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851

EYCK, HUBERT VAN.

EYCK, JOHN VAN.

859

rank of Vice-Admiral of the Blue, and returned home at the com- the extreme wings of this division are full-length naked figures of mencement of the following year. In 1810 he was employed in Adam and Eve, Adam on the right and Eve on the left of the centre: blockading Flushing, and soon afterwards was sent to the Mediter the interior wings represent on the right hand angels singing, on the ranean as commander-in-chief there. On the 14th of May 1814 Sir left, angels playing musical instruments. The lower centre represents Edward Pellew was elevated to the peerage, with the title of Baron in one picture the actual Adoration of the Lamb in small figures; the Exmouth of Canonteign in Devonshire, with a pension of 20001. a two wings to the right represent the just judges, Justi Judices, and year for his long and eminent services. On the 4th of June 1814, the soldiers of Christ, Christi Milites; the two on the left, the holy Lord Exmouth was promoted to the rank of full admiral; on the 2nd hermits, Heyremiti Sti., and the holy pilgrims, Perigrini Sti. : there are of January 1815 he was created a K.C.B., and on the 16th of March in all about 60 figures and 300 heads. An elaborate copy of it was 1816 a G.C.B.

made by Coxie for Philip II. of Spain. [Coxie, MICHAEL] The During his command in the Mediterranean Lord Exmouth had con- colouring of the whole work is beautiful, and many parts are admirably cluded treaties with the rulers of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, for the executed; and the painting is still in excellent preservation, owing to abolition of Christian slavery in those states; but after his return to the excellent oil-vehicle discovered by the Van Eycks. The original England it became known that the Dey of Algiers had violated his picture remained entire till the French obtained possession of Belgium. treaty in the most flagrant manner. The British government, in The clergy of the cathedral of St. Bavon succeeded in concealing eight conjunction with that of Holland, having resolved to chastise the of the twelve panels, so that only four were taken to Paris, whence Algerines, Lord Exmouth set sail on board the Queen Charlotte with they were brought back in 1815. Only the two central divisions eighteen other vesseis of war, and having been joined by the Dutch however now remain at St. Bavon's, the wings having been sold and admiral with six frigates, they appeared before the city of Algiers on removed to Berlin, where they are now in the Royal Museum, united the 26th of August 1816. The plan of attack was one of the most with a part of the copy made by Coxie for Philip II. daring or record. The Queen Charlotte sailed into the harbour, The medium employed by the Van Eycks was not merely oil : it and took her station within the mole at eighty yards from the prin- was several oils mixed with resins, or some such substances, and precipal batteries, and with her bowsprit almost touching the houses. pared by fire. Many useless and intemperate discussions have arisen The other ships were placed in admirable order to support each from Vasari's attributing the invention of oil-painting to John Van other and act with most effect against the enemy. A tremendous fire Eyck, but they are due chiefly to a careless or partial consideration was commenced on both sides at a quarter to three in the afternoon. of what Vasari really says. In one passage in the Life of Antonello The Algerine fleet, consisting of four large frigates, five large corvettes, he fully describes, though in general terms, what the Van Eyck and a large number of smaller vessels, were all on fire at once, and medium was, but in others he merely terms it oil-painting, a term, the flames had extended to the arsenal and other public and private after what he had said before, sufficiently characteristic and distinctive. buildings. At ten o'clock p.m. the firing ceased, the Dey of Algiers The Cave Tambroni however in his preface to the treatise of Cennino having consented to every demand. On the 30th of August a treaty Cennini (Rome, 1821), has, with much disingenuousness, argued solely was concluded on the terms dictated by the conquerors. Lord upon the general impressions of Vasari, and ridiculed the story as an Exmouth was slightly wounded in the leg and also on the cheek, absurd fiction, because mere oil-painting was known in Italy before it and his coat is described as having been almost torn into strips by was introduced by Antonello of Messina. (ANTONELLO DA MESSINA.] grape and musket shot. On his return to England he received the It is true that Cennino Cennini wrote his book in 1437, and it conthanks of both Houses of Parliament, and on the 10th of December tains five chapters on oil-painting, but he prefaces his remarks by the 1816 was raised to the rank of Viscount. About 1200 Christian following observation :-"I will now teach you to paint in oil

, a slaves were set at liberty, and insignia of knighthood were sent to method much practised by the Germans." The oil-painting which Lord Exmouth from several states to which they belonged. On the Cennino teaches is no more that of the Van Eycks than tempera death of Sir Thomas Duckworth he was appointed to the chief painting is; it is the very method which the Van Eycks superseded. command at Plymouth, but after 1821 he retired from public service. An old German monk of the name of Tutilo or Theophilus wrote on He died January 23, 1833.

the same subject centuries before Cennini. [TUTILO.] The words of EYCK, HUBERT VAN. This celebrated old Flemish painter, the Vasari are-"At last, having tried many things, separately and comelder brother and master of John Van Eyck, was born, according to pounded, he discovered that linseed and nut oils were the most Van Mander, in 1366, and probably at Eyck (now Alden Eyck), a siccatire: these therefore he boiled with other mixtures, and pro. small village near Maaseyck on the Maas. The two brothers established duced that varnish (vehicle) which he, and indeed every painter in themselves first in Bruges and afterwards in Ghent. The name of the world, bad long desired.” This is what the Cave. Tambroni and Hubert Van Eyck is nearly lost in that of his younger brother and others have treated as an assertion that John Van Eyck invented and pupil John, apparently from no other reason than that Johu alone is introduced the practice of mixing colours with oil. Sir C. L. Eastlake, mentioned by Vasari in his story of the invention of the new method after an elaborate investigation of every passage of contemporary of oil-painting, while he takes no notice whatever of Hubert; John's or nearly contemporary authority which in any way bears on the name therefore appears as the principal or indeed sole name in nearly subject, arrives at the conclusion that their new vehicle was an oleoall subsequent investigations relating to the origin of this method of resinous one, the resin being probably amber or copal ; and that the oil-painting, and the joint productions of the two brothers are generally use of that in conjunction with a great superiority of technical skill adduced as the works of John alone. But the great probability is that would be amply sufficient to account for their works appearing so much of the invention or improvement was the result of their joint much finer than those of their predecessors and contemporaries, the experiments, and it is not unlikely that their great merit really con painters in temperà and plain oil, as fully to explain the fact of their sisted in carrying forward to a much higher, point of success the being termed the inventors of a new method. practice of their predecessors.

