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profession, turned to literature for support as well as fame. For took arms in their own defence, and placing the Dauphin at their some years he conducted the 'Journal de Jurisprudence.' Hil advo- head, overpowered the Cabocbiens, and restored the tranquillity of the cacy of liberal views had brought him into connection with some of city. After the death of the Dauphin the Ecorcheurs appeared again the more active promoters of the revolution of 1830, and shortly after on the scene, in the reign of Charles VII., but were then headed by that event he was appointed procureur-general for Corsica. But he a ruffian named Capeluche. What had become of Caboche is not was dissatisfied with the constitution of July as not sufficiently demo- known. cratic, and he for some time delayed to depart for the scene of his CABOT, SEBASTIAN, was the son of John Cahot or Gabotto, a new duties. At length when he was compelled to go, his first act native of Venice, who resided occasionally in England, and of whoin on arriving at Bastia was to deliver an official address, in which he little more is known than that he was a wealthy, intelligent merchanty denounced the new charter, and pointed out in detail its deficiencies. and fond of maritime discovery. Sebastian was born at Bristol about This of course could not be tolerated, and M. Cabet was summariảy 1477, and was early instructed in geography, navigation, and matherecalled. He at once threw himself into the ranks of the opposition. matics. When only 19 years of age, he was included with bis two Chosen by one of the electoral colleges of Dijon, he made himself brothers in a patent, dated 5th of March, 1496, granted by Henry VII. conspicuous in the Chamber of Deputies by the violence of his to John Cabot his father, for the discovery and conquest of unknowu harangues, and at the same time he published several pamphlets, lands. About a year after the date of the patent, Sebastian Cabot and established a newspaper 'Le Populaire' of ultra-democratic sailed (apparently with his father) in a ship equipped at Bristol, tendencies. For certain strictures on the king he was, in February named the Matthew, and on the 24th of June he first saw North 1834, prosecuted, and being found guilty was condemned to two years' America, probably the coast of Labrador, about lat. 56o. It has imprisonment and a heavy penalty. He however escaped to England, generally been stated that this first-discovered land was Newfoundwhere he remained till the amnesty of 1839 permitted him to return land, and that it was named by Cabot, Prima Vista; but it appears to Paris ; soon after which he published a 'Histoire de la Révolution that the cause of the error was a mistranslation by Hakluyt of a de 1789,' the fruit of his labour while in exile, but it gained him no document in Latin appended to a map of America drawn by Cabot reputation, and was soon forgotten.

