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But on Lord Loughborough's resignation of the great seal in April / who reached Athens in August 1800, and they were eventually able 1801, about a month after Mr. Pitt had been succeeded as prime to secure and to bring over to England a large number of casts, monuminister by Mr. Addington, Lord Eldon became lord chancellor ments, statues, bas-reliefs, medals, and fragments of architecture of (April 14th). His own account was, that when he was made chief the best age of Athenian art. In spite of covsiderable censure and justice of the Common Pleas, the king had insisted upon his giving a opposition, in 1816 the collection was purchased by the government, promise, that whenever he should be called upon to take the office of and placed in the British Museum, where it is known as the 'Elgin chancellor he would do so. He continued to hold this office till the Marbles. From this time forward Lord Elgin held no public appoint7th of February 1806, when, on the accession of the Whig ministry of ment. He was a Scotch representative peer for fifty years, but, Mr. Fox and Lord Grenville, he was succeeded by Lord Erskine; he except when employed as a diplomatist, he lived a very private and resumed it on the 1st of April 1807, on the return of his party to retired life. He died at Paris, in November 1841. power; and he finally resigned it on the 30th of April 1827, when ELGIN, EARL OF. JAMES Bruce, eighth earl of Elgin and Mr. Canning became prime minister, and the great seal was given to Kincardine, son of the preceding nobleman, was born in 1811, and Lord Lyndhurst. He was raised to the dignities of Viscount received his early education at Eton, and at Christchurch, Oxford, Encombe and Earl of Eldon in 1821.

where he graduated B.A. in 1833, as a first class in classical honoura. Lord Eldon's judicial character has been elaborately drawn by He was subsequently elected Fellow of Merton College. In 1841 he several competent pens. The reader may be especially referred to was chosen one of the representatives for Southampton, but sucthe volumes of his biographer, Mr. Twiss; to a series of articles in ceeded to the Scottish earldom on his father's death before the close the 'Law Magazine,' Nos. 41 to 44 inclusive; to the second series of of the year. In 1842 he was appointed governor of Jamaica, and held Lord Brougham's 'Historical Sketches of Statesmen who flourished in that post for four years. The ability which he here displayed induced the time of George III. ;' and to Lord Campbell's 'Lives of the the existing government to select him as successor of Lord Cathcart Chancellors.' It is admitted on all hands that in legal learning he in the still more arduous post of governor-general of Canada, whither never had a superior, if he had an equal, in Westminster Hall; and, he proceeded in 1846. Here his policy was liberal and enlightened, although his intellect was not capacious, nor his general powers of and correspondingly popular. He carried out the principles of adminismind of a commanding order, in the acuteness and subtlety with tration recommended by the late Earl of Durham, by cherishing a which he applied his professional knowledge he was perhaps unrivalled representative system and self-government. Maintaining a diguified by any judge that ever sat upon the bench. The great fault that is neutrality among the extremes of contending parties in Canadian imputed to him is the hesitation which he showed in coming to a politics, he interested himself in the development of the agricultural decisiou, or at any rate, as has been said to have been rather the case, and commercial resources of the province, and especially in its export in pronouncing one. But this habit, however distressing to individual manufactures, thus securing the good opinion at once of the colonists suitors, was not so permanently mischievous as might be feared. themselves and of more than one ministry at home. In 1849 he was Indeed the anxious consideration with which his judgments were rewarded with an English peerage, and the lord-lieutenancy of Fifeformed enhances their value and authority.

shire was conferred upon him in 1854. He has been twice married; During pearly all the time that Lord Eldon sat on the woolsack he his second wife was a daughter of the first earl of Durham. (SUP.) took a leading part in the general debates of the House of Lords; he ELI, the High Priest of the Jews, who succeeded Samson as judge was also understood to be one of the most influential members of the of Israel, or, as is generally supposed, was his colleague for the last cabinet; and he was certainly one of the staunchest and most uncom twenty years of his government. He was the first high priest of the promising supporters of all the great principles of the old Tory or race of Ithamar, the second son of Aaron-the race of Eleazar, which Conservative

party. The two great measures of Parliamentary Reform was not extinct, being for some reason superseded, and it was not and Roman Catholic Emancipation in particular were steadily opposed restored till the time of Solomon, who expelled Abiathar, and by him on all occasions, and to the last. Indeed it was his inflexi- appointed Zadok, of the elder race, in his place. Eli flourished, bility on the latter question that occasioned his final retirement from according to Hales, about B.c. 1182, and his government endured for office.

about thirty years. He was a good and pious man, but deficient in Opinions will of course be divided on Lord Eldon's character as a firmness. We first hear of him

in the first book of Samuel, when he public man. The facts of his long career are now generally known; mistook the fervour of Hannah for drunkenness, as she prayed for and sufficient time has elapsed to enable the present generation to issue in the temple. But she remonstrated, “Count not thine handform a tolerably correct estimate of the men who directed affairs in maid for a daughter of Belial; for out of the abundance of my the eventful period of the latter part of the reign of George III. and complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto :” and Eli blessed her, the regency, So much we may affirm without incurring the impu. saying, "Go in peace; and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition tation of judging in a mere party spirit; that the reputation of Lord that thou hast asked of him." As Eli advanced in years he delegated Eldon as a profound lawyer will be permanent, while his career as a much of his power to his two sons, Hophni and Phinheas. They were statesman was not marked by any measure that places him among the dissolute and violent young men, who not only abstracted the sacrifices great men of his age or country.