Several interesting notices of the brothers Van Eyck appeared in Van Mander says that the Van Eycks must have painted in their the Messager des Sciences et des Arts, Gand., 1824; and in the Kunsblatt new method as early as 1410, and as Hubert did not die till the 18th in 1824 and 1826; see also Passavant, Kunstreise, &c. (in which there of September 1426, according to the inscription on his tomb in the is an outline of the altar-piece of Ghent); and Rathgeber, Annalen der church of St. Bavon at Ghent, they worked a sufficient number of Niederländischen Malerei ; see also Eastlake, Materials for a History years together to completely develope it in practice. John Van Eyck of Oil-painting, chaps. vii

. and viii. ; and Carton, Les Trois Prères Van cannot have been very old in 1426, as, according to an authentic Eyck. lottery notice of his widow, though alive in 1440, he died before the EYCK, JOHN VAN, the younger brother of Hubert and the 24th of February 1446, and he was still young when he died, according improver and supposed inventor of oil-painting, sometimes called to Marcus Van Vaernewyck, who published a 'History of Belgium ' in John of Bruges from his having settled in that place, was born at 1565. This is somewhat corroborated by a portrait of John in the Maaseyck, between 1385 and 1390, and studied under his elder Museum of Berlin, dated 1430, in which he appears under thirty-five brother Hubert. There are however some reasons for supposing years of age. John was probably above twenty years younger than his John to have been born much later than 1370. As noticed under brother Hubert, supposing the latter to have been born in 1366, and Hubert Van Eyck, although the Van Eycks did not invent, they accordingly he can have been at first little more than the assistant of greatly improved the art of oil-painting, and brought it into general Hubert in their masterpiece, the great altar-piece of St. Bavon’s, Ghent, use. After having long resided in the rich and tourishing city of which was finished by John in 1432. His name is clearly subordinate Bruges, the two

brothers removed about 1420

to Gbent, where their to Hubert's in the inscription on the work, which is as follows, the greatest and most renowned work, the adoration of the Lamb for last verse being a chronogram :

the altar-piece at St. Bavon's, was painted between the years 1420 “ Pictor Hubertus e Eyck, major quo nemo repertus

and 1432. Some say it was painted for Iodocus Vyts, a rich citizen Incepit; pondusque Johannes arte secundus

of Ghent, while others affirm that it was by order of Philip, duke of Frater perfecit, Judoci Vyd prece fretus

Burgundy, count of Flanders, who came to the government in 1420. VersV seXta Mal Vos CoLLoCat aСta tVerl.”

It is certain however that John Van Eyck was long attached to the The capitals in the last line, when added together according to their brilliant court of Philip. John Van Eyck probably greatly advanced value as Roman numerals, make 1432.

in the path opened by his elder brother. He was endowed, as EastThe altar-piece is about fourteen feet wide by twelve feet high, and lake observes, “ with an extraordinary capacity for seeing nature," an is in two horizontal divisions, each centre covered by revolving wings endowment of the very first consequence

for the painter; " and

thus or doors , two on each side. There are twelve pictures in all: God the gifted, and aided by the example

and instruction of Hubert, a world Father, with the Virgin and St. John the Baptist, as large as life, one was opened to him, which his predecessors had not attempted to repreon each side in distinct compartments, constitute the upper centre; sent." The best works of John Van Eyck are now chiedy in the

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galleries of Germany and the Low Countries; in our National Gallery chy, and the allotment of the land of Judæa among the several tribes there is one painting, entitled, a ‘Flemish Gentleman and Lady,' which ou their return from captivity. The subject matter of Ezekiel is, for was executed by him in 1434, but is still in perfect preservation, and the most part, identical with that of his contemporary Jeremiah, and is a remarkable illustration of his brilliancy of colouring, general much similarity is observable in their declarations. The conquests effect, and surprising technical skill. John Van Eyck died July 9, and devastations of Nebuchadnezzar form the principal theme of 1440.

each; but Ezekiel views them cbiefly as affecting Israel, while JereEZEKIEL, the Prophet, was partially contemporaneous with Jeremiah describes them with especial reference to Judah. Both declaim miah, and is one of the prophets called The Greater,' a distinction with vehement indignation against the depravity of the priests, and which relates to the comparative magnitude and importance of their against the 'lying divinations of the prophets who sought to induce books. He was a priest, the son of Buzi (i. 3), and, according to the the people to shake off their Babylonian slavery. (Compare Jeremiah, account of his life, ascribed (erroneously) to Épiphanius, he was born chapters xxiii., xxvii., xxviii., xxix, with Ezekiel, chapters xiii., xxxiv.) at a place called Saresa. In the first Babylonian captivity he was Parts of the book of Revelations may be compared with some portions carried away by Nebuchadnezzar into Mesopotamia, with the kings of Ezekiel : Rev. iv. with Ezek. i. and x., respecting the cherubim Jeconiah and Jehoiachim, and all the principal inhabitants of Jerusa- with wings full of eyes; and Rev. xi., xxi., xxii. with Ezek, xl, to xliii., lem, who were stationed at Tel-abib (iii. 15) and at other places on the describing the New Jerusalem. river Chebar (i. 1, 3), the Chaboras of Ptolemæus, which flows into That Ezekiel is a very obscure writer is asserted by all who have the east side of the Euphrates at Carcherish, about 300 miles north- attempted to explain his prophecies. The ancient Jews considered west from Babylon. He is stated to have commenced his prophesying them as inexplicable, and the council of the Sanhedrim once deliberated in the fifth year of his captivity (i. 2), about B.C. 598, and to have long on the propriety of excluding them, on this account, from the continued it during more than twenty-two years, that is, until the canon (Calmet, Præf. ad Ezech.); but to prevent this exclusion, Rabbi fourteenth year after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. Ananias undertook to explain completely the vision of Jehovah's chariot The pseudo-Epiphanius says that Ezekiel, on account of his aversion (i. and x.); and his proposal, it is said, was accepted by the council. to adopt the Chaldæan idolatry, was put to death by the Jewish prince One of the reasons alleged for rejecting Ezekiel from the canon was or commander of the captives." Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela states that that he teaches, in direct contradiction to the Mosaic doctrine, that his tomb is between the Euphrates and the Chebar, in a vault built by children shall not suffer punishment for the offences of their parents King Jehoiachim, and that within it the Jews keep a lamp perpetually (xviii. 2-20). (See Hueti, Demonstratio Evang, prop. 4, de Prophet. burning. The same writer asserts, with equal appearance of tra- Ezech.') St. Jerome considers Ezekiel's visions and expressions very ditional falsehood, that the Jews possess the book of Ezekiel in the difficult to be understood, and says that no one under the age of original autograph, which they read every year on the great day of thirty was permitted to read them. (Hieron. proem. in lib. Ezech.) expiation. Greatly inconsistent with such veneration is the fact related Much remains likewise to be done to restore the original Hebrew text by Calmet, that the Jews speak of this prophet very contemptuously to a state of purity. Michaelis, Eichhorn, Newcome, and many other as having been Jeremiah's servant-boy, and the object of popular ridi- commentators, have written copiously on the peculiarities of Ezekiel's cule and raillery, whence his name son of Buzi' (113, buz, contempt).style. Grotius (* Præf. ad Ezech.') speaks of it with the highest Josephus speaks of two books of Ezekiel, but commentators under- admiration, and compares the prophet to Homer. Michaelis admits its stand him to mean the present book, divided at the end of chap. xxxix., bold and striking originality, but denies that sublimity is any part of for the nine remaining chapters are distinctly different with regard its character, though the passion of terror is highly excited. Bishop both to subject and style.