himself. The description given in that document cannot possibly refer He vow began to put forward bis peculiar doctrines. The first to Newfoundland, but may apply very well to the coast of Labrador. We direct publication of them appears to have been in 1841, in ‘Letters have no account of this voyage further than the discovery itself, but from a Communist to a Reformer.' But a more formal enunciation of it appears probable that Cabot returned to England immediately; an them appeared in his 'Voyage en Icarie,' published in 1842, in which opinion which receives some support from an entry in the privy under the figment of a utopian republic he developed his views of a purse expenses of Henry VII.,— " 10th August 1497 To hym that socialist colony. The book at once attracted the notice of a large found the new Isle 101.” This is still further confirmed by the patent number of the working classes of Paris already strongly imbued with of 3rd of February 1498, granting to John Kabotto permission to socialistic opinions. In his scheme he had provided a complete code take six ships in any haven of the realm, of the burden of 200 tons for the moral and physical as well as the political governance of the and under, " to convey and lede to the Londe and Isles of late founde community, and he soon found disciples ready to place themselves by the seid John in oure name and by our commaundemente," &c. under bis direction. He made a journey to London in 1847 in order it is difficult to assign to each of the Cabots (a father and three sons) to obtain the grant of a large tract of country in Texas, and having bis exact part in these discoveries, but Sebastian seems always to have announced his success, the first party of his followers departed for been considered the most scientific navigator of the family. Another the land of promise, as Cabet afterwards declared against his advice, voyage was made by Cabot, according to the terms of this patent, but and without any knowledge of the country or of the nature of the we have no details as to its results; and a third voyage appears to difficulties they would have to encounter. They reached their desti- have been made to the Gulf of Mexico in 1499. About this tine it nation, but intelligence quickly arrived in Paris that they were suffer is supposed that John Cabot died, but there is no record of his leath, ing the most terrible privations. A great outcry was raised against nor is anything whatever known of Sebastian Cabot for the next Cabet, but the faith of his disciples was not shaken, and another band twelve years. Soon after the death of Henry VII. Cabot was sent for was soon found to follow in the track of the pioneers. Cabet himself by Ferdinand king of Spain, in which country he arrived in September get out at the end of the year to join his disciples. He found them 1512, and immediately received the title of Captain, with a liberal divided into two parties. The larger section adhered to him, and salary. It appears from Spanish authorities, that Cabot was disgusted alipounced their readiness to proceed with him in search of a more with the waut of consideration shown' him in England. No specitic suitable home. The Mormons had some time before been expelled duties appear to have been at first assigned to Cabot in Spain; but we from their city of Nauvoo, and Cabet in his journey through the ind him in 1515 coonected with a general revision of maps and chirts, Cnited States had learnt that there was a city finely situated on the and holding the diguitied station of member of the council of the Indi s. Mississippi but now lying deserted, already provided to his hand, and He was also appointed to conduct an important expedition for new disthat he would find little difficulty in obtaining permission to occupy coveries towards the west ; but the death of Ferdinand, iu the beginning it. In May 1850 Cabet with his Icariens was established in Nauvoo. of 1516, prevented the accomplishment of the plan. The new king of He was not destined as yet however to rest there. During his absence Spain, Charles V., was occupied elsewhere, and did not reach Spain from Paris a process had been commenced against him for having for some time, during which the court was a scene of shamel-es inobtained money under false pretences from his followers, and having trigue. Fonseca, the enemy of Columbus, was in authority, and the of course failed to put in a defence he was condemned, September slights he and his creatures put upon Cabot caused the latter to 1849, in contumacy, to two years' imprisonment. The news of this return to England. ln 1517 Cabot was employed by Henry VIII., in sentence produced some commotion at Nauvoo, but the opposition was connection with Sir Thomas Perte, to make another attempt at a suppressed, and a vote passed of confidence in the honour and probity north-west passage. On this voyage he reached lat. 67}', and it of their leader. Cabet almost immediately returned to Paris, and, must have been on this occasion that he entered Hudson's Bay," and notwithstanding the vast amount of prejudice he found existing gave English names to sundry places therein." But of this, like all against himself, remitted his case to the Court of Appeal, and after the rest of Cabot's discoveries, no details have been preserved, and A trial which lasted three days his former sentence was reversed. even the whole voyage has been referred to the south iustead of the

M. Cabet shortly after the trial returned to Nauvoo, where he has north. It is only known that the malice or timidity of Sir Thomas since continued, the sole judge and ruler of his little band. The Perte, and the mutinous conduct of his crew, compelled him to return. most recent accounts we have seen represent the Icariens as living in After this voyage Cabot again visited Spain, where he was named by apparent harmony, having a community of goods, and posses-ing Charles V. Pilot Major of the kingdom, and intrusted with the duty of under Cabet something like equality,--a social despotism in fact. critically examining all projects of voyages of discovery. At this time But the number of the community appears to be steadily decreasing: the views of adventurers were chiefly directed to the south, and the it now probably scarcely exceeds 200. (See SUPPLEMENT.]

Molucca Islands were pointed out as a valuable field for enterprise. (Nouvelle Biographie Universelle; Gazetteers of the United States, &c.) Portugal having earnestly represented that the limits assigned to her CABOCHE, SIMONET, was the principal leader in Paris of a by the pope in his division of the New World would include the seditious band attached to the faction of Jean Sans-Peur, duke of Moluccas, it was resolved that a solemn conference should take place, Burgundy. Charles VI., king of France, bad become insane about the in which all parties should state their claims, and experienced men year 1393, and the kingdom during the remainder of his disastrous should attend for the purpose of reference. Cabot is at the head of reign was harassed by the rival factions of the Armagnacs, who were this list, in which we also find Ferdinand Columbus, son of the great led by the Count of Armagnac and the Duke of Orléans (the king's Columbus. The conference was held at Badajoz, in April 1524, and by brother), and the Bourgognians (Burgundians), who were the followers the end of May sentence was pronounced that the Moluccas were of the Duke of Burgundy. The butchers of Paris were at that period within the Spanish

