the coalition ministry of Lord North and Mr. Fox, and the great with the danger to which it was exposed; and it appeared to seal on Lord Thurlow's resignation being put into commission, he was me to be more essential to securing the public safety that the whole one of several junior counsel who were called within the bar. Erskine of their transactions should be published, than that any of these was another; and it was at first intended to give precedence to him individuals should be convicted.”. and Mr. Pigott, both of whom were Scott's juniors; but to this In July 1799, on the death of Sir James Eyre, chief justice of the arrangement the latter firmly refused to submit; and his patent, as Common Pleas, Sir John Scott claimed and obtained that office, ultimately drawn out, gave him precedence next after the king's agreeing at the same time to go into the House of Lords. His title counsel then being, and after Harry Peckham, who had been made of Baron Eldon was taken from a manor of that name, consisting of one a few days previously, and had been placed before Erskine, though above 1300 acres, in the county of Durham, which he had purchased Erskine's patent was of earlier date. A few days after he received for 22,0001. in 1792. It appears from Lord Eldon's fee books, as far this promotion, he was made a bencher of his Inn of Court.

as they have been preserved, that his annual receipts when at the bar About the same time he was returned to parliament for the borough had been in 1785, 6054l. ; in 1786, 6833l. ; in 1787, 76001. ; in 1788, of Weobly, through the patronage of Lord Weymouth, with whom 84191.; in 1789, 9559l.; in 1790, 96841.; in 1791, 10,2131. in 1792, however he stipulated that he should not be expected uniformly, or 90801.; in 1793, 10,3301. ; in 1794, 11,5921.; in 1795, 11,1491.; in as a matter of course, to represent his lordship's opinions. The 1796, 12,140l. ; in 1797, 10,8611.; and in 1798, 10,5571. His removal election took place on the 16th of June. He and Erskine both made to the bench was a great sacrifice of income, but he considered that their maiden speeches in the same debate, that on the 20th of his health and comfort required his retirement from the laborious November, about a week after the opening of the session, on a motion office of attorney-general. Áis claim however was at first opposed connected with the famous India Bill, which eventually upset Fox's by both Pitt and Loughborough the chancellor, who were desirous of government. The two young lawyers were however on opposite giving the office to Sir R. Pepper Arden, then master of the rolls. sides-Erskine with ministers, Scott with Pitt and the party destined When it became known that Sir John Scott was to be the new chief soon after to come into power. The Coalition ministry was turned justice of the Common Pleas, Lord Kenyon, then chief justice of the out on the 18th of December; and on the 24th of March 1784, the King's Bench, publicly congratulated the profession upon the appointking prorogued, and the next day dissolved parliament, after the ment of one, who, he said, would probably be found "the most opposition to Pitt and the new government had been gradually brought consummate judge that ever sate in judgment :” and Lord Eldon down in the course of a long series of divisions to a majority of one. proved an admirable common law judge. “On the bench of a Mr. Scott was again returned for Woobly; and in the new parliament common law court,” it is remarked by his biographer, “no scope was ho took a prominent part in most of the legal questions that came allowed to his only judicial imperfection, the tendency to hesitate. before the House. In the session of 1785, on the 9th of March, he

Compelled to decide without postponement, Lord Eldon at spoke and voted with Fox against ministers on one of the questions once established the highest judicial reputation; a reputation indeed connected with the great Westminster scrutiny; and his speech was which afterwards wrought somewhat disadvantageously against him. considered to have established the doctrine " that the election must self when lord chancellor, by showing how little ground there was for be finally closed before the return of the writ, and that the writ must bis diffidence, and consequently how little necessity for his doubts and be returned on or before the day specified in it.”. This principle the delays." He was also much attached to his office, and to the end of government soon after consented to enact as law by the statute his life used to express the strong regret with which he had left the 25 Geo. III. C. 84, "To limit the duration of polls and scrutinies." Court of Common Pleas.

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