Lowth (“Prælect. Heb. Poet.') regards Ezekiel as bold, vehement, tragical; The book of Ezekiel is a canonical book of the Old Testament, wholly intent on exaggeration; in sentiment fervid, bitter, indignant; divided in our English version into forty-eight chapters, and placed in imagery magnificent, barsh, and almost deformed; in diction grand, next after Jeremiah's Book of Lamentations, and before the book of austere, rough, rude, uncultivated; abounding in repetitions from Daniel. The first thirty-nine chapters are occupied with the prophet's indignation and violence. This eminent judge of Hebrew literature highly poetic and impassioned announcement of God's wrath and assigns to the poetry of Ezekiel the same rank among the Jewish vengeance against the rebellious idolatry, perverseness, and sensuality writers as that of Æschylus among the Greeks; and in speaking of of the Jews, as well as against their enemies, the surrounding nations. the great obscurity of his visions, he believes it to consist not so much All this portion is replete with dreadful pictures of the calamities of in the language as in the conception. Eichhorn (the peculiar character war-of ruin, desolation, death, and destruction-slaughter, pestilence, of whose criticism we have noticed under that article) regards the Book famine, and every imaginable state of misery; but in the nine chapters of Ezekiel as a series of highly-wrought and extremely artificial poetical of the latter portion the prophet describes, in a more prosaic style, his pictures. In accordance with the doctrines of the German rationalism, visions of the new temple and city of Jerusalem. In visionary presence he considers the prophecies as nothing more than the poetical fictions he walks about the holy metropolis of Judæa as raised from its ruins of a heated oriental imagination of a similar nature with the poetry in which it was left by the Chaldæan conqueror, and restored to the of the Book of Revelations. The same character of thought and splendour which it displayed in the reign of Solomon. He measures expression is exhibited in the writings of the two other greater and observes minutely all the dimensions of the Temple and city; prophets, Isaiah and Jeremiah. (Compare Ezek. xvi. 4 to 37; xxiii. gives directions for the celebration of sacrificial rites, feasts, and cere- 17-21; Isaiah, xxviii. 7, 8; xxxvi. 12.) monies; partitions the country among the several tribes; and enume- EZRA, the author of the canonical book bearing his name, and, as rates the duties of priests, king, and people. Dr. A. Clarke, iu his is supposed, of the two books of Chronicles and the book of Esther. edition of the Bible, gives a plate of the Temple, according to Ezekiel's Ezra, Esdras, or Esdra, in the Hebrew signifies 'help,' or 'succour.' description, and a map of Judæa as allotted by this prophet to the His genealogy up to Aaron is given in chap. vii. 1-5. In verses 6 and different tribes. A full and particular analysis of the contents of the 11 he is said to have been a priest and ready scribe of the words of whole forty-eight chapters is given in Mr. Horne's 'Introduction to the law of Moses, and he appears to have been an able and important the Bible. The following is a brief and general survey :- Chapters i. agent in the principal events of his age and nation. The prophets to iii. (and see chapter x.) describe the vision of the wheels and cheru- Haggai and Zechariah were contemporary with Ezra. (Compare bim, called 'Jehovah's Chariot,' and the prophet's reception of the Hagg. i. 12, Zech. iii. 4, and Ezra v.) There are four books of Ezra divine instructions and commission. Chapters iv. to xxiv. reiterate so called. The book of Ezra, which as a canonical book of the Old reproaches and denunciations against the Israelites and their prophets, Testament is placed next after the second book of Chronicles and announcing, in various visions and parables, the numerous calamities before the book of Nehemiah, and, in the English version, is divided about to come upon them as a punishment of their rebellious idolatry into ten chapters. By Jews and Christians it has generally been and depravity. The species of idolatry adopted by the Jews in prefer attributed to the priest whose name it bears, chiefly because throughence to the religious system of Moses appears, by the declarations of out chapters viii. and ix. the actions of Ezra are related in the first Ezekiel and the other prophets, to bave been Sabism, or the worship person. The book of Nehemiah, which by the ancient Jews and by of the sun on high places planted with trees. (See chapters viii., xiv., the Greek and Roman churches is considered as the second book of xvi., xvii., xx., xxviii., &c.) The 390 years signified by the prophet's Ezra, and two books of Ezra, or Esdras, in the Apocrypha. The first lying as many days (vv. 4,5) on his right side, are said by biblical of the two apocryphal books contains the substance of the canonical chronologists to be the period from B.C. 970 to 580; and the forty one, with inany circumstantial additions, and in the Greek Church it years signified by his lying forty days on his right side (v. 6) is the is read as canonical; but the second exhibits a more decided appearperiod from B.C. 580 to 540. Chapters xxiv. to xxxii. declare the ance of fiction, and by no church is regarded as a work of inspiration, dreadful judgments of God against the enemies of the Jews, namely, though it is cited by several of the ancient fathers. The first six the surrounding nations of Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and chapters of the canonical book are regarded by some biblical critics Philistines ; against the cities of Tyre and Zidon; and against all the as improperly ascribed to Ezra, for between the event with which the land of Egypt. Chapters xxxiii. to xxxvii. are occupied with declara- seventh chapter commences, that is, the commission from Artaxerxes tions of the justice and forgiveness of God to the repentant-the fall Longimanus, in the seventh year of his reign, to Ezra to go up to of Jerusalem--a severe rebuke (chapter xxxiv.) of the avarice, idleness, Jerusalem, B.C. 458, and that which terminates the sixth chapter, and cruelty of the shepherds or priests of Ísrael--and consolatorý namely, the completion of the second temple, in the sixth year of the promises of the people's restoration and return to Palestine. Chapters reign of Darius Hystaspes, B.C. 516, there is a chasm of fifty-eight xxxviii