division of the world. The Portuguese retired in a corporate body, having a monopoly of the supply of meat for the disgust, talking of preparing an expedition to destroy any Spavish or city, and were consequently, possessed of property, power, and influ- other vessel which should venture to trade within the disputed territory. ence. Caboche was at the head of that division of the trade who Immediately after the decision, a company was formed at Seville to were called Ecorcheurs (Skinners), and his party, named after him prosecute the trade to the Moluccas, and Cabot was solicited to take Cabochiens, and sometimes Écorcheurs, in number about 500, and the command. By an unfortunate selection, the persons who were armed with their formidable knives, became notorious for their put in command immediately under Cabot were personally hostile to violence and ferocity. Their reign of terror seems to have commenced him. The expedition sailed in April 1526, and proceeded to cross the about 1412, and to have terminated about 1414, when the main body Atlantic. On the Brazilian coast a daring mutiny, excited by his of the citizens of Paris, incensed by their exactions and massacres, officers, compelled him to resort to the extremity of putting on shore





the three ringleaders, who were actually the persons named to succeed at the time, both of Cabrera's soldiers and the enemy, attributed to him io command in case of his death. Cabot explored the river La him the betrayal of the disguise of his commander, but he succeeded Plata and some of its tributaries, erected forts in the most favourable to the vacant command. It is now generally believed that this suspi. positions, and endeavoure i to colonise the country. He despatched cion was unfounded, but there can be no doubt that Cabrera, now persons to Spain to solicit the permi-sion of the Emperor Charles, and become a formidable leader, was cruel beyond even the usual licence a supply of ammunition, provisions, &c.; and as the merchants decliued of a partisan chief. The incensed Christinos, eager for revenge, to co-operate in the new undertaking, Charles took the whole expense stained their cause by an act of deap atrocity. General Nogueras upon himself.

seized the mother of Cabrera who was in his power, and she was About 1527 Diego Garcia, commander of a rival expedition, arrived sentenced to be shot, to punish the atrocities of her son. The result in the Plata, ascended tue Paraná, and had an int-rview with Cabot. of the measure was that Cabrera ordered the massacre of the wives of Garcia claimed the discovery of the Plata River as being under orders thirty officers, and the war became a war of murder. For several years from Charles V., and Cabot, who would not struggle for a doubtful afterwards his career was one of singular daring, great military talent, right, descended the river with him. Garcin soon after quitted the and reckless cruelty. Not only did he hold the Maestrazgo against all couutry, but left behind him some of his followers, who were guilty the forces the government could bring against him, but he joined of acts wbich ruused the fierce resentment of the Guaranis, but in Gomez in his bold march through Andalusia ; took the city of Valencia, which it is expressly declared by Herrera that Cabot took no part. where his sanguinary banquet of the 29th of March 1837 is remeinThe vengeance of the natives knew no distinctions; the whole nation bered with horror; and he at one time threatenel for some days burat with fury on the feeble colony, and Cabot was compelled to put Matrid, where it is said the timidity of Don Carlos alone prevented to sea. He returned Spain in 1531, where he resuined his old Cabrera from storming the royal palace. He had under bis command office, and is kuown to have made several voyages. In 1548 he towards the end of this civil war a body of 20,000 infantry and 800 resolved to return to his native country.