brought to the temple, but were guilty of other enormities, so that Lord Eldon survived in retirement till the 13th of January 1838, “men abhorred the offering of the Lord." A prophet was sent, who and was succeeded in his peerage by his grandson, the late earl, the told Eli of the misconduct of his sons, and denounced vengeance upon son of his eldest son John, who was born at Oxford on the 8th of their crimes. This seems to have been ineffectual in restraining them, March 1774, and died on the 24th of December 1805. Lord Eldon's for, still later, “when his eyes began to wax dim, and he could not other children were Elizabeth, born in 1783, who married George see," Samuel was commissioned to announce to him that bis house Stanley Repton, Esq.; Edward William, born in 1791, and Henry would be judged, “because his sons made themselves vile, and be Jobo, born in 1793, who both died in infancy; William Henry Jobn, restrained them not;" to which he answered, “ Let the Lord do what born in 1795, who died in 1832; Frances Jane, born in 1758, who seemeth him good.” A war with the Philistines occurred shortly married the Rev. Edward Bankes, rector of Corfe Castle and pre- afterwards, and the Israelites were defeated at Eben-ezer, whereupon bendary of Gloucester and Norwich, and died in 1838. Lady Eldon they fetched the ark from Shiloh, and it was accompanied by Hophni died in 1831. John, second earl of Eldon, was declared of unsound and Phinehas. Another battle took place; the ark was captured; mind in 1853, and died in September 1854. His son John, the present and Hophni and Phinehas were slain, together with thirty thousand earl, was born in 1845, and succeeded to the title on the death of Israelites. On learning this disastrous news, Eli fell back from his his father.

chair and broke his neck, at the age of ninety-eight. He was suc(The Public and Private Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon, with ceeded as judge by Samuel, who held

the office until the nomination Selections from his Correspondence, by Horace Twiss, Esq., one of her of Saul as king. Majesty's Counsel, 3 vols. 8vo, Lond., 1844.)

* ELIE DE BEAUMONT, JEAN-BAPTISTE-ARMAND-LOUISELGIN, EARL OF. Thomas BRUCE, seventh earl of Elgin and LÉONCE, was born at Canon, in the department of Calvados, on the Kincardine, was descended from the royal family of Bruce, and was 25th September, 1798. He was educated at the Lycée Henri IV., born in 1766. After having

passed some years at Harrow and West where he gained the first prize in mathematics in 1817, and with it minster, he went to the University of St. Andrews; thence he the privilege of entering the Ecole Polytechnique. On quitting this proceeded to Paris, where he studied law; and he afterwards prose in 1819 he studied for two years in the École des Mines, and then cuted military studies in Germany. He subsequently entered the commenced the series of mineralogical and geological travels that have army, in which he rose gradually to the rank of general. The greater given him renown. In 1823, in company with M. Dufrenoy, ho visited part of his life however was spent in diplomatic posts. He was England and Scotland. In 1825, again in conjunction with M. Dufre. appointed envoy at Brussels in 1792, and accompanied the Prussian noy, he prepared a geological chart of France on a large scale. From army during its operations in Germany in the following year. In this time his studies have been chiefly devoted to geology, although in 1795 he was sent to Berlin as envoy extraordinary, and in 1799 to January 1852 he was nominated by the President to a seat in the Constantinople in the same capacity. Here he continued until the Senate, but M. de Beaumont has always abstained from politics. His French were driven out of Egypt in 1802. On his appointment to the chief works are ‘Coup d'æil sur les Mines,' 1824; 'Observations Géoembassy to Turkey it had been suggested to him as desirable to obtain logiques sur les différentes Formations qui, dans le Système des Vosges, some better knowledge of the remains of art at Athens than then séparent la Formation Houillière de celle du Lias,' 1829; 'Sur la Con. existed. Lord Elgin submitted the proposition to the British govern- stitution Géologique des Îles Baléares,'1829; 'Recherches sur quelquesment, but it was not encouraged. On his way however he stopped at unes des Révolutions de la Surface du Globe,' 1829; 'Leçons de Palermo, where he was persuaded by Sir William Hamilton to pursue Géologie,' 1845. M. de Beaumont was elected a foreign member of the design, and accordingly he engaged six artists at his own expense, the Royal Society of London in 1835; he is also a member of several ELIOT, JOHN.



na of After the peace General Eliott was created a peer by the title of

other scientific societies; and on the death of Arago in 1853 he suc- animated by the immediate presence of two princes of the crown of ceeded him as perpetual secretary to the Académie des Sciences. France. In the bay lay the combined fleets of France and Spain,

ELIOT,JOHN, often called the Apostle of the Indians,' was a native consisting of 47 sail-of-the-line, numerons frigates and smaller armed of England, born in 1604. He was educated at the University of vessels, besides 10 battering ships, which alone had cost upwards of Cambridge, and distinguished himself by proficiency in theology and 500,0001. Four hundred pieces of the heaviest artillery (reckoning in ancient languages. Having seceded from the established church both sides) were playing at once. The battering ships were found to and embraced the ministry, he emigrated, like many other sufferers be of so formidable a construction that the heaviest shells rebounded for conscience, to New England, and arrived at Boston in 1631. In from them. Eventually however two of them were destroyed by the the following year he married, and finally established his abode at incessant discharge of red-hot shot from the garrison, and the remainRoxbury, only a mile distant, as minister of a small congregation, ing eight were burnt by the enemy to prevent them from falling iuto composed chiefly of friends to whose religious service he had previously the hands of the besieged. The remainder of the enemy's squadron engaged himself

, in case they should follow him across the Atlantic. also suffered considerably; but notwithstanding their failure the In discharging the duties of his function he was zealous and efficient; assailants kept up a less vivid fire for more than two months, and the and he was also earnest in spreading the blessings of education, by siege did not finally terminate till the 2nd of February 1783, when promoting the establishment of schools. One of his occupations was it was announced that the preliminaries of a general peace had been the preparing, in conjunction with Richard Mather and another minis. signed. The expenditure of the garrison exceeded 8300 rounds (more ter named Wilde, a new metrical version of the Psalms for congrega. than half of which were hot balls), and 716 barrels of powder. That tional use.