. and xxxix. contain the prophecy of Gog and Magog; and the years. The events recorded in the whole ten chapters of the canonical nine concluding chapters, as already stated, contain the prophet's book of Ezra embrace a period of ninety-one years, that is, from the visions of the temple and city of Jerusalem-their dimensions, struc- edict of Cyrus issued in the first year of his reign, B.C. 536, for the ture, embellishments, &c.--the ceremonial arrangemeuts of the hierar- return of the captive Jews to Jerusalem, to the termicativa of Ezra':

855

EZRA.

EZRA.

853

government by the mission of Nehemiah to Jerusalem from Artaxerxes ness, and they that dwell therein are without light, for 'thy law is Longimanus, in the twentieth year of his reign, B.C. 445. As Daniel's burnt;' therefore no man knoweth the things that are done of thee; seventy prophetic weeks commence at the going forth of the edict of but if I have found grace before thee, send the Holy Ghost into me, Cyrus to Zerubbabel, or that of Artaxerxes to Ezra, these events and I shall write all things that have been done in the world since have been the subject of much critical investigation among biblical the beginning, which were written in the law; And God said, Go, critics.

prepare to write swiftly, and when thou hast done, some things shalt The contents of the first six chapters are briefly as follows :-Chap. i. thou publish, and some things shalt thou show secretly to the wise." gives an account of the proclamation of Cyrus concerning his release the learned Dr. Prideaux ("Connection,' p. 260, folio) remarks, that of the captive Jews, permitting them to go from Babylon to Jerusalem “in the time of king Josiah (B.C. 640), through the impiety of the two to rebuild the temple ; of the restoration of their property, sacred preceding reigns of Manasseh and Ammon (a period of sixty years), vessels and utensils; and of presents made by the Chaldæans of money the book of the law was so destroyed and lost, that, besides the copy and various provisions. Chap. ii. states the numbers of each of the of it which Hilkiah, the high-priest, accidentally found in the Temple families composing the multitude which returned to Judæa with Zerub (2 Kings xxii. 8, &c.; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 14, &c.), there was then no other babel, and the number of their beasts of burden. All this account, to be had; for Hilkiah's surprise in finding it, and Josiah's grief in except some of the numbers, is repeated word for word in the seventh hearing it read, do plainly show that neither of them had ever seen it chapter of Nehemiab, beginning at verse 6. In verses 64 and 65 of before ; and if this pious king and the bigb-priest were without it, it Ezra, the total number of the people is said to have been 42,360, cannot be thought that any one else had it.” If this were the authentic which appears not to agree with the preceding particulars, since the copy laid up before the Lord in the Temple, it was burned, as believed addition of these produces only 29,818, that is, a deficiency of 12,542. by all Jewish and Christian writers, in the burning of the Temple, fifty. The numbers given in Nehemiah' occasionally differ very widely from two years afterwards, by Nebuchadnezzar. Dr. Prideaus takes it to those in Ezra : for instance, the children of Azgad are said in Ezra be implied in several passages which he cites that, from the copy (ii