horse. At the time of “the einbrace of Bergara," in August 183, Edward VI. was then on the throne of England, and being very wuen fortunately for Spain the cause of Don Carlos was betrayed by solicitous about maritime affairs, he appears to have conversed with his other general, Cabrera was master of the Maestrazgo, and the title Cabot, and to have received from him some explanation about the of Court of Morella conferred on him by Don Carlos for his successful variation of the compass, first noticed, or at least first particularly defence of Morella against the Christinos, was borne by him in the attended to, by Sebastian Cabot. In the beginning of 1519 Edward conventions with the Christino generals, in which, at the instigation of granted him a pension of 250 marks per annum (1661. 138. 4d.). Cabot Lord Eliot sent by the Duke of Wellington, the system of wutual remained high in the king's favour, and was consulted in all affairs slaughter was at last renounced. After Bergara he was unable to relating to trade and navigation. The advice and influence of Cabot continue the contest, and in 1840 took refuge in France, where he was in directing an expedition to the north opened to England the valuable at first sent to the fortress of Ham, but was soon after set at liberty. trade with Russia : he was made governor of the company of merchant In 1815 he strongly opposed Don Carlos's abilication of his rights in adventurers by whoin the expedition was fitted out; and the instruc- favour of the Count de Montemolin, but in 1848, the year of revolutiou, tions delivered by him to the commander, Sir Hush Willoughby, reflect when circumstances in Spain seemed to present a favourable opening the greatest credit on bis good sense, knowledge, and humanity. for his purposes, he returned to rekindle civil war. In an action fought

After the Russian trade was established, the exertions of Cabot were at Pasteral in January 1849, he was not only defeated but severely continued : the journal of Stephen Burroughs, who was despatched wounded, and obliged in consequence for a second time to take refuge as commander of a vessel in 1556, shows tie character of Cabut in & in France. He soon afterwards came to England, where he had favourable light. Speaking of a visit to the vessel at Gravesend previous previously passed some time in his first exile, aud married au Engli-lje to her departure, he says : -" The good olde gentleman, Master Cabota, woman, with whom he afterwards removed tó Naples. On the demand gave to the poure most liberall almes, wishing them to pray for the of the Spanish Government he was in 1851 expelled from Naples, and good fortune and prosperous successe of the Serchthrift, our Piuuesse;" has since taken no prominent part in political affairs. and at an entertainment afterwards—" for very joy that he had to see The career of Cabrera has been treated at length by several Spanish the towardness of our intended discovery, he entered into the dance writers. There is a life of bim in four volumes by Don Bu-laventura himselfe amongst the rest of the young and lusty company."

de Córdoba. An historical novel by Don Wenceslao Ayguals de Isco, The death of Edward VI., and the succession of Mary, put an end entitled 'El Tigre del Maestrazgo,' depicts him in the blackest colours, to the enterprise of Cabot. His pension was continued until May and in it Cabrera is represented as having cruelly slain the author's 1557, when it was renewed, not to him exclusively, but jointly with brother. There is also a small volume in answer to this siugular proone William Worthington, of whom little is known. To this person duction by Gonzalez de la Cruz. Finally, there is a poem in honour all the maps and documents of Cabot were delivered, and it has been of Cabrera published at Madrid in 1819, entitled El Candillo de supposed that by his means they were either destroyed or put into Morelle' ("The Chief of Morella'). It is admitted on all hands that the possession of Philip of Spain, the husband of Mary; certain it is for dariug courage, for fertility of resources, and for presence of mind that they are no longer to be found.

in danger, Cabrera is unmatched in the recent anpals of Spain. It is not known when or where Cabot died; although his friend CAPUCÍA, GUGLIELMO, commonly called MONCALVO, from Eden, in his dedication to the translation of • Taisnierus's Treatise on Moncalvo, near Casale, the place of his abode, was born at Montalone Navigation,' gives an account of his death. He says, speaking of a in 1563. He was one of the best fresco painters of the 17th century, mode of finding the longitude—"Cabot, on his death-bed, tolde me and is among the most celebrated of the Piedmontese painters. There that be had the knowledge thereof, by divine revelation, yet so that he are still several of his works in Milan, Pavia, Turin, Novara, Moncalvo, might not teache any man.” Eden thought "the good old man in Casale, and other cities of that part of Italy. The church de' C\nthat extreme age somewuat doted, and had not yet, even in the article ventuali alone, at Moncalvo, contains alınost a gallery of Caccia's works of death, utterly shaken off all worldlye value glorye.”

