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menced a series of experiments on the dispersion of light, and other on his passage home he was with his friend Cordier, the mineralogist, subjects connected with the improvement of optical instruments, and and many others of his countrymen, made prisoner after being driven especially of telescopes and microscopes, the results of which were into the Gulf of Tarentum. His companions were soon set at liberty, communicated to the Royal Society in a series of papers. Three of but the remembrance of the disputes which had existed between him them were printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1753, one and the members of the Order of Malta led to bio removal and subin 1754, and the last in 1758, the titles of which are given below. It sequent imprisonment at Messina, wbere he was confined in a dungeon was about 1755 that he entered upon a systematic course of experi- lighted only by one small opening, which, with barbarous precaution, ments on dispersion, and after, to use his own words, 'a resolute was closely shut every night. The heat, and the small quantity of perseverance' for more than a year and a half, he made the decisive fresh air admitted by the window of his prison, compelled him to experiment wbich showed the error of Newton's conclusions on this spend nearly the whole of his time in fanning himself with the few subject. The memoir in which the series of investigations was tattered remnants of his clothes, in order to increase the circulation of detailed appeared in the Philosophical Transactions, and was the the air. Great exertion and urgent demands were made by the last which he gave to the world. It was rewarded by the council of scientific men of various countries to obtain his enlargement; and the Royal Society with the Copley medal.

when, after the battle of Marengo, peace was made with Naples, the It was the lot of Dollond to undergo considerable annoyance on first article of the treaty was a stipulation for the immediate release of account of the claims set up for this discovery in favour of others, Dolomieu. On the death of Daubenton he was appointed professor especially of Euler; but there is not a shadow of a doubt of Dol- of mineralogy, and soon after his return to France he delivered a lond's priority as well as originality, in this very important discovery, course of lectures on the philosophy of mineralogy at the Museum of left on the minds of the scientific world. The discrepancies which Natural History. followed the application of Newton's doctrine to the varied cases that In a short time Dolomieu again quitted Paris, visited the Alps, and presented themselves in the course of different experiments might, in returned to Lyon by Lucerne, the glaciers of Grindelwald and Geneva, speculative minds, have created a suspicion of the accuracy of that and thence to Châteauneuf, to visit his sister and his brother-in-law doctrine; yet there does not appear to have been the least hesitation De Drée: here he was attacked by a disorder from the effects of which among scientific men in attributing these discrepancies to errors of he died, November 26, 1801. observation exclusively, and consequently not the least ground for Dolomieu had projected two journeys for adding to his vast store honestly attempting to deprive Dollond of the honour of the of geological knowledge—the first through Germany, and the second discovery.

through Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. He also proposed to publish In the beginning of the year 1761 Dollond was elected a Fellow of a work which he had planned in his prison at Messina; of this there the Royal Society, and appointed optician to the king. He did not was printed a fragment on · Mineral Species,' which is a monument long survive to enjoy the honour or advantages of his discoveries; as at once of his misfortunes and his genius, being written in his dungeon on the 30th of November of that year, he was attacked by a fit of in Sicily, on the margin of a few books, with a bone sharpened against apoplexy, brought on by a too close and long continued application to his prison-walls for a pen, and the black of his lamp-smoke mixed with a paper which he was studying. This attack immediately deprived water for ink. In this work the author proposes that the integral him of speech, and in a few hours of life itself.

molecule shall be regarded as the principle by which the species is to Besides his eldest son Peter, already mentioned (who survived him be determined, and that no other specific characters should be admitted till 1820, when he died aged ninety), he left another son John, and than those which result from the composition or form of the integral three daughters. The two sons carried on the business jointly with molecule. It must however be admitted as an objection to this great reputation and success; and upon the death of the younger in proposal that the integral molecule is not always easily ascertained or 1804, Peter Dollond took into partnership a nephew, George Huggins, characterised. who assumed the name of Dollond, and who continued the busi- Soon after his death was published, 'Journal du Dernier Voyage du ness without diminution of the high character attached to the name Citoyen Dolomieu dans les Alpes,' edited by Brunn-Nelgard, Paris, 8vo, of Dollond, till his death in May 1832. Mr. George Dollond trans. 1802. M. Dolomieu's numerous Mémoires' are contained in the mitted the now famous business to a nephew of his, also named "Mémoires de l'Institut,''Journal des Mines,' 'Journal de Physique,' George Huggins, and he in his turn obtained the royal permission to Recueil de l'Académie des Sciences,' and the Voyage Pittoresque de assume the surname of Dollond instead of Huggins.

Naples et de Sicile;' he also wrote several articles for the Dictionnaire The following is the list of John Dollond's published papers :-1, Minéralogique,' and the Nouvelle Encyclopédie.' 'A Letter to Mr. James Short, F.R.S., concerning an Improvement Dr. Thomson, in the 'Annals of Philosophy,' vol. xii., p. 166, has in Reflecting Telescopes; ''Phil. Trans.,' 1753, p. 103. 2, Letter to drawn up an elaborate summary of the results of Dolomieu's James Short, A.M., F.R.S., concerning a mistake in Mr. Euler's Theo- observations and the bases of his geological systems." rem for correcting the Aberration in the Object Glasses of Refracting DOMAT, or DOUMAT, JEAN, a distinguished French civilian, wae Telescopes;' Phil. Trans., 1753, p. 287. 3, 'A Description of a born at Clermont in Auvergne, on the 30th of November 1625. He Contrivance for measuring Small Angles;'.Phil. Trans.,' 1753, p. 178. connected himself with the brilliant circle of literary recluses at the 4,* An Explanation of an Instrument for measuring Small Angles;' Port-Royal, among whom his reputation stood high both for juris.