. 12) to have been 1222; but in Nehemiah (vii. 17) they are said to accidentally found by the high-priest Hilkiah, some transcriptions were have been 2322, or 1100 more. Nehemiah repeats precisely the total made previous to the destruction of the Temple, and that from these given by Ezra, 42,360; but the addition of Nehemiah's particular scattered copies Ezra formed his improved edition of the sacred text numbers makes 31,089, or a deficiency of 11,271. The numbers of In common with most other modern divines, he rejects the opinion of horses, 736, mules, 245, camels 435, and asses 6720, exactly agree in the the fathers respecting the restoration of the Scriptures by a new revetwo accounts; but in Ezra, verse 69, the chief fathers give to the trea- lation to Ezra. All, he continues, that Ezra did was—he got together sury 61,000 drams of gold; in Nehemiah, ver. 71, they give only 20,000. as many copies of the sacred writings as he could, and out of them all Chap. iii. records the events of setting up the altar at Jerusalem and he set forth a corrected edition, in which he took care of the follow. re-establishing the Jewish sacrificial worship. An account of the ing particulars :-1. He corrected all the errors introduced into these interruption of the building of the Temple by the decree of Artaxerxes, copies by the negligence or mistakes of transcribers; for, by comparing and its completion by a subsequent decree of the same monarch, with them, he found out the true reading, and set all to rights. 2. He col. transcripts of the documents written on these occasions, occupy chap- lected together all the books of which the Sacred Scriptures did then ters iv., V., and vi. Chapters vii. and viii. contain an account of Ezra's consist, disposed them in proper order, and settled the canon of Scripcommission from Artaxerxes to undertake the government of Judæa, ture up to that time." The Jewish writers state that the canon was his preparations and reception of presents for his journey thither, with decided by a congress of 120 elders under the presidency of Ezra; but a multitude of Jews, who it appears still remained in Babylon after since they mention as members of it, not only the contemporaries of the return to Judæa of the multitude under Zerubbabel; an enumera. Ezra, as Daniel, Shadracb, Meschech, and Abednego, but the high-priest tion of the people and families who returned, and the weight of gold Simon the Just, who lived 250 years later, it is evident that they mean and silver contributed by the king, his councillors, and the Israelites, the number of those who 'successively' arranged and rectified the for the use of the Temple at Jerusalem (viii. 25-28). The value of canonical books. Ezra divided all the books he collected into three these presents amounts to 803,6001. Chapters ix. and x. relate the parts--the Law, that is, the Pentateuch; the Prophets, containing all proceedings of Ezra in separating from their wives and children all the the historical and prophetical books; and the Hagiographa, which Ísraelites who had married women from among the surrounding nations, comprised all the writings not included in the two other divisions. and thus " mingled the holy seed with the abominations of the Gen. (Josephus, “Advers. Apion.') He divided the Pentateuch into fifty. tiles.” Ezra (s. 3, 5, 19, 44) made all the Israelites who had "strange four sections, one of which was read every Sabbath; and, according to wives and children” swear, and give their hands, that they would put the Jewish authorities, he was also the author of the smaller divisions them away, which accordingly was done. The latter half of the last called Pesukim, or verses, and of the various readings and suggested chapter contains a long list of the husbands and fathers who were the corrections inserted in the margins of the Hebrew copies. These, subjects of this national renovation. The part from iv. 8 to vii. 27 is called Keri Cetib (that which is read and that which is written), appear written in the Chaldee idiom, the rest in Hebrew. The period to however in the books attributed to Ezra himself. (On these particulars which the four last chapters relate, comprising the Jewish history from see the remarks of Prideaux; Buxtorf, "Vindiciæ Veritatis Hebraicæ,' B.O. 458 to 445, is coeval with the age of Pericles. The subject matter par. ii. c. 4; Walton, 'Prolegom.,'viii. $ 18; and Dr. Gill, 'Dissertation of the book of Nehemiah being identical with that of Ezra, the colla on the Hebrew Language.') Most Biblical critics state that Ezra changed tion of the two affords a mutual illustration.. Chapter viii. of Nehe- the ancient names of places for those by which these places were known miah relates circumstantially the fact of Ezra’s solemn reading and in his time, and some say that he wrote out all the Scriptures in the exposition of the law to the assembled Israelites, who, according to Chaldee character, which alone was used and understood by the Jews Dr. Prideaux, were taught the signification of the Hebrew words by after the Chaldæan captivity. Whether Ezra added the vowel-points, means of Chaldaic interpreters (8); for, since their seventy years and whether they were invented by the Masorite grammarians at a captivity in Babylon, the Chaldee instead of the Hebrew had become period far posterior to the rise of Christianity, are subjects of great their vernacular language. (Dean Prideaux’s ‘Connection,' fol., p. 263.) controversy among Hebrew critics. A concise and able view of this The critical arguments adduced in opposition to the opinion that the dispute is contained in Houbigant's Racines Hebraiques,' 1732. The Israelites lost the Hebrew language, and understood only the Chaldæan, Jewish commentators assert that all the rules and observances preare well exhibited in Dr. Gill's learned Dissertation on the Antiquity served by tradition from the time anterior to the captivity were careof the Hebrew Language,' 8vo, 1767. The two principal undertakings fully collected by Ezra, and that having reviewed them, those which of Ezra were-1. The restoration of the Jewish law and ritual, accord- he sanctioned by his authority henceforth constituted the oral law, in ing to the modes observed before the captivity; and 2. The collection contradistinction to that which is written; the Church of Jerusalern, and rectification of the Sacred Scriptures. On account of these im. like the Church of Rome, regarding Scripture and tradition of equal portant services the Jews regarded Ezra as a second Moses. It was authority, and believing the latter to be highly necessary for clearing commonly believed by the ancient fathers of the Christian church the obscurities, supplying the defects, and solving the difficulties of that all the Sacred Scriptures of the Jews were entirely destroyed in the former. (See the Rabbinical authorities cited by Dr. Prideaux.) the conflagration of the temple and city of Jerusalem by the king of It is a theory suggested by this learned divine, and since adopted by Babylon, and that, on the return of the Jews from the Chaldæan cap- many others, that all the numerous passages of the Hebrew Scriptures tivity, these writings were wholly reproduced by a divine inspiration which involve chronological inconsistencies were interpolations made of Ezra. . (See Irenæus, 'Adversus Hæres.,' I. iii

. c. 25; Tertullian, by Ezra, and that this is the only possible way to solve the difficulties De Habitu Mulierum,' c. iii.; Clemens Alexandrinus, "Strom.,' i.; which arise from considering the several books as the productions of Basil

, in 'Epist. ad Chilonem.') The following passages from the the persons to whom they are commonly ascribed. The Book of Ezra, second Apocryphal book of Ezra, xiv. 26, 45, 46, 47, appear to sanction with the two Books of Chronicles, Nehemiah, Esther, and Malachi, are this opinion. “Behold, Lord,” says Ezra," I will go as thou hast supposed by Dr. Prideaux to have been added to the sacred canon by commanded me, and reprove the people. The world is set in dark the high-priest Simon the Just, in the year B.C. 150.

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FABBRONI, ANGELO.

FABIUS MAXIMUS.

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; vols where he distinguished himself for his ability in Latin composition, Prophecy, or a Dissertation on the Prophecies which treat of the through which he became acquainted with the learned Bottari, who Grand Period of Seven Times,' 3 vols. 8vo, 1828 ; Eight Dissertations introduced bim to the Papal Court. In 1766 Fabbroni published the on certain connected Prophetical Passages of Holy Scriptures bearing first volume of his Latin biographies of the learned men of modern more or less upon the Promise of a Mighty Deliverer,' 2 volg. 8vo, Italy, “Vitæ Italorum Doctrina Illustrium ;' a work which he after- 1845. wards extended to twenty volumes 8vo, and for which he has been FA'BIUS MAXIMUS and the FABII FAMILY. The Fabii were styled by some the Plutarch of modern Italy. His patron Bottari not a numerous and powerful gens or patrician house of ancient Rome, being on friendly terms with the Jesuits, who had great influence at which became subdivided into several families or branches distinguished Rome under Pope Clement XIII., and who accused Bottari of a bias by their respective cognomina, such as Fabii Maximi, Fabii Ambusti, in favour of the Jansenists, Fabbroni found that he had little chance Fabii Vibulanii