of the enemy could not be ascertained, but their loss, including Having qualified himself, by learning their language, to become a prisoners, was estimated at 2000, while that of the garrison only preacher to the Indians, he commenced his missionary labours on the amounted to 16 killed and 68 wounded. While the floating batteries 28th of October 1646, before a large assemblage collected by his in vita- were on fire a detachment of British marines under Brigadier Curtis, tion on the site of what is now the town of Newton, a few miles from was humanely and successfully employed in rescuing numbers of the Roxbury. Many, it is said, on this and on a subsequent occasion enemy from their burning citadels. The failure of this memorable seemed deeply touched; and it is evident, by the questions asked of attempt to wrest Gibraltar from the possession of England has been the preacher, that the understandings as well as the feelings of his partly attributed to a want of co-operation among the enemy's forces, audience, were roused. From the chiefs and priests, or medicine-men, but the principal cause was, no doubt, the gallant defence made by both of whom felt interested in maiutaining ancient manners and General Eliott and his brave garrison, notwithstanding their frequent superstitions, he usually met with opposition. Still no small number and extreme suffering from want of provisions and from the prevalence were converted : and these, abandoning their savage life, united in of disease. communities, to which lands were granted by the provincial govern. ment. Io 1674 there were seven Indian 'praying-towns,' containing Lord Heathfield of Gibraltar. His lordship died at his favourite near 500 persons, thus settled in Massachusetts, under the care of country seat Kalkofen, near Aix-la-Chapelle, wbither he had gone in Eliot, besides a still greater number of converts, to whom land had 1790, in the seventy-third year of his age. not been thus assigned.

ELIZABETH, Queen of England, the daughter of Henry VIII. by Io travelling among the woods Eliot underwent great physical labour bis second wife, Anne Boleyn, was born at Greenwich, 7th of September and hardship, and his mental labour was unremitting. He translated 1533. She was not three years old therefore when her mother was the Old and New Testament, and several religious treatises, into the brought to the block in May 1536. Very soon after her birth it was Indian tongue, which were printed for distribution chiefly at the declared, by the Act 25 Henry VIII., c. 22, that if Queen Anne should expense of the Society for Propagating the Gospel; he composed an decease without issue male, to be begotten of the body of the king, Indian grammar, and several treatises on subjects not directly then the crown, on the death of the king, should go to the Lady religious, for the use of his converts and pupils, and also wrote a Elizabeth, now princess, and to the heirs of her body lawfully number of English works. Nevertheless, he lived to the age of eighty begotten.” By this act therefore Henry's female issue by his present six, and resigned his pastoral charge at Roxbury only two years before queen was placed in the order of succession before the male issue he his death, which took place on the 20th of May 1690. A colleague might have by any future wife. By the 28 Henry VIII., c. 7, however, had been appointed to assist him in 1650, in consequence of his neces- passed after his marriage with Jane Seymour, his two former marriages sary and frequent absence. His private character appears to have were declared to be unlawful and void, and both Elizabeth and her been very beautiful : he was not only disinterested and zealous, but elder sister Mary were bastardised. But finally, by the 35 Henry VIII., benevolent, self-denying, and humble. Baxter saye, in one of his c. 1, passed soon after bis marriage with his last wife, Catharine Parr, letters, “There was no man on earth whom I honoured above him.” it was declared that if Prince Edward should die without heirs, then A handsome memorial to the Apostle of the Indians, and the pastor the crown should remain first to the Lady Mary, and, failing her, to for fifty-eight years of the first church in Roxbury,' has been erected the Lady Elizabeth. This was the last legal settlement of the crown, in the picturesque Forest Hills Cemetery,' Roxbury.

by which her position was affected, made previous to Elizabeth's (Cotion Mather, Ecc. Hist., b. iii., and Life of John Eliot. A modern accession; unless indeed she might be considered to be excluded by Life of John Eliot, Edinburgh, 12mo, 1828, contains a good deal of implication by the Act 1 Mary, st. 2, c. 1, which legitimatised her information concerning the early attempts to convert the Indians.) sister Mary, declared the validity of Henry's first marriage, and

ELIOTT, GEORGE AUGUSTUS, LORD HEATHFIELD, was pronounced his divorce from Catherine of Aragon to be void. born at Stobbs in Scotland in 1718. He studied the mathematics In 1535 a negociation was entered into for the marriage of Elizabeth and other sciences at Edinburgh, and afterwards went to the Univer- to the Duke of Angoulême, the third son of Francis I. of France; sity of Leyden, where he made great proficiency in classical literature, but it was broken off before any agreement was come to. In 1546 and was remarkable for the elegance and fluency with which he spoke also Henry proposed to the Emperor Charles V., with the view of the French and German languages. His knowledge of tactics was breaking off a match then contemplated between the emperor's son, acquired in the celebrated school at La Fère. Having attained the the prince of Spain, afterwards Philip II., with a daughter of the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he accompanied George II. to Germany in French king, that Philip should marry the Princess Elizabeth ; but 1743 as his majesty's aide-de-camp, and was wounded in the battle of drither alliance took place. Elizabeth's next suitor, though he does Dettingen. In the Seven Years War, he fought in 1757 under the not seem to have formally declared his pretensions, was the protector Duke of Cumberland and Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, and greatly Somerset's unfortunate brother, the Lord Seymour of Sudley. He is distinguished himself at the head of his celebrated regiment of light. said to have made some advances to her even before his marriage horse, raised and formed by himself, and called by his name. He with Queen Catharine Parr, although Elizabeth was then only in her was second in command in the expedition against the Havannah, the fourteenth year. Catharine, who died a few months after her marriage capture of which important place was highly honourable to the (poisoned, as many supposed, by her husband), appears to have been courage and perseverance of the British troops. After the peace he made somewhat uncomfortable while she lived by the freedoms the obtained the rank of lieutenant-general, and was appointed in 1775 to princess continued to allow Sudley to take with her, which went the government of Gibraltar. His memorable defence of that import beyond ordinary flirtation; the scandal of the day indeed was, that ant fortress against the combined efforts of France and Spain was the “the Lady Elizabeth did bear some affection to the aduniral.” After last exploit of his life, the splendour of which so far eclipsed all that his wife's death he was accused of having renewed his designs upon had preceded it, that he is most familiarly known as the gallant her hand, and it was part of the charge on which he was attainted defender of Gibraltar. This last and most memorable of all the that he had plotted to seize the king's person and to force the princess sieges of Gibraltar was commenced in 1779, and did not terminate to marry him; but his execution in the course of a few months till the 2nd of February 1783. For a detailed account of the siege stopped this and all his other ambitious schemes. the reader is referred to the interesting work of Captaiu John Drink. In 1550, in the reign of Edward VI., it was proposed that Elizabeth water and M. Bourgoing, to the Life of General George Augustus should be married to the eldest son of Christian III. of Denmark; Elliot (afterwards Lord Heathfield),' and to chap. lxiv. of Malvon's but the negociation seems to have been stopped by her refusal to