Phil. Trans., 1754, p. 551. 5, 'An account of some Experiments prudence and ethics. He was a very modest man, and comparatively concerning the different Refrangibility of Light;' Phil. Trans.,' 1758, little is known of his personal history, For nearly thirty years he

prosided, with marked credit, in the lower court of judicature at DOLOMIEU, DEODAT-GUY-SILVAIN TANCREDE GRATET Clermont. He was in the confidence of Pascal, attended him on his DE, was born at Grenoble on the 24th of June 1750. In early youth death-bed, and was intrusted with many of his papers. His great he was admitted a member of the religious order of Malta, but in systematic work on the civil law appears to have long existed and consequence of a quarrel with one of his companions which ended in been perused by his friends in manuscript before it was published. a duel fatal to his adversary he received sentence of death, but after Rumours of the value of the work coming to Louis XIV., Domat imprisonment he was pardoned, and went to France. After some received a pension, and took up his abode in Paris, where he received hesitation whether he should devote himself to classical literature or encouragement from the kindness of D'Aguesseau, then conseiller to natural history, he decided in favour of the latter. While at Metz d'état, through whose patronage many distinguished jurists appear with the regiment of carbineers, in which he had obtained a commission, to have found their way to notice. Domat married Mademoiselle he formed an acquaintance with the celebrated La Rochefoucault, which Blondel, by whom he had thirteen children—a circumstance deemed ceased but with his existence. Dolomieu was soon afterwards elected worthy of particular commemoration in France. He died at Paris on a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences, and quitted the the 14th of March 1695, and, notwithstanding his pension and his military profession.

office, is said to have ended his days in extreme poverty. In his works At the age of twenty-six Dolomieu went to Sicily, and his first he stands pre-eminently above all jurists of his age, and acquired a labour was an examination of the environs and strata of Ætna He reputation throughout Europe that has hardly been subsequently next visited Vesuvius, the Apennines, and the Alps, and in 1783 reached by any of his countrymen. His work, .Les Loix Civiles dans published an account of his visit to the Lipari Islands. He returned leur Ordre Naturel, suivies du Droit Public,' appeared anonymously to France at the commencement of the revolution, and early ranged in 1689, and is said to have been for some time attributed to Delauney, himself on the popular side. He had however no public employment professor of jurisprudence in the University of Paris—a statement until the third year of the republic, when he was included in the Ecole scarcely reconcileable with the alleged reputation of the work while de Mines, then established; and he was one of the original members in manuscript. The author's method of dividing the subject is, by of the National Institute, founded about the same time. He was first treating of the rules of law in general. This branch of the work indefatigable in the pursuit of geological and mineralogical science, and is almost of an ethical character. The principle of every law, as having in less than three years he published twenty-seven original memoirs, a foundation in utility or some other reason connected with morals or among which were those on the nature of Leucite, Peridot, Anthracite, religion, is the main feature of the work, and in this it adopts the Pyroxede, &c.

system which was afterwards more elaborately carried out and applied When Bonaparte undertook the conquest of Egypt, Dolomieu accom- to a larger number of subjects by Montesquieu. The substance of panied the expedition. He visited Alexandria, the Delta, Cairo, the the law is divided into private and public. The former class is subPyramids, and a part of the mountains which bound the valley of the divided into the law of contracts and the law of succession. The Nile; and he proposed also to explore the more interesting parts of public law is divided into government, official and executorial arrangethe country, but before he could carry his plan into execution his ments, crimes, and procedure civil and criminal. There have been health became so deranged that he was oompelled to return to Europe. several editions of the work in French, generally in two volumes, folio.

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Although intended for the use of Frenchmen, does not include the Albigenses, he bent all his energies to their conversion. Finding his provincial peculiarities of tenure, but is nearly an echo of the Roman own efforts insufficient, he appears to have conceived the idea of law purified of matters peculiar to Roman habits and customs, and founding an order of preaching friars, whose special duty should be thus it became a book for Europe at large. In 1722 it was translated the conversion of heretics; and about the commencement of the 13th into English by William Strahan, ' with additional remarks on some century he began to carry his purpose into effect. He soon found material differences between the civil law and the law of England,' numerous volunteers to his new order, and, to disarm opposition, he 2 vols. folio. This translation is the most extensive systematic work and his followers adopted the rule of St. Augustine. As a distinct on the civil law in the English language. Domat paid great attention order they did not however receive the formal verbal approval of the to mercantile law, and it is believed that this translation has been of pope, Innocent III., till 1215. This order was confirmed in the extensive service in keeping the mercantile law in general, and the following year by a bull of Honorius III, under the name of the admiralty and consistorial systems of England in unison with the civil | Predicants, or Preaching Friars : they were afterwards called Domini. law, and consequently with the practice of the rest of Europe. Domat's cans, from their founder. In England they were known as Black-Friars, work used to be in high esteem in Scotland before the study of civil from the colour of their habits; in France as Jacobins, from their law was neglected at the Scottish bar. A posthumous work by Domat, first house in that country being situated in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris. 'Legum Delectus, ex Libris Digestorum et Codicis,' was published at Dominic was the first general of the order. He was also about the Amsterdam in 1703, 4to. M. Victor Cousin wrote in the Journal des same time created by the pope Master of the Sacred Palace at Rome, Savants,' 1843, a series of articles on Domat, in which he published an office since always held by a Dominican. The order rapidly some particulars respecting him previously little known.

increased in numbers, and spread all over Europe: at the dissolution DOMENICHI'NO. DOMENICO ZAMPIERI, called DOMENI. of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. the Dominicans had CHINO, was born at Bologna, in 1581, of poor parents. According fifty-eight houses in England and Wales. to some authorities, his first master was Denis Calvart; but Bellori Dominic did not however trust for the uprooting of heresy simply gives him Fiammingo for his first teacher. Fiammingo, entertaining to his own preaching and that of his followers. Finding that his å jealous dislike (says the biographer) to the Caracci, beat his pupil