, &c. They were of Sabine origin, and settled on the of making his way at the Papal Court, and he returned to Florence in Quirinal from the time of the earliest kings. After the expulsion of the 1767, where the Grand-Duke Leopold appointed him President of the Tarquinii, the Fabii as one of the older houses exercised considerable Collegiate Church of San Lorenzo, and afterwards made him Prefect influence in the senate. Cæso Fabius being Quæstor with L. Valerius, of the University of Pisa, and Prior of the military order of San impeached Spurius Cassius in the year of Rome 268 (B.C. 486), and Stefano. After this Fabbroni travelled through Germany, France, and had him executed. It has been noted as a remarkable fact, that for England, and made the acquaintance of many learned men in those seven consecutive years from that time, one of the two annual consul. countries. On his return to Tuscany in 1773, he devoted himself ships was filled by three brothers Fabii in rotation. Niebuhr has entirely to literary pursuits. He continued his series of Latin biogra- particularly investigated this period of Roman history, and speculated phies already mentioned ; wrote also some Italian biographies; edited on the causes of this long retention of office by the Fabii as conthe 'Giornale Pisano,' a literary magazine, which enjoyed considerable nected with the struggle then pending between the patricians and the reputation in the latter part of the 19th century; and published an plebeians, and the attempt of the former to monopolise the elections. interesting history of the University of Pisa, Historia Academiæ ( History of Rome,' vol. ii., "The Seven Consulships of the Fabii.') Pisada,'

, 3 vols. 4to, Pisa, 1791. Fabbroni died at Pisa in 1803. A One of the three brothers, Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, fell in battle cenotaph was raised to his memory in the Campo Santo of that city. against the Veientes, in the year 274 of Rome. In the following year, Fabbroni was considered one of the best Latin scholars and writers of under the consulsbip of Cæso Fabius and Titus Virginius, the whole Italy in the 18th century. His Italian works are— Elogj di alcuni | house of the Fabii proposed to leave Rome and settle on the borders Illustri Italiani,' 2 vols. 8vo, Pisa, 1789; Elogj di Dante, di Poliziano, of the territory of Veii, in order to take the war against the Veientes di Ariosto, e di Tasso,' 8vo, Parma, 1800; · Dissertazione sulle Statue entirely into their hande. After performing solemn sacrifices, they appartenenti alla Favola di Niobe,' Florence, 1799. He also contri. left Rome in a body, mustering 306 patricians, besides their families, buted to the collection of 'Memorie de' più Illustri Pisani, 4 vols. clients, and freedmen, and encamped on the banks of the Cremera in 4to, Pisa, 1790.

sight of Veii. There they fortified themselves, and maintained for (Lombardi, Storia della Letteratura Italiana nel Secolo XVIII.; nearly two years a harassing warfare against the Veientes and other Gamba, Serie di Testi di Lingua; Life of Pabbroni, written by him- people of Etruria. At last in one of their predatory incursions they self, and inserted in the last volume of his Vitæ Italorum.')

fell into an ambuscade, and fighting desperately, were all exterminated. FABER, REV. GEORGE STANLEY, was born on the 25th of (Livy, ii. 48, 50; and Niebuhr's History,' on the Veientine War.) October 1773. He was the eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Faber, One only of the house, Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, who had remained who was descended from a French refugee who came over to England at Rome, escaped, and became the parent stock of all the subsequent after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. He was educated at the Fabii. He was repeatedly consul, and was afterwards one of the grammar-school of Heppenholme, near Halifax in Yorkshire, where decemviri with Appius Claudius for two consecutive years, in which he remained till 1789, when he was entered of University College, office he disgraced himself by his condivance at the oppressions of Oxford. He took his degree of B.A. in 1792, and before he had reached bis colleague, which caused the fall of the decemvirate. In subsehis twenty-first year was elected a Fellow and Tutor of Lincoln quent years we find several Fabii filling the consulship, until we come College. He took his degree of M.A. in 1796, served the office of to M. Fabius Ambustus, who was consul in the year 393 of Rome, Proctor in 1801, and in the same year, as Bampton Lecturer, preached and again several times after. He fought against the Hernici and the the discourses which he shortly afterwards published under the title Tarquinians, and left several sons, one of whom, known by the name of · Horæ Mosaicæ.' He took the degree of B.D. in 1803, and married of Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, attacked and defeated the in the same year. Having by this step relinquished his fellowship, he Samoites (429 of Rome) in the absence and against the orders of his went to reside with his father at Calverley, near Bradford in York: commanding officer, the Dictator Papirius, who would have brought shire, where for two years he acted as curate. In 1805 he was collated him to punishment for disobedience, but was prevented by the interto the vicarage of Stockton-upon-Tees, in the county of Durham, cession of the soldiers and the people. This Fabius was five times wbich he resigned in 1808 for that of Redmarshall, in the same consul, and dictator twice. He triumphed over the Samnites, Marsi, county. In 1811 he was collated to the vicarage of Long-Newton, Gauls, and Tuscans. His son, Quintus Fabius Gurges, was thrice where he remained till 1831, when Bishop Burgess presented him to consul, and was the grandfather of QUINTUS FABIUS MAXIMUS VERa prebend in the cathedral of Salisbury. In 1832 Bishop Van Mildert RUCOSus, one of the most celebrated generals of Rome. In bis first gave him the mastership of Sherburn Hospital, near the city of consulate he triumphed over the Ligurians. After the Thrasymenian Durbam, when he resigned the vicarage of Long-Newton. During his defeat be was named Prodictator by the unanimous voice of the mastership be considerably increased the value of the estates of the people, and was intrusted with the salvation of the Republic. The Hospital. He rebuilt the chapel, the house, and the offices, and system which he adopted to check the advance of Hannibal is well greatly improved the grounds; he augmented the incomes of the known. By a succession of skilful movements, marches, and counterincumbents of livings under his patronage, restored the chancels of marches, always choosing good defensive positions, he harassed his their churches, and erected agricultural buildings on the farms. He antagonist, who could never draw him into ground favourable for his died at his residence, Sherburn Hospital, on the 27th of January, attack, while Fabius watched every opportunity of availing himself 1854.