History of England.' The conduct of the governor and brave consent to the match. She was a favourite with her brother, who defender of Gibraltar throughout forins one great example of moral used to call her his 'sweet sister Temperance;' but he was never. virtue and military talent. The grand attack took place on the 13th theless prevailed upon by the artful and interested representations of of September 1782. On the land side, besides stupendous bacteries Dudley to pass over her, as well as Mary, in the settlement of mounting 200 pieces of heavy ordnance, there was an army of 40,000 the crown which he made by will a short time before his death. men, commanded by a victorious general, the Duc de Crillon, and (EDWARD VI.]

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Camden gives the following account of the situation and employ- assent to their projects of revolt, her immediate destruction was ments of Elizabeth at this period of her life, in the introduction to strongly advised by some of the members. Elizabeth long afterwards his history of her reign. She was both, he says, “in great grace and used to declare that she fully expected death, and that she knew her favour with King Edward, her brother, as likewise in singular esteem sister thirsted for her blood. It was at last determined however that with the nobility and people; for she was of admirable beauty, and for the present she should only be committed to the Tower, although well deserving a crown, of a modest gravity, excellent wit, royal soul, she seems herself still to have been left in doubt as to her fate. She happy memory, and indefatigably given to the study of learning; was conveyed to her prison by water on the morning of the 11th of insomuch, as before she was seventeen years of age she understood March, being Palm Sunday, orders being issued that, in the meantime, well the Latin, French, and Italian tongues, and bad an indifferent "every one should keep the church and carry their palms.". In knowledge of the Greek. Neither did she neglect music, so far as it attempting to shoot the bridge the boat was nearly swamped. She at became a princess, being able to sing sweetly, and play handsomely first refused to land at the stairs leading to the Traitor's Gate; but on the lute. With Roger Ascham, who was her tutor, she read over one of the lords with her told her she should have no choice; " and Melancthon's 'Common-Places,' all Tully, a great part of the histories because it did then rain," continues Fox, "he offered to her his cloak, of Titus Livius, certain select orations of Isocrates (whereof two she which she (putting it back with her hand with a good dash) refused. turned into Latin), Sophocles's Tragedies, and the New Testament in So she coming out, having one foot upon the stair, said, 'Here landeth Greek, by which means she both framed her tongue to a pure and as true a subject as ever landed at these stairs; and before thee, elegant way of speaking, &c.” (English Translation in Kennet's O God, I speak it, having none other friends but thee alone.'” She Collection.')

remained in close custody for about a month, after which she was It appears from what Ascham himself tells us in his ‘Schoolmaster' allowed to walk in a small garden within the walls of the fortress. that Elizabeth continued her Greek studies after she ascended the On the 19th of May she was removed, in charge of Sir Henry Beding. throne : “After dinner" (at Windsor Castle, 10th December 1563), he field, to Woodstock. Here she was guarded with great strictness and says, “I went up to read with the Queen's Majesty : we read there severity by her new jailor. Camden says that at this time she received together in the Greek tongue, as I well remember, that noble oration private letters both from Henry II. of France, inviting her to that of Demosthenes against Æschines for bis false dealing in his embassage country, and from Christian III. of Denmark (who had lately embraced to king Philip of Macedonia."

the Protestant religion), soliciting her hand for his son Frederick. On the death of Edward, Camden says that an attempt was made When these things came to the ears of her enemies, her life was again by Dudley to induce Elizabeth to resign her title to the crown for a threatened. “ The Lady Elizabeth," adds the historian, "now guiding sum of money, and certain lands to be settled on her: her reply was, herself as a ship in blustering weather, both heard divine service " that her elder sister, the Lady Mary, was first to be agreed withal; after the Romish manner, and was frequently confessed; and at the for as long as the said Lady Mary lived she, for her part, could challenge pressing instances and menaces of cardinal Pole, professed herself, for no right at all.” Burnett says that both she and Mary, having been fear of death, a Roman Catholic. Yet did not Queen Mary believe allured by messages from Dudley, who no doubt wished to get them her.” She remained at Woodstock till April 1555, when she was, on into his hands, were on their way to town, when the news of Edward's the interposition, as it was made to appear, of King Philip, allowed to approaching end induced them to turn back. When Mary came to take up her residence at the royal palace of Hatfield, under the London after being proclaimed queen, the Lady Elizabeth went to superintendence of a Roman Catholic gentleman, Sir Thomas Pope, meet her with 500 horse, according to Camden, others say with 2000. by whom she was treated with respect and kindness. Philip was Fox, the martyrologist, relates that “Queen Mary, when she was first anxious to have the credit of advising mild measures in regard to queen, before she was crowned, would go no whither, but would have the princess, and perhaps he was really more disposed to treat her her by the hand, and send for her to dinner and supper.” At Mary's with indulgence than his wife. According to Camden, some of the coronation, in October 1553, according to Holinshed, as the queen rode Roman Catholic party wished to remove her to a distance from England, through the city towards Westminster, the chariot in which she sat and to marry her to Emanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy; but Philip was followed by another “having a covering of cloth of silver, all opposed this scheme, designing her for his eldest son Charles (the white, and six horses trapped with the like, wherein sate the Lady unfortunate Don Carlos). Elizabeth also was herself averse to a Elizabeth and the Lady Anne of Cleve.Another account says that marriage with the Savoyard. Elizabeth carried the crown on this occasion.