, eloquence failed to convert the Albigenses, he, with the papal legates, and turned him out of doors, because he found the boy copying a Peter of Castelnau and Rainier of Raoul, obtained permission of design by Annibale. On the occasion of his dismissal being made Innocent III. to hold courts, before which they might summon by known to Agostino Caracci, he was admitted to the school of the authority of the pope, and without reference to the local bishops, any Caracci, and he soon gained one of the prizes which Lodovico cus. individuals suspected of heresy, and inflict upon them if obstinate tomarily distributed, much to the surprise of his fellow-students, who capital punishment, or otherwise any lesser penalty. Peter of Castelnau, had expected little from a youth of his retiring awkward manners. who had made himself especially obnoxious by his severity, was killed After visiting Parma, Domenichino went to Rome, where he studied at Toulouse in 1208; and then was proclaimed by the pope, at the and worked for some time under Annibale Caracci. He afterwards instigation of Dominic, that fearful crusade,' as it was designated by obtained the patronage of Cardinal Gieronimo Agucchi, and while he Innocent, to which all the barons of France were summoned, and lived in his house painted many pictures for him. Besides painting, which, under the captaincy of De Montfort, led to the slaughter of so he studied architecture, and was appointed architect to the apostolic many thousands of these so-called heretics. Dominic himself, it has palace by Gregory XV. After the death of that pontiff, finding him. been said, was not personally cruel; but towards heretics he had po self somewhat reduced in circumstances, and receiving an invitation compassion, and it is certain that, so far from attempting to lessen the to Naples, he removed thither with his wife and children. He died horrible slaughter, he did what he could to stimulate it. Dominic is at Naples, April 15, 1641. During his life he was much respected. very frequently said to have been the founder of the Inquisition : He formed a particularly strict friendship with Albano, in whose but this is an error. He and his companions in the commission to house he lived for two years when he first arrived in Rome.

examine and punish the Albigenses were commonly called 'Inquisitors,' Domenichino was so slow in his early progress as to disappoint but their commission was merely local and temporary. The 'Holy many of his friends, and he had the appellation of Bue (ox) among Office' was not formally established till 1233, when Gregory IX, laid his fellow-students; but Annibale Caracci, who perceived in him the down the rules and defined the jurisdiction of the courts, which he marks of that genius which he afterwards developed, told the jeerers appointed for various countries under the name of 'Inquisitorial that their nickname was only applicable to the patience and fruitful Missions. It is however worthy of notice that the chief inquisitor industry of the laborious student. He retained the utmost delibe- was a Dominican monk, Pietro da Verona; and that the governance ration in his mode of working to the last; though when after long of the Inquisition was placed pretty much in the hands of the reflection he once began to work at his picture he did not leave it Dominicans. until he had completed it. It is said that he had many maxims According to the biographers of Dominic, he was permitted to which justified bis slowness, such as, that no line was worthy of an exhibit the divine sanction to his missions by raising the dead to life, artist which was not in his mind before it was traced by his hand. as in the case of a young nobleman named Napoleon at Rome, on the He was so entirely devoted to his art that he only left his retired Ash-Wednesday of 1218, and by other miracles. Dominic died at study to make sketches and observations upon expression in active Bologna in 1221. He was canonised by Pope Gregory IX, on the 3rd life; much of his time was however spent in reading history and of July 1234: the Church of Rome keeps his festival on the 4th of poetry.

August. Dominic is said to have written some commentaries upon Domenichino was profoundly studied in his drawing, rich and St. Matthew, St. Paul, and the Canonical Epistles, but they have not natural in his colouring, and, above all

, correct and life-like in his come down to us. expression. Annibale Caracci is said to have been decided in his DO'MINIS, MARCUS ANTONIUS DE, an Italian theologian and judgment between two pictures of the 'Scourging of St. Andrew, natural philosopher, was born in 1566, of an ancient family, at Arba, painted in competition by Domenichino and Agostino Caracci, by on the coast of Dalmatia ; and, having been educated in a college of hearing an old woman point out with much earnestness the beauties the Jesuits at Loretto, he completed his studies at the University of of Domenichino's to a little child, describing every part of it as if it Padua. The progress which he made in the sciences was so satiswere a living scene, while she passed the other over in silence. To factory that the persons in authority at the university used their the graver design of the Bolognese school Domenichino added some influence to induce him to enter the order of Jesuits to this he thing of the ornamental manner of the Venetian, his pictures being appears to have consented; and, while passing his novitiate, he gave rich in the accessaries of architecture and costume. His genius how instruction in mathematics, physics, and eloquence. At the same ever is not characterised by great invention; he has been accused of time he employed his leisure in the study of theology; and it was borrowing too directly from the works of others, and his draperies then that he composed his work entitled 'De Radiis Visus et Lucis in are regarded as harsh and too scanty in the folds. Nevertheless, he Vitris perspectivis et Iride,' which was published at Venice by one of has been esteemed by the best judges (and among them are the Caracci his pupils in 1611. and Nicholas Poussin) as one of the first of painters, and by some The routine of a college life not suiting his taste, De Dominis second only to Raffaelle. Such however he will never be thought by quitted Padua ; and, on the recommendation of the Emperor the world at large.

Rodolphus," he was appointed bishop of Segoi. Two years afterDomenichino excelled also in landscape, and was famous for his wards he was made archbishop of Spalatro; but, while holding this admirable execution of the figures with which he enlivened them. dignity, he became embroiled with the pope (Paul V.) by taking a His principal works are at Rome and Naples; among them the “Com part in the disputes between that pontiff and the Venetians respecting munion of St. Jerome,' now placed opposite Raffaelle's "Transfigura- the endowment of ecclesiastical establishments. On this occasion ho tion,' in the Vatican, and the Martyrdom of St. Agnes,' are the most threw out a censure on the conduct of the pope; and he further gave celebrated. There are three or four of Domenichino's pictures in the offence by entering upon the important but personally dangerous National Gallery, London, but neither of them is of any remarkable subject of reforming the manners of the clergy. merit.