of any error or neglect on the part of the Carthaginians. The theological writings of Mr. Faber, particularly those on prophecy, This mode of warfare, which was new to the Romans, acquired for have had a very wide circulation. One of the principles for the inter- Fabius the name of Cunctator, or 'temporiser,' and was censured by pretation of prophecy which he chiefly laboured to establish and the young, the rash, and the iguorant; but it probably was the means exemplify, was, that the delineations of events in prophecy are not of saving Rome from ruin. Minucius, who shared with Fabius the applicable to the destinies of individuals, but to those of governments command of the army, having imprudently engaged Hannibal, was and nations. His writings are numerous, and we can only mention a saved from total destruction by the timely assistance of the dictator. few of the most important :—Horæ Mosaicæ, or a View of the Mosaical In the following year however, 536 of Rome, Fabius being recalled to Records, with respect to their Coincidence with Profane Antiquity, Rome, the command of the army was intrusted to the consul T. their internal Credibility, and their Connexion with Christianity, Varro, who rushed imprudently to battle, when the defeat of Cannæ 2 vols. 8vo, 1801 ; ' A Dissertation on the Mysteries of the Cabyri, or made manifest the wisdom of the dictator's previous caution. Fabius the great gods of Phoenicia, Samothrace, Egypt, Troas, Greece, Italy, was made consul in the next year, and was again employed in keeping and Crete, 2 vols. 8vo; ‘Dissertation on the Prophecies that have Hannibal in check. In 543 of Rome, being consul for the fifth time, been fulfilled, are now fulilling, or will hereafter be fulfilled, relative he re-took Tarentum by stratagem, after which he narrowly escaped to the great Period of 1260 Years,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1806; 'A General and being caught bimself in a snare by Hannibal near Metapontum. Connected View of the Prophecies relating to the Conversion, Restora- (Livy, xxvii

. 15, 16.) When some yesis after the question was distion, Union, and future Glory of Judah and Israel,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1808; cussed in the senate of sending P. Scipio with an army into Africa, • The Origin of Pagan Idolatry,' 3 vols. 8vo, 1816; 'A Treatise on Fabius opposed it, saying that Italy ought first to be rid of Hannibal. the Genius and Object of the Patriarchal, the Levitical, and the Fabius died some time after at a very advanced age. His son, called

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likewise Quintus Fabius Maximus, who had also been consul, died Marc of Ancona; and also at Orvieto, Florence, and Siena. He before him. His grandson Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus, being painted in 1423 a Madonna for the Cathedral of Orvieto, and he is proconsul, fought against Viriatus in Spain, and concluded with him styled in the register of the cathedral -" egregius magister magis. an honourable peace. (Livy, “Epitome,' 54.) He was afterwards trorum." He painted in the same year at Florence a picture of the consul repeatedly, and also censor. He wrote 'Annals,' which are Adoration of the Kings,' for the sacristy of Santa Trinità, wbich is quoted by Macrobius. ("Saturn.,' i. 16.) His brother by adoption now in the gallery of the academy at Florence, and is one of its Quintus Fabius Maximus Æmilianus, the son of Paulus Æmilius choicest pieces. But his masterpiece, according to Vasari, was an (Livy, xlv. 41), was consul in 609 of Rome, and was the father of altar piece of the Virgio, &c., in the church of San Niccold at the Fabius, called Allobrogicus, who subdued not only the Allobroges, but gate of San Miniato, painted in 1425, now lost, with the exception of also the people of Southern Gaul, which he reduced into a Roman two fragments still in the church. Gentile worked also with great province, called from that time provincia,' or 'Gallia ulterior.' distinction at Venice and at Rome : he was presented by the Senate Quintus Fabius Maximus, a grandson of Fabius Maximus Servilianus of Venice with the patrician toga, and a pension for life was granted werved in Spaid under Julius Cæ-ar, and was made consul in the year to him for a painting in the council-chamber of the naval victory of 709 of Rome. Two of his sons or nephews, Paulus Fabius Maximus the Venetians over the feet of Frederic Barbarossa in 1177: it fell to And Quintus Fabius Maximus were consuls in succession under pieces in the 16th century through damp. At Rome be painted some Augu-tus. There was also a Fabius con-ul under Tiberius. Panvinius of the decorations of the church of San Giovanni in Laterauo, ordered and others bave reckoned that during a period of about five centuries, by Pope Martin V.; and a fresco of the Madonna and child with from the time of the first Fabius, who is mentioned as consul, to the St. Benedict and St. Joseph,' over the tomb of Cardinal Adimari, in reign of Tiberius, fortg-right consulships, seven dictatorships, eight the church of Santa Maria Nuova ; all of wbich have now perished. censorships, seven augurships, besides the offices of master of the It was the latter work wbich excited the admiration of Michel Angelo, borre and military tribune with consular power, were filled by and led him to say that his style was like his name-Gentile. individuals of the Fabian house. It also could boast of thirteen The colouring and execution of Geutile were excellent for his triumphs and two ovations.

period, and he was one of the most meritorious artists of his time. (Augustinus, De Familiis Romanorum.)