in oil; they are very light in colour, but faint in effect, and in desigu (Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, London, 1831 ; see also Hakluyt, frequently remind us strongly of the works of Andrea del Sarto, Purchas, Cooley, and Anderson, History of Commerce.)

especially in bis . Holy Families' and such pieces. He is reported to *CABRERA, DON RAMON, a Carlist chief very prominent in have studied with the Carracci, a fact which Lanzi considers very some of the darkest passages of the recent history of Spain, was born improbable; and he says that if Caccia studied in Bologna at all, it at Tortosa in 1810. He lost his father in 1816, bis mother, who con must have been from the works of L. Sabbatini, prior to the Carracci; tracted a second marriage, survived for a fate which excited the but he accounts for his similarity of style with that master from a horror of Europe. Young Cabrera, who was intended for a priest, picture by Soleri in Casale, from which he may have acquired it, as but who is said to have been found incapable of learning Latin, first their styles are very similar. Bernardino Campi also painted in a very became known in 1834. On the death of Ferdinand VII. in 1833, a similar style. Caccia's best works in fresco are in the church of Sant' decree was made that all the royalist volunteers or supporters of Antonio Abate at Milan, and in San Paolo at Novara. His master-piece absolutism should be disarmed. The decree was generally obeyed in oil is considered to be the 'Deposition from the Cross,' in the church throughout the kingdom, except in the wild district called the of San Gaudenzio at Novara : there are also two excellent altar-pieces Maestrazgo on the borders of Aragon, Catalonia, and Castile, which by him in the churches of Santa Croce and Santa Teresa at Turin, and became the general refuge of all the malcontents who were determined two others in a chapel of San Domenico at Chieri. Some of his to retain their arms. General Breton, the governor of Tortosa, landscape backgrounds are in the style of Paul Bril. Caccia died expelled from the town, when the times seemed to be becoming about 1625. unsettled, all whom he considered suspicious characters, and among Caccia instructed two of his daughters in painting-Orsola Maddalena them Cabrera, more it is said to be rid of a riotous and dissolute and Francesca—by whom there are many works in Moncalvo and the Foung man than with any other view. Cabrera exclaimed as be left vicinity: the pictures of the elder, Oreola, are marked with a flower; the town, " I swear I will make some noise in the world," and in a those of Francesca with a bird. Orsola founded the Couservatorio few montbe he succeeded. The wild youth, who had hitherto only delle Orseline (Ursulines) in Moncalvo; she died in 1678. Francesa organised street disturbances, turned out to be a terrible partisan also survived her father many years : she died aged 57. chief, and was soon second in command in the Maestrazgo now in open (Orlandi, Abecedario Pittorico ; Lanzi, Storia Pilturica, &c.) revolt. He was ere long sent for to concert with Don Carlos in the CADE, JOHN, an Irishwan, who pretended and was believed by Basque provinces ; on his return the commander above him, Dun some to be bastard relation of the Duke of York, and hence assumed Ramon Carnicer, was summoned to Don Carlos also, but was inter the name of Mortimer.' Sbakspere has made him familiarly known to cepted by the troops of Queen Christina, through whom he tried to us as 'Jack Cade.' The ipsurrection which he headed broke out in make his way in disguise, was detected, and shot. Universal opinion Kent in the beginning of Juue, during Whitsuntide week, in the year