Being suspected of an inclination in favour of the reformed religion, DOMINIC, SAINT. Domingo de Guzman, founder of the Order he found it convenient to consult his safety by resigning his archof Dominicans, was born in 1170 at Calahorra, in Castilla la Vieja, bishopric and retiring to Venice; this was in the year 1615, and in Spain. He completed his education at the University of Palentia ; in the following year he came to England, where he experienced a 1193 was made canon of the cathedral of Osma; and in 1198 a priest favourable reception from James I. The king appointed him to the and archdeacon. He subsequently became known as an eloquent and deanery of Windsor; and at this time he composed his work entitled earnest preacher, and was sent on missions to various parts of Spain, De Republicâ Ecclesiastica,' the object of which is to show that the and into France. Having had his zeal inflamed by the progress of the pope has no supremacy over other bishops; it is in two parts, of






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which one was published in 1617, and the other in 1620, both in towards others. He punished satirists, but encouraged secret informers. London, The work was inuch esteemed at the time, but is now He took a delight in inspiring others with terror, and Dion relates a scarcely remembered. He also published a sermon, which he preached singular banquet, to which he invited the senators, with all the appain 1617, in the chapel belonging to the Mercers' Company; and, in the ratus of a funeral and an execution. He is also said to have spent following year, a work entitled "Scogli del Cristiano Naufragio quali va whole hours in hunting after and killing flies. At one time, before scopendo la Santa Chiesa.' De Dominis appears to have been restless his becoming emperor, he had applied himself to literature and poetry, and inconstant; for after a few years he expressed a wish to return to and he is said to have composed several poems and other works the bosom of the Catholic Church, and having received from the pope (Tacitus, Suetonius, Dion, and Pliny the Younger.) (Gregory XV.) a promise of pardon, he set out for Rome. Soon after his arrival, some intercepted letters gave indications that his repentance was not sincere, and he was in consequence committed to the castle of St. Angelo, where, after an imprisonment of a few months, he died, September 1624. Being convicted after his death of heresy, his body was disinterred and burnt.

De Dominis has the merit of being the first who assumed that the rainbow was produced by two refractions of light in each drop of rain, with an intermediate reflection from the back part of the drop; and he verified the hypothesis by receiving the ray of light from a globe of glass exposed to the sun in the same manner as the drops of rain are supposed to be situated with respect to that luminary. He knew Dothing of the different refrangibilities of the rays of light; and he conceived that the colours were produced by the different forces with

Coin of Domitian. which the rays strike the eye in consequence of the different lengths

British Museum. Actual size. Copper. Weight 432) grains. of path described within the drop, by wbich it was supposed that they retain more or less of the original impulsive force. He erred DON, DAVID, was born at Forfar in Scotland, in 1800. His also in supposing that the rays which formed one of the bows came father was proprietor of a nursery and botanic garden in this place, from the upper part of the sun's disc, and those which formed the and is well known as having

been an acute practical botanist, and one other from the lower.

who cultivated the botany of his native country with great success. DOMITIA'NUS, TITUS FLAVIUS, younger son of the Emperor When David was still a young man his father was appointed to the Vespasianus, succeeded his brother Titus as emperor A.D. 81. Tacitus charge of the botanic garden at Edinburgh, and the knowledge which ("Hist,

' iv. 51, 68), gives an unfavourable account of bis previous youth. David then possessed of botany attracted the notice of Mr. Patrick The beginning of his reign was marked by moderation and a display Neill, and other gentlemen connected with the garden, and they proof justice bordering upon severity. He affected great zeal for the cured for him the means of attending on some of the classes in the reformation of public morals, and punished with death several persons -university. His father however soon quitted Ediuburgh, and again guilty of adultery, as well as some vestals who had broken their vows. opened his garden in Forfar. David afterwards procured a situation He completed several splendid buildings begun by Titus ; among others in the establishment of Messrs. Dickson of Broughton, near Edinburgh, an Odeum, or theatre for musical performances. The most important where he had the care of the finest collection of plants in Scotland. event of his reign was the conquest of Britain by Agricola ; but In 1819 he came to London, and was recommended to Mr. Lambert, Domitian grew jealous of that great commander's reputation, and who had at that time a large collection of plants. He was soon recalled him to Rome. His suspicious temper and bis pusillanimity appointed by Mr. Lambert to be his librarian and curator, and lived made him afraid of every man who was distinguished either by birth entirely in his house. and connexions or by merit and popularity, and he mercilessly sacri- One of his earliest publications was the description of a number of ficed many to his fears, while his avarice led him to put to death a species of plants which were either entirely new, or had only been number of wealthy persons for the sake of their property. The usual found in a few localities where they had been collected by his father pretext for these murders was the charge of conspiracy or treason; and others

in Scotland. It was entitled Descriptions of several New and thus a numerous race of informers was created and maintained by or Rare Native Plants, found in Scotland chiefly by the late Mr. this system of spoliation. His cruelty was united to a deep dissimu: George Don of Forfar," and was published in vol. iii. of the Memoirs lation, and in this particular he resembled Tiberius rather than Caligula of the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh. He shortly after published or Nero. He either put to death or drove away from Rome the philo- in the 'Transactions of the Linnean Society, vol. xiii