His works, though not to be compared with those of Masaccio, or FABIUS PICTOR, the bistorian, was descended from Marcus even of Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, were an immense improvement upon Fabius Ambustus, the consul. Caius Fabius, one of the sons of the rigid ineagre forms of Giotto and his school. Gentile taught Ambustus, was called Pictor, because about B.C. 304 he painted the Jacoppo Bellini at Venice, and that painter's sou Gentile was Fabriano's temple of tbe goddess of health, which painting existed till the reigo namesake. Geutile left various writings on the origin and progress of of Claudius, when the temple was burnt. (Pliny, xxxv. c. 4.) The art, on the mixing of colours, and on the art of drawing lines; but surname of Pietor was continued to his children, one of whom, Caius whether they still exist, does not appear. He died about 1450. Fabius Pictor, was consul with Ogulnius Gallus B.C. 271, and was the FABRICIUS, CAIUS, surnamed Luscinus, was consul for the first father of the historian. Quiotus Fabius Pictor, the historian, lived time in the year 471 of Rome, 283 B.C., when he triumphed over the in the time of the second Pupic war, according to the testimony of Boii and the Etruscans. After the defeat of the Romans under the Livy (xxi.), who says, in speaking of the battle of the Thrasymene consul Lævinus by Pyrrhus (B.C. 281), Fabricius was sent by the Lake, that he followed in his narrative the autbority of Fabius Pictor, senate as legate to the king to treat for the rausum of the prisoners, who was contemporary with that memorable event. Fabius appears, or, according to others, to propose terms of peace. Pyrrhus is said to from the testimony of Dionysius and Cicero, to have written both in have endeavoured to bribe bim by large offers, which Fabricius, poor Greek avd in Latin. Of the extracts from or references to his ‘Anvals,' as he was, rejected with scorn, to the great admiration of the king. which have been transmitted to us, some concern the antiquities of Fabricius being again consul (B.C. 279) was sent against Pyrrhus, who Italy, and the beginning of Rome, others the subsequent fasti, or was then encamped near Tarentum. The physician to the king is bistory of the Romans. He was the first who compiled a history of said to have come secretly to the Roman camp, and to have proposed his country from the records of the pontiffs, and from popular i to Fabricius to poison bis master for a bribe, at which the consul, tradition. He is spoken of with praise by Livy, who evidently indignant, had him put in fetters and sent back to Pyrrhus, upon borrowed largely from bim, and by Cicero, Pliny, Appian, and others. I whom this instance of Roman integrity wade a great impression. Polybius however censures bis obvious partiality for the Romans, and Pyrrhus soon after sailed for Sicily, where be was called by the his unfairness towards the Carthagivians, in his account of the second Syracusans, then hard pressed by the Carthaginians. Fabricius baving Punio war. His 'Avpals' are lost, with the exception of some defeated the Samnites, Lucanians, and Bruttii, who had juined fragments, which have been preserved by subsequent writers, and are Pyrrhus against Rome, triumphed over those people. Pyrrhus, after printed in the collections of Antonius Augustinus, Antwerp, 1595, wards returving to Italy, was finally defeated and driven away by M. Antonius Riccobonus, Venice, 1568, and others. The well-known Curius Dentatus (B.C. 276). Two years after, Fabricius being consul impostor, Annio da Viterbo, published a small work on the origin of for the third time, with Claudius Cinna for his colleague, legates came Rome, under the name of Fabius Pictor, but the fraud was discover-d. from king Ptolemy of Egypt to contract an alliance with Rome Quintus Fabius Pictor was sent by thu senate to Delphi after the Several instances are related of the extreme frugality and simplicity battle of Caubæ, to consult the Oracle about the ultimate result of of the manners of Fabricius, which are couformable to what is recorded the war.

He must not be confounded with Servius Fabius Pictor, of the austerity of Ruman life previous to the Punic wars. When who lived in the time of Cato the Elder, and who is praised by Cicero censor, he dismissed from the senate P. Cornelius Rutious because he for bis kuowledge of jurisprudence, literature, and antiquity.

had in his possession ten pounds' weight of silver plate. Fabricius FABRETTI, RAFFAELE, born at Urbino in 1619, was secretary died poor, and the senate was obliged to make provision for his of Pope Alexander VIII., and præfect of the papal archives in the daughters. castle of St. Angelo under Innocent XII. Fabretti spent most of his FABRICIUS, JOANNES ALBERTUS, born at Leipzig in 1663, time in searcbing the ruins which are scattered about Rome and its early distinguished himself by his proficiency in classical literature, neighbourhood, and digging for those which were under ground. He and his penetration and judgment, assisted by an excellent memory explored catacombs, columbaria, sepulclires, and other subterraneous Having finished his studies at Leipzig, he went to Hamburg, where I receptacles; and he gathered an abundant harvest of antiquities, and F. Meyer appointed him his librarian. He was afterwards appointed chiefly of inscriptions, which he ranged in a collection at his house at professor in the college of Hamburg, where he remaived to the end Urbino, which collection has been since transferred to the ducal of his life, having refused several advantageous offers wade to bim by palace of the same town. It is related that the horse upon which he the landgrave of Hesse Cassel and others. He was the author of rode for many years in his perambulations through the Campagna, many elaborate works, the principal of which are — Bibliotheca and which his friends had nicknamed Marco Polo, became so accuss Græca,' 14 vols. 4to, Hamburg, 1705-28. A new edition, with contomed to his master's hunting after inscriptions that he used to stop siderable improvements, was published by Harles, Hamburg, 1790of himself whenever he met with any. Fabretti wrote, 1°, “Inscriptio. 1809. The Bibliotheca Græca' is a most valuable work; it contains num Antiquarum Explicatio,' fol., 1699; 2°, 'De Columna Trajani,' notices of all the Greek authors, from the oldest known down to fol., 1683, an elaborate work, in which he illustrated with much those who flourished in the last period of the Byzantine empire, with erudition and judgment the sculptures of that celebrated monument. lists of their works and remarks on them. Bibliotheca Latina,' 3 He added to it an explanation of the Iliac table which is in the vols. 4to, 1708-21. The Bibliotheca Latina' is inferiur in research and Capitoline Museum. 3o, ‘De Aquis et Aqueductibus Veteris Romæ,' copiousness to the ‘Bibliotheca Græca,' but is still a useful work, espe4to, 1680, reprinted with notes and additions in 1788. Fabretti cially in the amended edition of Ernesti, Leipzig, 1773. "Bibliotheca rendered great services to archæology by his system of illustrating one Latina Ecclesiastica,' fol., Hamburg, 1718. Bibliotheca Latina nediæ monument by the help of another. Fabretti died at Rome in January et infimæ Ætatis, cum Supplemento C. Schoettgeuii, ex recensione 1700 at the age of eighty. He may be considered as the predectssor Dominici Mausi,' Padua, 6 vols. 4to, 1754. • Memoriæ Hamburgenses,' of Bianchini, Bottari, and other archæologists who illustrated the 7 vols. 8vo; to which R-iinar, the son-in-law of Fabricius, added an antiquities of Rome during the 18th century.

eighth volume in 1745. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti, FABRIANO, FRANCESCO DI GENTILE DA, commonly called 2 vols. 8vo, 1719; being a Collection of the false Gospels, Acts of the GENTILE DA FABRIANO, was born at Fabriano, in the Marc of Ancona, Apostles, and other apocryphal books which appeared in the early about 1870. He was instructed by his father Niccold in the physical ages of Christianity. Bibliographia Antiquaria,' 4to, 1760; being And mathematical sciences, and was placed with Allegretto di Nuzio, notices of the authors who have written upon Hebrew, Greek, Roman, called Gritto da Fabriano, to learn painting, Gentile executed many and ecclesiastical antiquities. Delectus Argumentorum et Syllabus works in fresco and a temperà at Gubbio and other cities of the Scriptorum qui veritatem Religionis Christians lucubrationibus suis

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