She continued to reside at Hatfield till the death of Mary, which From this time Elizabeth, who had been brought up in their reli- took place on the 17th of November 1558. The news was commu. gion, became the hope of the Protestant parts. Her position however nicated the same day, but not till after the lapse of some hours, to was one of great difficulty. At first she refused to attend her sister the House of Lords, which was sitting at the time. “They were to mass, endeavouring to soothe Mary by appealing to her compassion : seized at first,” says Camden (or rather his translator), " with a mighty after some time however she yielded an outward compliance. The act grief and surprise, but soon wore off those impressions, and, with an passed by the parliament, which, although it did not mention her by handsome mixture of joy and sorrow, upon the loss of a deceased and name, bastardised her by implication, by annulling her father's divorce the prospect of a succeeding princess, they betook themselves to from his first wife, could not fail to give her deep offence. Availing public business, and, with one consent, agreed that the Lady Elizabeth herself of an order of Mary, assigning her a rank below what her should be declared the true and lawful heir of the kingdom according birth entitled her to, as an excuse for wishing to retire from court, she to the act of succession made 35 Henry VIII." It is probable that obtained leave to go to her house at Ashridge, in Buckinghamshire, in Elizabeth's outward compliance in the matter of religion had con. the beginning of December. About the same time Mary has been siderable effect in producing this unanimity, for the majority of the supposed to have been irritated agrinst her sister by the preference lords were Catholics, and certainly both the bishops and many of the shown for Elizabeth by her kinsman Edward Courtenay, whom, after lay peers would have been strongly inclined to oppose her accession releasing from the Tower, the queen had restored to his father's title if they had expected that she would venture to disturb the established of Earl of Devon, and is said to have had some thoughts of marrying order of things. The members of the lower house were now called up, It appears to have been part of the design of the rash and unfortunate and informed of what had been done by Archbishop Heath, the attempt of Wyatt, in the beginning of the following year, to bring chancellor. He concluded by saying that, since no doubt could or about a marriage between Elizabeth and Courtenay, who was one of ought to be made of the Lady Elizabeth's right of succession, the those engaged in the revolt. This affair involved Elizabeth in the House of Peers only wanted their consent to proclaim her queen. A greatest danger. On the 8th of February, the day after the suppres. vote to that effect immediately passed by acclamation; and, as soon sion of the insurrection, certain members of the council were sent as the houses rose, the proclamation took place. Elizabeth came to with a party of 250 (other accounts say 600) horse to Ashridge, with London on Wednesday the 23rd : she was met by all the bishops in a orders to bring her to London " quick or dead.". They arrived during body at Highgate, and escorted by an immense multitude of people the night, and although they found her sick in bed, they immediately of all ranks to the metropolis, where she took up her lodgings at the forced their way into her chamber, and informed her that she must residence of Lord North, in the Charter House. On the afternoon "prepare against the morning, at nine of the clock, to go with them, of Monday the 28th she made a progress through the city in a chariot declaring that they had brought with them the queen's litter for her." to the royal palace of the Tower: here she continued till Monday the She was so ill however that it was not till the fourth night that she 5th of December, on the morning of which day she removed by water reached Highgate. “Here,” says Fox," she being very sick, tarried to Somerset House. that night and the next day; during which time of her abode there Elizabeth was twenty-five years of age when she came to the throne; came many pursuivants and messengers from the court, but for what and one of her earliest acts of royalty, by which, as Camden remarks, purpose I cannot tell.” When she entered London great multitudes she gave proof of a prudence above her years, was what we should of people came flocking about her litter, which she ordered to be now call the appointment of her ministers. She retained of her privy opened to show herself. The city was at this time covered with council thirteen Roman Catholics, who had been of that of her sister; gibbets ; fifteen had been erected in different places, on which fifty, including Heath, archbishop of York and lord chancellor; William two persons were hanged; and it appears to have been the general Paulett, marquis of Winchester, the lord high treasurer; Edward, belief that Elizabeth would suffer, as Lady Jane Grey had done a few Lord Clinton, the lord high admiral; and William, Lord Howard of days before. From the time of her arrival in town she was kept in Effingham, the lord chamberlain. But with these she associated seven close confinement in Whitehall. It appears that her case was twice others of her own religion, the most eminent of whom was the celedebated in council; and although no evidence had been obtained by brated William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burleigh, whom she appointed all the exertions of the crown lawyers which went further than to make to the office of secretary of state, which he had already held under it probable that Wyatt and Courtenay had solicited her to give her Edward VI. Soon after, Nicholas Bacon (the father of the great