. ' A Monograph sophers and men of letters; Epictetus was one of the exiled. He of the genus Saxifraga;' this attempt at describing the various species of found however some Aatterers among the poets, such as Martial, Silius the genus gained for him a reputation as a sound botanist. In 1822 the Italicus, and Statius. The latter dedicated to him his . Thebais' and office of librarian to the Linnæan Society became vacant, and he was "Achilleis,' and commemorated the events of his reign in bis 'Silvæ.' appointed to that post. In this position he had great opportunities But in reality the reign of Domitian was anything but favourable to of improving his knowledge of botany. The collections of plants from the Roman arms, except in Britain. In Mosia and Dacia, in Germany India in the Linnaan Museum turned his attention to that part of the and Pannonia, the armies were defeated, and whole provinces lost. world, and in 1825 he published descriptions of species of plants in (Tacitus, ' Agricola,' 41.) Domitian himself went twice into Moesia to Nepaul under the title 'Prodromus Flore Nepalensis,' 12mo. Almost oppose the Dacians, but after several defeats he concluded a disgraceful every volume of the Transactions of the Linnæan Society' after bis peace with their chief Decebalus, whom he acknowledged as king, and appointment as librarian contains papers by him on various departagreed to pay a tribute, which was afterwards discontinued by Trajan; ments of systematic botany. and yet Domitian made a pompous report of his victories to the On the death of Professor Burnett, in 1836, he was appointed to the senate, and assumed the honour of a triumph.. In the same manner chair of botany at King's College, London, a position which he held he triumphed over the Catti and the Sarmatians, which made Pliny with great credit to himself and advantage to the institution, till his the Younger say that the triumphs of Domitian were always evidence decease. His numerous papers descriptive of various pew genera and of some advantages gained by the enemies of Rome. In A.D. 95 species, and on various points in the physiology of plants, which are Domitian assumed the consulship for the seventeenth time, together contained in every volume of the Transactions of the Linnæan with Flavius Clemens, who had married Domitilla, a relative of the Society," from vol. xiii. to vol. xviii.; in the 'Memoirs of the emperor. In that year a persecution of the Christians is recorded in Wernerian Society of Edinburgh,' vols. iii.-v.; and in the 'Edinburgh the history of the Church, but it appears to bave been directed par. New Philosophical Journal,' vols. ii.-xix., are sufficient proof of his ticularly against the Jews, with whom the Christians were then con industry : and they have a real value. Don's knowledge of plants founded by the Romans. Suetonius ascribes the proscriptions of the was most extensive, and his appreciation of species ready and exact. Jewe, or those who lived after the manner of the Jews, and whom he He was not however fully alive to the importance of studying plants styles as 'improfessi,' to the rapacity of Domitian. Flavius Clemens in their morphological relations, and many of his papers are open to and his wife were among the victims. [CLEMENS Romanus.] In the criticism on this ground. His constitution was robust and strong, but following year (96), under the consulship of Fabius Valens and C. at the end of 1840 a malignant tumour appeared on his lip, which, Antistius Vetus, a conspiracy was formed against Domitian among the although removed at first, speedily reappeared, and terminated his officers of his guards and several of his intimate friends, and his wife existence on the 8th of December of the same year. herself is said to have participated in it. The immediate cause of it (Proceedings of the Linnæan Society.Don's Works.) was his increasing suspicions, which threatened the life of every one * DONALDSON, THOMAS LEVERTON, Architect, Professor of around him, and which are said to have been stimulated by the pre- Architecture in University College London, and author of literary and dictions of astrologers and soothsayers, whom he was very ready to illustrative works relating to architecture, was born October 17th, consult. He was killed in his apartments by several of the conspira- 1795, in Bloomsbury Square, London. At nine years of age Donald tors, after struggling with them for some time; he was in his forty. son was sent to St. Albans Grammar School, where he remained till fifth year, and had reigned fifteen years. On the news of his death the the age of fourteen. He then accompanied one of his father's friends senate assembled and elected M. Cocceius Nerva emperor.

to the Cape of Good Hope, whence he was allowed to join the 87th The character of Domitian is represented by all ancient bistorians Regiment in the expedition to the Isle of France, with the prospect in the darkest colours, as being a compound of timidity and cruelty, of receiving a commission. Before Port Louis he had joined those of dissimulation and arrogance, of self-indulgence and stern severity chosen for a storming party, when the place was yielded by the




628 French without firing a shot. Thus compelled to choose a different Mr. Donaldson and other competitors were excluded,—Mr. Tite's path in life he returned to England, and at the age of sixteen began design being at last carried out. Mr. Donaldson bas from time to architectural studies under his father, an architect, and in the antique time, with pains and alacrity, prepared materials of great interest for school of the Royal Academy. In 1817 he gained the silver medal. the Institute-of which body he was president in 1864; and his in 1818 he went to pursue his studies abroad, visiting the most inter relations with foreign and English architects have enabled him to do esting localities in Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor. Many of the considerable service to his professional brethren and to students. results of his elaborate researches have been ublished—some by DONATELLO. DONATO DI BELTO DI BARDO, called Dona. Colonel Leake. In conjunction with Mr. Jenkins and Mr. Lewis tello, was born at Florence in the year 1383. He was brought up in Wolfe he measured the ruins of the temple of Apollo Epicurius at the house of a Florentine gentleman named Ruberto Martelli

, a liberal Bassæ, near Phigaleia in Arcadia, whence were afterwards obtained patron of the arts, and received his first instructions from Lorenzo the Phigaleian marbles. There, was discovered a curious variety of Bicci, from whom he learned painting in fresco; but he afterwards the Ionic order, and fragments of a Corinthian column, interesting became more famous as a sculptor. He also practised architecture. from the small number of examples of the latter order in Greece. In the course of his life he visited many towns of Italy, among which Subsequently, Messrs. Donaldson and Jenkins travelled through Sicily, were Venice, Padua (where the people wanted to detain and and also resided for a short time amongst the ruins of Pompeii. naturalise him), and Rome. Douatello' was much esteemed by his Mr. Donaldson next spent a year in Rome, revisited Naples and contemporaries, and executed a great number of works, both in examined the ruins of Pæstum. Afterwards, at Rome, he drew out private and public buildings, and for the grand-duke Cosmo I. He a design for a temple of Victory according to ancient usages, which was the first to employ bas-relief in telling stories, according to the procured his election to the Academy of St. Luke, of which Canova more elaborate style of Italian sculpture. When he first became so was then president. The course of study which Mr. Donaldson had infirm as to be unable to work, the grand-duke Piero I. gave him a been pursuing was such as was then deemed best for the architect's small estate : but he was so much annoyed by the troublesome referprofession; but it differed in many respects from the course at present. ences of his labourers, that he insisted on relinquishing it; and Piero The requirements of professional architecture have now widened. gave him a pension instead, in daily payments, which perfectly conBut elaborate illustrated works and present facilities of travel have not tented him. He died paralytic, December 13, 1466. been made to afford similar advantages to those which were formerly The principal works of Donatello are at Florence; but some have sought, and the practice of studying the art of architecture from the decayed, or been removed from their original station. One, a figure monuments themselves, has lately been pursued mainly with reference of St. Mark, which was nicknamed (according to the common proto mediæval works. After visiting the chief cities of Northern Italy, pensity of the Florentines) Lo Zuccone (the Gourd), on account of its where his drawings procured his election to several of the Academies, bald head, is much commended. A St. George is also much esteemed; Mr. Donaldson returned to England after an absence of nearly five and Vasari, speaking of a Judith bearing the head of Holofernes, in years.