1450, and had its origin in the wide-spread dissatisfaction occasioned them to Egypt, and one modern scholar has endeavoured to prove that by the conduct of the Duke of Suffolk, the favourite and chief minister Cadmus was the leader of a Cretan colony. We are inclined to believe of the king. A list of their grievances was published by the insurgents, with Müller that Cadmus was an old Pelasgian god. Indeed very strong entitled "The Coinplaint of the Commons of Kent. Among other evidence has been given that he was identical with Cadmilus, the complaints alleged by the insurgents were the following :-" That father of the Cabiri, and that his wife Harmonia was also connected people paid not for stuff and purveyance taken for the king's use; with the Samothracian rites. (Müller's 'Orchomenos,' p. 461.) The that the king's lands in France are aliened and put away fro the crown; legend goes on to relate that he and his wife were changed into serthat the people of Kent are not suffered to have free elections of knights pents, and that he retired to Illyria (Pausan., ix. 583), from whence he of the shire." In addition, Cade sent a memorial to the king, expressive led a host of barbarians into Greece and sacked Delphi (Herod., v. 61, of great loyalty, entitled The Requests by the Captain of the Great is. 43; Eurip., Bacchæ,' 1333; Niebuhr, 'Hist. Rom.,' i. p. 50). To Assembly in Kent,' praying bim “ to take about his person his true Cadmus is attributed the invention of seventeen letters of the Greek lords, and to avoid all the false progeny and affinity of Suffolk," and alphabet; the remaining eight having been added by Palamedes and affirming that “the realm of France, the duchies of Normandy, Gascony, Simonides. (Pliny, 'Hist. Nat.,' t. vii., c. 56.) Guienne, Anjou, and Maine, were delivered and lost by means of the CADMUS, of Miletus, was the first Greek prose writer. He lived said traitors.” This last circumstance especially irritated the nation, towards the end of the 7th or the beginning of the 6th century B.C., and to these causes of discontent were added the hardships caused by and wrote a history, in four books, of the foundation of his native city the statute of labourers and extortionate proceedings which vexed and and the colonisation of Ionia, which was epitomised by Bion of Proirritated the commonalty. On the 17th of June, Cade and his followers connesus. (Clem. Al Strom., vi. p. 629; Pliny, 'Hist. Nat.,' vii. 56, were encamped at Blackheath. The king, who was with the parlia- v. 29; Isocrates, 'llepl 'Avri86ws.') ment at Leicester, hastily collected his forces at London, and prepared CADOUDAL, GEORGES, the son of a poor miller, was born in to march upon the rebels. During this interval, Cade sent to the king 1769, in the neighbourhood of Auray in Lower Brittany. He received the memorials which bave been mentioned. Cade had been encamped that education of the mind, with religion for its basis, which has about a week when the king's forces marched to attack him, upon always distinguished the western population of France. One of the which he hastily retreated to Sevenoaks. The royalists, believing the first to answer the call to arms of the royalists, he collected, in rebels were in flight, detached a portion of their forces in pursuit; March 1793, a body of 50 Bretons, traversed the woods, fought severil upon which Cade led his followers against this detachment, which was combats, and joined the main army at Faugeres. He was afterwards defeated, and Sir Humphry Staffyrd and his brother, who commanded present at the siege of Granville, at the battle of Mans, and other it, were amongst the killed. Cade now resumed his encampment at engagements. Next, assisted by his steadfast friend Lemercier, he Blackheath. The royalists were distrustful of their followers, and as achieved an insurrection in the Morbiban. This was his talent: none a popular concession, the king's council committed to the Tower Lord of the patriot leaders knew better than Georges how to move the Say and some others, who were disliked by the people on account of passions of the simple peasantry, by his denunciation of the republic their connection with the obnoxious ministry. The king's army then and his advocacy of the Bourbons. In 1794 he was captured by a returned to London and dispersed. The Archbishop of Canterbury party of republican soldiers, and sent as a prisoner to Brest. and the Duke of Buckingham were sent to negociate with Cade, but After a few months' captivity be made his escape, with several of he refused to lay down bis arms until bis