chancellor) was added to the number of the privy councillors, and whish met in 1570. At first their attempts were met on the part of made at first lord privy seal, and next year lord keeper of the great the crown by evasive measures and slight checks; but in 1587, on seal, on the resignation of Archbishop Heath. Cecil became lord high four members of the House of Commons presenting to the house a treasurer on the death of the Marquis of Winchester in 1572, and con- bill for establishing a new Directory of Public Worship, Elizabeth at tinued to be Elizabeth's principal adviser till his death in 1598, when once gave orders that they should be seized and sent to the Tower, he was succeeded by Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst (afterwards where they were kept some time. The High Commission Court also, made Earl of Dorset by James L.). Of the other persons who served which was established by a clause in one of the acts for the settlement as ministers during Elizabeth's long reign, by far the most worthy of of religion passed in the first year of her reign, was, occasionally at note were Sir Francis Walsingham (who was principal secretary of least, prompted or permitted to exercise its authority in the punishstate from 1573 till his death in 1590, and was all the time they were ment of what was called heresy, and in enforcing uniformity of worship in office together the confidential friend and chief assistant of Cecil with great strictness. The determination upon which the queen acted the premier, under whose patronage he had entered public life), and in these matters, as she expressed it in a letter to the Archbishop of Burleigh's son, Robert Cecil (afterwards Earl of Salisbury), who suc- Canterbury, was, “ that no man should be suffered to decline either to ceeded Walsinghan as secretary of state, and held that office till the the left or to the right hand, from the drawn line limited by authority, end of the reign. Among the other persons of ability that were and by her laws and injunctions.” Besides the deprivation of their employed in the course of the reign, in different capacities, may be livings, which many of the clergy underwent for their refusal to comply mentioned Sir Nicholas Throckmorton; "a man,” says Camden, "of with certain particulars of the established ritual, many other persons a large experience, piercing judgment, and singular prudence, who suffered imprisonment for violations of the Statute of Úniformity. It discharged several embassies with a great deal of diligence and much was against the Roman Catholics however that the most severe to his praise, yet could he not be master of much wealth, nor rise measures were taken. By an act passed in 1585 (the 27th Eliz., c. 2), higher than to those small dignities (though glorious in title) of chief every Jesuit or other popish priest was commanded to depart from cupbearer of England and chamberlain of the Exchequer ; and this the realm within forty days, on pain of death as a traitor, and every because he acted in favour of Leicester against Cecil, whose greatness person receiving or relieving any such priest was declared guilty of he envied;” Sir Thomas Smith, the learned friend of Cheke, who had felony. Many priests were afterwards executed under this act. been one of the secretaries of state along with him under Edward VI., It was the struggle with popery that moved and directed nearly the and held the same office again under Elizabeth for some years before whole policy of the reign, foreign as well as domestic. When Elizabeth his death in 1577; and Sir Christopher Hatton, who was lord came to the throne she found the country at peace with Spain, the chancellor from 1587 till his death in 1591, and whom Camden, after head of which kingdom had been her predecessor's husband, but at having related his singular rise from being one of the band of gentle war with France, the great continental opponent of Spain and the men pensioners, to which he was appointed by the queen, who was Empire. Philip, with the view of preserving his English alliance, taken with his handsome shape and elegant dancing at a court masque, almost immediately after her accession offered himself to Elizabeth in characterises as "a great patron of learning and good sense, and one marriage ; but, after deliberating on the proposal, she determined that managed that weighty part of lord chancellor with that equity upon declining it, swayed by various considerations, and especially, as and clearness of principle as to be able to satisfy his conscience and it would appear, by the feeling that, by consenting to marry her the world too."

sister's husband on a dispensation from the pope, she would in a The affair to which Elizabeth first applied her attention on coming manner be affirming the lawfulness of her father's marriage with to the throne, and that in connection with which all the transactions Catharine of Aragon, the widow of his brother Arthur, and condemning of her reign must be viewed, was the settlement of the national his subsequent marriage with her own mother, the sole validity of religion. The opinions of Cecil strongly concurred with her own in which rested on the alleged illegality of that previous connection. A favour of the reformed doctrines, to which also undoubtedly the great general peace however, comprehending all the three powers and also mass of the people was attached. For a short time however she kept Scotland, was established in April 1559, by the treaty of Cateau her intentions a secret from the majority of the council, taking her Cambresis. By this treaty it was agreed that Calais, which had been measures in concert only with Cecil and the few others who might be taken by France in the time of Queen Mary, and formed the only said to form her cabinet. She began by giving permission, by pro difficult subject of negociation, should be restored to England in eight clamation, to read part of the church-service in English, but at the years, if no hostile act should be committed by Elizabeth within that same time strictly prohibited the addition of any comments, and all period. Scarcely however had this compact been signed when the war preaching on controversial points. This however was enough to show was suddenly rekindled, in consequence of the assumption by the new the Roman Catholic party what was coming: accordingly, at her French king, Francis II., of the arms and royal titles of England, in coronation, on the 15th of January 1559, the bishops in general refused right, as was pretended, of his wife, the young Mary, queen of Scots. to assist, and it was with difficulty that one of them, Oglethorp of Elizabeth instantly resented this act of hostility by sending a body of Carlisle, was prevailed upon to set the crown on her head. The 5000 troops to Scotland, to act there with the Duke of Chatelherault principal alterations were reserved to be made by the parliament, and the Lords of the Congregation, as the leaders of the Protestant which met on the 25th of this month. Of the acts which were passed, party called themselves, against the government of the queen and her one restored to the crown the jurisdiction established in the reign of mother, the regent, Mary of Guise. The town of Leith soon yielded Henry VIII. over the estate ecclesiastical and spiritual, and, abolished to this force; and the French king was speedily compelled both to all foreign powers repugnant to the same; and another restored the renounce his wife's pretensions to the English throne and to withdraw use of King Edward's book of common prayer, with certain alterations, his own troops from Scotland, by the treaty of Edinburgh, executed that had been suggested by a royal commission over which Parker 7th of July 1560. The treaty however never was ratified either by (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury) presided. Iù accordance with Francis or his queen, and in consequence the relations between the this last statute public worship began to be performed in English three countries continued in an unsatisfactory state. Charles IX. throughout the kingdom on Whit-Sunday, which fell on the 8th of succeeded his brother on the throne of France before the end of this May. By a third act the first fruits and tenths of benefices were year, and in a few months afterwards Mary of Scotland returned to restored to the crown; and by a fourth, her Majesty was authorised, her own country. upon the avoidance of any archbishopric or bishopric, to take certain Meanwhile, although the two countries continued at peace, Elizaof the revenues into her own hands; and conveyances of the temporabeth's proceedings in regard to the church had wholly alienated Philip lities by the holder for a longer term than twenty-one years, or three of Spain. The whole course of events, and the position which she lives, were made void. The effect of these laws was generally to occupied, had already in fact caused the English queen to be looked restore the church to the state in which it was in the reign of upon as the head of the Protestant interest throughout Europe as Edward VI., the royal supremacy sufficing for such further necessary much as she was at home. When the dispute therefore between the alterations as were not expressly provided for by statute. A strong Roman Catholics and the Huguenots, or reformed party, in France opposition was made to the bills in the House of Lords by the bishops; came to a contest of arms in 1562, the latter immediately applied for and fourteen of them, being the whole number, with the exception of assistance to Elizabeth, who concluded a treaty with them, and sent Anthony, bishop of Llandaff, were now deprived for refusing to take them succour both in men and money. The war that followed the oath of supremacy. About one hundred prebendaries, deans, produced no events of importance in so far as England was concerned, archdeacons, and heads of colleges, were also ejected. The number of and was terminated by a treaty sigued at Troyes, 11th of April 1564. the inferior clergy however that held out was very small, amounting A long period followed, during which England preserved in appearance to no more than eighty rectors and other parochial ministers, out of the ordinary relations of peace both with France and Spain, though between nine and ten thousand. On this subject it is only necessary interferences repeatedly took place on each side that all but amounted further to state that the frame of ecclesiastical polity now set up, being to actual hostilities. The Protestants alike in Scotland, in France, and in all essential particulars the same that still subsists, was zealously in the Netherlands (then subject to the dominion of Philip), regarded and steadily maintained by Elizabeth and her ministers to the end of Elizabeth as firmly bound to their cause by her own interests; and her reign. "The Church of England has good reason to look upon her she on her part kept a watchful eye on the religious and political and Cecil as the true planters and rearers of its authority. They had contentions of all these countries, with a view to the maintenance and soon to defend it against the Puritans on the one hand as well as support of the Protestant party, by every species of countenance and against the Roman Catholics on the other, and they yielded to the aid short of actually making war in their behalf. With the Protestant former as little as to the latter. The Puritans had been growing in government in Scotland, which had deposed and imprisoned the queen, the country ever since the dawn of the Reformation, but they first she was in open and intimate alliance; in favour of the French made their appearance in any considerable force in the parliament Huguenots she at one time negociated or threatened, at aqüiher even