bronze, calls it, with all the strength he gathered from his intense At home his first success was in a competition for the church at love of his art, “A work of great excellence and mastery, which, to Brompton, Middlesex. His studies had been directed to classic art him who considers the simplicity of the outside, in the drapery and rather than the style chosen, which circumstance was a subject of in the aspect of Judith, sees manifested from within it the great regret to him; and the design itself was injured by unwise restric-heart (animo) of that woman and the aid of God; as in the air of that tions. In 1827 be supplied architectural details and descriptive Holofernes, wine and sleep, and death in his members, which, having letterpress to a folio book on Pompeii

, published by W. B. Cooke. lost their spirit, show themselves cold and falling." Donatello left * In 1830 Mr. Weale published the supplementary volume to Stuart's several pupils, to whom he bequeathed his tools. The most noted ‘Athens,' edited by Mr. Kinnaird, Mr. Donaldson supplying the are Bertoldo, Nanni d’Anton di Bianco, Rossellino, Disederio, and matter as regarded the temple at Bassæ, the treasury of Atreus, Vellano di Padova. To the last he left all the works which he retained various details to which his name is attached, and the chapter on the at his death. (Vasari; Baldinucci.) theatre of the Greeks, the latter an admirable exposition of what DONA'TUS, ÆLIÚS, a celebrated grammarian, who lived in the had been a difficult subject. In 1833 and 1836 appeared his 'Collec- middle of the 4th century. He wrote a Grammar, which long contion of the most approved examples of Doorways from Ancient and tinued in the schools; and also Notes upon Terence and Virgil. He Modern Buildings in Greece and Italy,' about which time he was was most eminent in the time of Constantius, and taught rhetoric and elected a corresponding member of the Institute of France. In 1834 polite literature at Rome in the year 356, about which time St. Jerome he was invited by some junior members of the profession to co-operate studied grammar under him. Donatus has given ample employment in forming a new architectural society, but was led to put forth the to the bibliographers, who all speak of an 'Editio Tabellaris sine ulla plan of an institution on a more important basis, and on the 15th of nota' of his Grammar, as one of the first efforts at printing by means June 1835, was inaugurated the Institute of British Architects, Messrs. of letters cut on wooden blocks. (See Meerman, Origines TypoDonaldson and Charles Fowler being the first secretaries. Somewhat graph.' of this and other editions, 4to, Hag. Com., 1765, tom. i. previous to this, at Mr. Donaldson's suggestion, a medal was struck in pp. 126, 132; ii., pp. 107, 215, 218.) This Grammar has been printed honour of Sir John Soane, and on the death of that architect in 1837 with several titles, as Donatus,'Donatus Minor,' 'Donatus EthiMr. Donaldson read at the Institute a memoir of him, afterwards pub- molyzatus,' 'Donatus pro puerulis,' &c., but the work is the same, lished. Mr. Donaldson during a period of ten years filled the responsible namely, “Elements of the Latin Language for the use of Children.' office of Chairman of the Commissioners of Sewers for Westminster In the volume of the 'Grammatici Veteres,' printed by Nic. Jenson, and part of the County of Middlesex, superintending and promoting the without date, it is entitled Donatus de Barbarismo et de octo particonstruction of 50 miles of sewerage, and an expenditure of 300,0001., bus Orationis.' Dr. Clarke, in his · Bibliographical Dictionary,' vol.ii. which onerous duties were wholly gratuitous. In 1843 he was pp. 144-148, has given a long list of editions of Donatus, to which appointed Professor of Architecture and Construction at University the more inquisitive reader is referred. Donatus's 'Commentarii in College, London. In 1844, on the passing of the Metropolitan quinque Comedias Terentii,' were first printed without date, proBuildings Act (now to be distinguished as that of 7 and 8 Vict.), he bably before 1460, and reprinted in 1471 and 1476. The “Comwas appointed surveyor to the district of South Kensington. He also mentarius in Virgilium,' fol., Ven., 1529, though ascribed to him, is published in 1847 a small volume of architectural maxims and thought by many not to be his. theorems, and a lecture on the “Education and Character of the Donat, in the middle ages, both in English and French, became a Architect.'. On retiring from office as one of the ordinary secretaries synonym for any system of grammar: as in Piers Plowmanof the Institute, the members presented to him a silver candelabrum,

“Then drave I me among drapers my Donet to lerne." value 100 guineas; and in 1851 he had awarded to him the Royal Gold Medal. With Sir Charles Barry and Mr. Cockerell, architects, In the statutes of Winchester College, written about 1386, grammar and Messrs. W. Cubitt, Stephenson, and Brunel, engineers, he was on is called ' Antiquus Donatus,' the old Donat. Cotgrave quotes an old the Building Committee for the selection of a design for the building French proverb, "Les Diables estoient encores en leur Donat," "the of the Great Exhibition of 1851, and with Messrs. Cockerell and Scott | devils were but yet in their grammar." on the committee for selection of architectural drawings to be (Harles, Introd, in Hist. Ling. Latino, 8vo, Bremæ, 1773, pp. 202, forwarded to the Exposition Universelle' of 1855, whereat he himself 203; Clarke, Bibliogr. Dict., ut supra ; Warton, Hist. Eng. Poet., 4to, received from the jury one of the first-class gold medals.