demands were acceded to. his companions, and became a leader (chef de canton). In July 1795, On the 1st of July be marched from Blackheath for London. Some during the misunderstanding between the Vendean generals and the of the common council advised the admission of the rebels, and an emigrant officers, after the landing of Puisaye and Quiberon, Georges alderman who opposed it was taken into custody. It was resolved that strove hard to rescue a portion of the Chouan army from the disaster a neutral part should be taken, and the gates were opened to the which followed. The royalists were fearfully slaughtered by the army insurgents. Cade rode through the streets, and struck the old London of Hoche, but Cadoudal effected the retreat of a strong party. He stone with his sword, exclaiming “Now is Mortimer lord of this city!" soon took upon himself the conduct of the insurrection in Lower He issued proclamations forbiddig plunder, and each day withdrew Brittany; and, irritated at the conduct of the leaders of the late ill. his followers into the Borough to prevent disorder. On the 3rd of starred expedition, he organised an army of peasants, admitting July Cade sent for Lord Say, and had him arraigned at Guildhall. neither noble nor emigrant officer to any share in the command. This nobleman claimed to be judged by his peers, on which he was During the latter part of 1795 and the early part of 1796, the great taken by force to the Standard in Cheapside, and there beheaded military talents of Hoche tried most severely the patience and The sheriff of Kent, Lord Say's son-in-law, was also beheaded, on endurauce of the Chouans; still their hardy leaders kept them from account of his alleged extortions. The mob soon began to exhibit the disbanding. usual characteristics of an undisciplined multitude. On the third day Then followed two years of inaction, whilst the faithful Chouan was of their being in possession of the city some houses were plundered: waiting for the signal to be sent from Paris to resume the offensive. Cade himself plundered the house where he had dined. This conduct In January 1799, Georges Cadoudal, who had never dissolved his little decided the citizens, who concerted measures with Lord Scales, the band, intimated to the royalist leaders that everything was ready for governor of the Tower, and it was determined to defend the bridge a speedy insurrection. The following August he mustered his forces, and prevent the entry of the reb-ls. The struggle lasted during the and occupied the camp of Beauchène. Other chiefs united their bands night, but the bridge was eventually taken by the royalists, and a with his, but Cadoudal's was the most considerable, and, submitting short truce was agreed upon. In this interval the Bishop of Winchester to his authority, they invested him with the chief command of the was sent by the archbishops of Canterbury and York, who were in the Morbihan and Cotes-du-Nord. A great civil war was imminent; the Tower, with a pardon under the great seal to all the rebels who were flames had spread through the provinces of Marne, Normandy, and disposed to return to their homes. The offer was accepted by the mass Brittany, when the abrupt explosion of the great conspiracy of the of them, including Cade. Two days afterwards he again invited his 18th Brumaire paralysed the royalists aud raised Bonaparte to power. followers to his standard, but they focked around it in diminished The inflexible Chouan resisted still, fought the battles of Grand-Champ numbers, and to attack the city was now hopeless. He therefore and Elven (1800), and was the last to think of peace. retired from Southwark to Rochester, where tumults and quarrels arore Georges Cadoudal now went to Paris, and became the object of the among the insurgents respecting the division of booty. On this Cade First Consul's admiring notice. The waster of France used every art left them, and fied on horseback to Lewes in Sussex. A reward of to win him over to his service, but nothing could shake the constancy 1000 marks being set upon his head, he was taken by an esquire named of this rude chief. Bonaparte then strove to arrest him; but the Alexander Iden, and killed, after a desperate resistance, July 11. His Chouan fled to England, where he was treated with great distinction. head was placed on London bridge. The remainder of the rebels The Comte d'Artois, with his own band, gave him the cordon rouge returned to their homes as quietly as possible. Some were taken and in the king's name. Towards the end of 1800 he returned to Brittany, executed.