went the length, scarcely with any concealment, of affording them which her name is associated, we have omitted all reference to many pecuniary assistance; and when the people of the Netherlands at subordinate particulars, which yet strongly illustrate both her personal length rose in revolt against the oppressive government of Philip, conduct and character and the history of ber government. One of although she refused the sovereignty of their country, which they the first requests addressed to her by the parliament after she came offered to her, she lent them money, and in various other ways openly to the throne was that she would marry; but for reasons which were expressed her sympathy and goodwill. On the other hand, Philip, probably various, though with regard to their precise nature we are although he refrained from any declaration of war, and the usual rather left to speculation and conjecture than possessed of any satisintercourse both commercial and political long went on between the factory information, she persisted in remaining single to the end of two countries without interruption, was incessant in his endeavours her daye. . Yet she coquetted with many suitors almost to the last. to undermine the throne of the English queen, and the order of things In the beginning of her reign, among those who aspired to her hand, at the head of which she stood, by instigating plots

and commotions after she had rejected the offer of Philip of Spain, were Charles, archagainst her authority within her own dominions. He attempted to duke of Austria (a younger son of the Emperor Ferdinand I.); James turn to account in this way the Roman Catholic interest, which was Hamilton, earl of Arran, the head of the Protestant party in Scotland; still so powerful both in England and in Ireland—the intrigues of Erick XIV., king of Sweden (whom she had refused in the reiga the Scottish queen and her partisans materially contributing to the of her sister Mary); and Adolphus, duke of Holstein (uncle to same end.