vol. i. p. 281; &c.) Mr. Donaldson designed and superintended the erection of All DONATUS, Bishop of Casa Nigra in Numidia, from whom, and Saints' Church, near Gordon-square; the library, Flaxman Hall, and from another Donatus originated the schismatic sect of the Donatista staircase at University College; and was associated with a French Donatus was the great opponent to the election of Cecilianus into the architect in the erection of Mr. Hope's residence in Piccadilly; and he bishopric of Carthage. He accused Cecilianus of having delivered up has also built the Scots Church, Woolwich, and various houses and the sacred books to the Pagans, and pretended that his election was churches in the country. In 1846 his design for the

Royal Exchange thereby void, and all those who adhered to him heretics. Under this was adjudged to be the best in what was considered to be the first pretext of zeal he set up for the head of a party, and, about the year class; but was regarded as pot complying in all respects with the 312, taught that baptism administered by heretics was ineffectual ; requisitions. This however the architect denied. The chief feature that the church was not infallible; that it had erred in his time, and was a noble portico, somewhat resembling what exists in the present that he was to be the restorer of it. But a council held at Arles, in building. The conduct of the committee with reference to the com- 314, acquitted Cecilianus, and declared his election valid. The partipetitors generally, as too frequently in such cases, justified animadver- sans of Donatus, who were very numerous, irritated at the decision, sion; and eventually a second competition was got up, from which refused to acquiesce in the sentence of the council; and the better to





support their cause, they subscribed to the opinions of Donatus, and later operas, besides his usual grace and facility, exbibit strength, openly declaimed against the Catholics. It is said that they

gave out solidity, command of the resources of counterpoint, and skill in instruthat the church was become prostituted ; re-baptised the Catholics; mentation, much superior to his earlier productions. His artistic trod under foot the hosts consecrated by priests attached to the Holy powers were

thus manifestly improving and expanding towards the See; burned their churches : and committed various other acts of termination of his musical career. Soon after the performance of his violence. They had chosen into the place of Cecilianus one Majorinus, Lucia,' which excited great admiration, he was appointed Professor but he dying soon after, they brought in another Donatus, different of Counterpoint in the Royal College of Music at Naples, and after the from him of Casa Nigra, as bishop of Carthage. It was from this production of Linda' at Vienna, he was named chapel-master and new head of the sect, who used so much violence against the Catholics, composer to the imperial court. In 1845, while in Paris, symptoms that the Donatists are believed to have received their name. They of mental decay, arising chiefly from habits of intemperance, began to appear to have sent one of their bishops to Rome, and to have show themselves, and he was for some time in a lunatic asylum. Io attempted likewise to send some bishops into Spain, that they might October 1847 he was removed to bis native town of Bergamo, where say their church began to spread itself everywhere. They attained he died on the 8th of April 1848. (Nouvelle Biographie Générale.) they are said to have been little inferior in numbers to the orthodox able parents

. At the early age of eleven, being esteemed a good party in Africa, and to have been directed by four hundred bishops. Latin and French scholar, he was sent to the University of Oxford, After many ineffectual efforts to crush this schism, the emperor Hono- and after remaining there a few years was removed to Cambridge. rius ordered a council of bishops to assemble at Carthage in the year Although he greatly distinguished himself in his studies he took no 410, where a disputation was held between seven of each party, when degree, as his family being Roman Catholic had conscientious objections it was decided that the laws enacted against heretics had force against to his making the requisite oath. At the age of seventeen he went the Donatists. The glory of their defeat was due to St. Augustine, to Lincoln's Inn to study the law; and while here, in order to satisfy bishop of Hippo, who bore the principal part in this controversy. certain religious doubts, he read the controversies between the Roman The Donatists however continued as a separate body, and attempted Catholics and Protestants, and decided in favour of the latter. After to multiply their sect even in the 6th century; but the orthodox travelling for about a year in Spain and Italy, he became on his return bishops used so much prudence that they insensibly brought over secretary to Lord Elsinore, and fell in love with that nobleman's most of those who had strayed from the bosom of the church. The niece, the daughter of Sir George More. The lady returned his church of the Donatists gradually dwindled to nothing, and became quite affection, and they were privately married. When this union was extinct in the 7th century. (Broughton, Dict. of all Religions, folio, discovered by Sir George he was so indignant, that he induced Lord Lond., 1756, pp. 340, 341; Mosheim, Eccl. History, 4to, Lond., 1765, Elsinore to dismiss Donne from his service. The unfortunate secrevol. i. pp. 211, 214, 259, 305; Moreri, Dict. Historique, folio, Paris, tary was afterwards imprisoned by his father-in-law, and his wife was 1759, tom. iv. p. 214.)

taken from him; but by an expensive law.proceeding, which consumed DONEAU, Latinised DONELLUS, HUGUES, a lawyer, was born nearly all his property, he was enabled to recover her. Sir George at Châlons-sur-Saône, in France, December 23, 1527. He is said to forgave him shortly afterwards, but absolutely refused to contribute have been idle in his youth, and an anecdote is preserved, according anything towards his support, and he was forced to live with his to which he was frightened into diligence by a threat of his father to kinsman, Sir Francis Whalley. Dr. Morton, afterwards bishop of have him brought up as an assistant to a swineherd. He studied Gloucester, advised Donne to enter into the Church, and offered him literature at Tournon and jurisprudence at Toulouse, and subsequently a benefice; but although in great poverty be refused the offer, at Bourges, where he took a degree as Doctor of Laws in 1551. He thinking himself not holy enough for the priesthood. Sir Francis soon afterwards began to teach jurisprudence at Bourges, and con- Whalley at last effected a complete reconciliation between Donne and tinued to do so till the massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572. He Sir George, who allowed his son-in-law 8001., in quarterly sums of had embraced the opinions of the Huguenots, and, dreading to be 201. each, till the whole should be paid. Still he continued to be in involved in ruin with others of his persuasion, he made his escape to embarrassed circumstances, and after residing some time at Mitcham, Geneva, being aided by his pupils, among whom he seems to have been wbither he had removed for the sake of his wife's health, he lived in popular, and who had determined to defend his person if he were the house of Sir Robert Drury, at Drury Lane. He accompanied that attacked. After having remained a short time in Geneva, he was gentleman to Paris, contrary to the solicitations of his wife, who called by the Calvinist Elector Palatine Frederic III. to be Professor could not bear to be parted from him, and who, as she said, felt a of Law at Heidelberg. Ludwig IV., the successor of this prince, who foreboding of some evil. While Donne was in Paris, there is a story did not follow his religious opinions, made changes in the university that he saw the apparition of his wife enter his apartment bearing a which drove Doneau thence, and leaving Heidelberg in 1579, he settled dead child, and shortly afterwards received the intelligence that his in Leyden. Having adopted the faction in favour of the Earl of Lei- wife had actually been delivered of a dead child at that very moment. cester, he was obliged to leave Holland and return to Germany. He The honest angler, Izaak Walton, who writes Donne's biography, died at Altorf on the 4th of May 1591. He was a voluminous com- seems inclined to believe this story. On Donne's return to England mentator. His earliest work appears to have been “In titulum de he was introduced to James I., and delighted the king by a polemic Usuris in Pandectis Commentarius, Paris, 1556. A collection of his treatise against Catholicism, entitled Pseudo-Martyr. James was so commentaries was published in five volumes, fol., at Frankfurt, in 1596, anxious that he should take holy orders, that Donne at length comand again in 1626, with the title 'Commentariorum de Jure Civili libri plied, and became the king's chaplain-in-ordinary. His style of xxviii., ex recensione et cum supplementis Scipionis Gentilis.' One preaching is thus described by Walton: “always preaching as an of the most complete extant lists of Doneau's works will be found in angel from a cloud, but not in a cloud." The University of Cambridge the printed catalogue of law books in the Advocates' Library, Edin made him doctor of divinity; the benchers of Lincoln's Inn presented borgh. His Life is in the Supplement of 'Les Vies des plus célèbres him with their lectureship; and after accompanying an embassy to Jurisconsultes,' by Taisand.

the Queen of Bohemia, James's daughter, he became dean of St. DONELLUS. [Donead.]

Paul's and vicar of St. Dunstan's, being then in the fifty-fourth year DONIZETTI, GAETANO, was born September 25, 1798, at Ber- of his age. Falling into a consumption, he was unable to perform gamo, in Northern Italy. He studied in the Lyceum of that town, his clerical duties; but some enemy having hinted that he merely and his father having originally destined him for the law, it was some feigoed illness because he was too idle to preach, he mounted his what late before he commenced his musical studies. He received his pulpit, and almost in a dying state, preached what Walton has called first instruction at the Musical Institute of Bergamo, of which Simone his "own funeral sermon.' Tbis discourse was afterwards printed Mayer was then director. Here he remained three years, and in 1815 under the quaint title of Death's Duel.' From this time he removed to Bologna, where his musical education was completed under abandoned all thoughts of life, and even had a portrait painted of Pilotti and Mattei. In consequence of some dispute with bis father, himself, enveloped in a shroud, a design apparently for the shrouded he entered into the army, and while in garrison with his regiment at effigy afterwards placed as his monument in St. Paul's cathedral : Venice in 1818 produced his first opera, ' Enrico di Borgogna.' He this portrait he kept in his bed-room. He died March 31st, 1631, continued to write for the theatre, and in 1822 left the army. His having exalted himself (according to Walton), almost to a state of earliest pieces are forgotten, or at least are no longer performed, and angelic beatitude. it was not till 1830, when he produced 'Anna Bolena' at Milan, that Of the real goodness and piety of Donne there can be no doubt. he began to take rank with the higher class of musical composers. In But while we admire these genuine qualities, we must not be blind to the course of these first twelve years of his career he composed the superstitions which were blended with Donne's religion, though 31 operas. During the fourteen years from 1830 to 1844, when his these might be attributed partially (but not wholly) to the age. last opera, 'Catarino Cornaro' was performed, he produced 33 operas, There was evidently a great deal of simplicity about him, as well as of wbich several have supk into oblivion, but others still retain their about his biographer Walton, who, enthusiastic in his admiration, places on the stages of Italy, Germany, France, and England. Some exalts a weakness as much as his hero's most brilliant qualities are especial favourites, and frequently performed. Among these more However, to those who wish to see characters like Donne treated in fortunate productions may be mentioned 'Anna Bolena,' Milan, 1830; the spirit of their own time, we cannot recommend a more delightful 'L'Elisire d'Amore,' Milan, 1832; ‘Lucrezia Borgia,' Milan, 1833; book than Walton's 'Life of Donne.' • Marino Faliero,' Paris, 1835; ‘Lucia di Lammermoor,' Naples, 1835; As a poet, Donne was one of those writers whom Johnson has (to 'Betly,' Naples, 1836; La Fille du Régiment,' Paris, 1840'; Lá use Wordsworth's expression) 'strangely' designated metaphysical Favorite, Paris, 1840; Linda di Chamouni, Vienna, 1842; Don poets ; a more infelicitous expression could not well have been devised. Pasquale, Paris, 1843;' Maria di Roban,' Vienna, 1843. Most of these The fact is, that .quaint conceits' are only the deformities of Donne's

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