Ferdinand II. of Denmark). “Nor were there wanting at home," The history of Mary Stewart and of the affairs of Scotland during adds Camden, "some persons who fed themselves (as lovers use to do) her reign and that of her son must be reserved for a separate article. with golden dreams of marrying their sovereigo;" and he mentions But it is necessary to observe here, that Mary was not merely the particularly Sir William Pickering, "a gentlemen well born, of a head of the Roman Catholic party in Scotland, but as the descendant narrow estate, but much esteemed for his learning, his handsome way of the eldest daughter of Henry VII., had pretensions to the English of living, and the management of some embassies into France and crown wbich were of a very formidable kind. Although she was Germany;" Henry, earl of Arundel; and Robert Dudley (afterwards kept in confinement by the English government after her flight from the notorious earl of Leicester), a younger son of the Duke of the bands of her own subjects in 1568, the imprisonment of her Northumberland,“ restored by Queen Mary to his honour and estate; person did not extinguish the hopes or put an end to the efforts of a person of youth and vigour, and of a five shape and proportion, her adherents. Repeated rebellions in Ireland, in some instances whose father and grandfather were not so much hated by the people, openly sided by supplies from Spain--the attempt made by the Duke but he was as high in the favour of Queen Elizabeth, who out of her of Alva in 1569, through the agency of Vitelli, to concert with the royal and princely clemency heaped honours upon him, and saved Roman Catholic party the scheme of an invasion of England—the his life whose father would have destroyed her's.” rising of the Roman Catholics of the northern counties under the Leicester continued the royal favourite till his death in 1588, disearls of Northumberland and Westmoreland the same year—the plot gracing by his profligacy the honours and grants that were lavished of the Duke of Norfolk with Ridolfi in 1571, for which that unfor. upon him by Elizabeth, who, having appointed him commander-intunate nobleman lost his head -- the plots of Throgmorton and chief of the forces which she sent to the assistance of the Dutch, Creichton in 1584, and of Babington in 1586—to omit several minor insisted upon maintaining him in that situation, notwithstanding the attempts of the same kind—all testified the restless zeal with which mischiefs produced by his incapacity and misconduct, and, at the the various enemies of the established order of things pursued their perilous crisis of the Spanish invasion, was on the point of constituting common end. Meanwhile however events were tending to a crisis him lieutenant-governor of England and Ireland. Camden says that which was to put an end to the outward show of friendship that bad the letters-patent were already drawn, when Burghley and Hatton been so long kept up between parties that were not only fiercely interfered, and put a stop to the matter. Of the foreign princes that hostile in their hearts, but had even been constantly working for each have been mentioned, the archduke Charles persisted longest in his other's overthrow behind the thin screen of their professions and suit : a serious negociation took place on the subject of the match in courtesies. The Queen of Scots was put to death in 1587, by an act 1567, but it came to nothing. In 1571 proposals were made by of wbich it is easier to defend the state policy than either the justice Catherine de' Medici for a marriage between Elizabeth and her son or the legality. By this time also, although no actual declaration of Charles IX., and afterwards in succession with her two younger sons, war had yet proceeded either from England or Spain, the cause of Henry, duke of Anjou (afterwards Henri III.), and Francis, duke of people of the Netherlands had been openly espoused by Elizabeth, Alençon (afterwards Duke of Anjou). The last match was again whose general, the Earl of Leicester, was now at the head of the strongly pressed some years after; and in 1581 the arrangement for it troops of the United Provinces, as the revolted states called them had been all but brought to a conclusion when, at the last moment, selves. An English fleet at the same time attacked and ravaged the Elizabeth drew back, declining to sign the marriage articles, after she Spanish settlements in the West Indies. At last, in the summer of had taken up the pen for the purpose. Very soon after the death of 1688, the great Spanish feet, arrogantly styled the Inviocible Armada, Leicester, the young Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, whose mother sailed for the invasion of England, and, as is noticed below (see thé Leicester had married, was taken into the same favour that had been end of this article], was in the greater part dashed to pieces on the so long enjoyed by the deceased nobleman; and bis tenure of the royal coasts which it came to assail. From this time hostilities proceeded partiality lasted, with some intermissions, till he destroyed bimself by with more or less activity between the two countries during the his own hot-headedness and violence. He was executed for a frantic remainder of the reign of Elizabeth. Meanwhile Henri III., and after attempt to excite an insurrection against the government in 1601. his assas-ination in 1589 the young King of Navarre, assuming the Elizabeth however never recovered from this shock; and she may be title of Henri IV., at the head of the Huguenots, had been maintain said to have sealed her own sentence of death in signing the deathing a desperate contest in France with the Duke of Guise and the warrant of Essex. League. For some years Elizabeth and Philip remained only spec- Both the personal character of Elizabeth and the character of her tators of the struggle ; but at length they were both drawn to take a government have been estimated very differently by writers of oppoprincipal part in it. The French war however, in so far as Elizabeth site parties. That she had great qualities will hardly be disputed by was concerned, must be considered as only another appendage to the any one who duly reflects on the difficulties of the position she occuwar with Spain; it was Philip chiefly, and not the League, that she pied, the consummate policy and success with which she directed her oppused in France-just as in the Netherlands, and formerly in course through the dangers that beset her on all sides, the courage Scotland, it was not the cause of liberty against despotism, or of and strength of heart that never failed her, the imposing attitude she revolted subjects against their legitimate sovereign, that she sup maintained in the eyes of foreign nations, and the admiration and ported, or even the cause of Protestantism against Roman Catholicism, pride of which she was the object at home. She was undeniably but her own cause against Philip, her own right to the English throne endowed with great good sense, and with a true feeling of what became against his, or that of the competitor with whom he took part. Since her place

. The weaknesses, and also the more forbidding features of the death of Mary of Scotland, Philip professed to consider himself her character, on the other hand, are so obvious as scarcely to require as the rightful king of England, partly on the ground of his descent to be specified. Many of the least respectable mental peculiarities of from John of Gaunt, and partly in consequence of Mary having by her own sex were mixed in her with some of the least attractive among her will bequeathed her pretensions to him should her son persist in those of the other. Her selfishness and her vanity were both intense ; remaining a heretic. Henri IV., having previously embraced Catho- and of the sympathetic affections and finer sensibilities of every kind licism, made peace with Philip by the treaty of Vervins, concluded in she was nearly destitute. May 1598; and the death of Philip followed in September of the Her literary knowledge was certainly very considerable; but of her same year. But the war between England and Spain was nevertheless compositions (a few of which are in verse) none are of much value, still kept up. In 1601 Philip 111. sent a force to Ireland, which nor evidence any very superior ability, with the exception perhaps of landed in that country and took the town of Kinsale; and the some of her speeches to the parliament. A list of the pieces attributed following year Elizabeth retaliated by fitting out a naval expedition to her may be found in Walpole's - Royal and Noble Authors.' against her adversary, which captured some rich prizes, and otherwise There has been a good deal of controversy as to the proportion in anuoyed the Spaniard. Her forces continued to act in conjunction which the elements of liberty and despotism were combined in the with those of the Seven United Provinces both by sea and land. English constitution, or in the practice of the government, in the reign

Elizabeth died on the 24th of March 1603, in the seventieth year of of Elizabeth ; the object of one party being to convict the Stuarts of her age and the forty-fifth of her reign. In the very general account deviating into a new course in those exertions of the prerogative and to which we bave necessarily contined ourselves of the course of that resistance to the popular demands which led to the civil wars of public transactions during the long period of the English annals with the 17th century,-of the other, to vindicate them from that charge,

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