again evoked the loyalty of that population, and ordered several spies CADMUS, the name of several persons in Greek history. The most to be shot, whom the First Consul had sent as emissaries to entrap famous was the legendary founder of Thebes, who was the son of him. Agenor, king of the Phæniciaus, and was sent in search of his sister In 1802, being once more in England, he allied himself with Europa, who had been carried off, according to the old fable, by Pichegru to overturn Bonaparte. Georges proposed to attack him Jupiter under the form of a bull. Cadmus touched at Thera, where openly, and cut through his guards. To this end, he landed secretly he left Membliarus and some of his followers (Herod.. iv., 147), and in France on the 21st of August 1803, and making his way to Paris, thence proceeded to Bæotia, where, in obedience to the oracle, he lay hid there for six months, waiting for the signal to be given by formed a settlement on a spot pointed out by a heifer which he had Moreau and Pichegru. At length, on the 4th of March 1804, he was

followed, and which lay down by the streams of Dirce. He had how surprised in a cabriolet, near the Luxembourg, and captured by a I ever in the first place to kill a fierce dragon who guarded the place, party of police, after he had killed one man and wounded another.

and on sowing the monster's teeth as he was directed to do, a host of At his trial he boldly avowed his devotion to his 'legitimate' king. armed men sprung from the ground, and fought with one another till He was condemned to death, and executed on the 25th of June, at all but seven were slain. These seven joined Cadmus in founding the age of thirty-five. “ His mind,” said Napoleon, "was cast in the Cadmeia, subsequently the citadel of Thebes; hence the Thebans true mould; in my hands he would have done great things. I knew were called Sparti (“sown-men'). All these legends are given suc- how to appreciate bis firmness of character." cessively in a chorus of Euripides (* Phoeniss.,'641-680, and Scholiast.), (Biog. Univers. ; Bourrienne ; Alison, History of Europe.) and various attempts have been made to explain them. Some contend CÆCILIUS, STA’TIUS, a Gaul, originally a slave. He received with Herodotus for the Phænician origin of the traditions, others refer the name Cæcilius when he became free. He died about one year





after his friend Ennius, that is, B.c. 168. Cæcilius wrote some forty rience alone, and that the physician, like the husbandman or the comedies in the Latin language, of which only very brief fragments steersman, is formed by practice, not by discussion. The former sect remain in the writings of Cicero, Aulus Gellius, and the grammarians. studied anatomy, the latter neglected it. (Celsus, de Med.' lib. 1.) His merit has been variously estimated by the ancients. Cicero ("Ad The Methodici combined something of the theoretical turn of the Attic.,' vii

. 3) condemns his style as bad, and Quintilian (x. i.) does dogmatics with the practical simplicity of the empirics, but it must be not assent to the praises which had been bestowed on him by others. owned that they carried this simplicity too far. Thus Themison, their Horace (Epist.' ii. i. 59, ‘De Art. Poet.' 54), on the contrary, praises founder, “ reduced all diseases to three kinds only, the strictum, the him as in some points superior to Plautus and Terence; and Vulgatius laxum, and the mixtum; the last consisting of the strictum in one Sedigitus (in Aul. Gell.' xv. 24) gives him the highest rank in comedy. part of the body, and of the laxum in another. He maintained that Many of his plays were imitations of Menander; and Aulus Gellius it was enough to refer any particular disease to one or other of these (ü. 23) says that when he read them separately they appeared rather three heads, in order to form the proper indications of cure. This easy pleasing and lively, but that when compared with the Greek originals plan was, by way of eminence, called the Method, and the persons they were perfectly disgusting. In the same very valuable chapter who followed it the Methodics." (Cullen, 'Introductory Lectures Aulus Gellius gives a scene from the Plocium (Tóktov, 'necklace') of History of Medicine.') Cæcilius with the scene of Menander from which it is copied. They With them, as with others, theory sometimes succeeded in stilling differ as much in brightness, he says, as the arms of Diomed and the best-established practice. Thus the Methodici, not satisfied with Glaucus. (Terence, 'Hec. Prol.' 5.)

banishing specifics from the practice of physic, declared war even CÆDYON, the father of English song, or the first person of whom against purgatives. These remedies had been denounced by Chrysipwe possess any metrical composition in our vernacular language. pus, Erasistratus, Asclepiades, and Thessalus; and Cælius agrees with This composition is a kind of ode consisting of no more than eighteen them. On the whole however Cælius Aurelianus ranks high among lines, celebrating the praises of the Creator. It is preserved in Alfred's the second class of medical writers-among those who, though not translation of Bede. Bede gives the following account of the pro- great discoverers, yet hand down to posterity, with useful additions, duction of it, and of the author. Cædmon was in some kind of con. the rich inheritance of knowledge which they have received. nection with the monks of Whitby : he seems to have had the care The first editions of Cælius Aurelianus are that of Paris, 1529, folio, of their cattle. It appears to have been the custom of our Saxon containing only the three books on acute diseases, and that of Basel, forefathers to amuse themselves at the supper hour with improvisatore of the same year and size, containing only the five books on chronic descants accompanied by the barp, as is still practised at meetings of diseases. There is a complete edition by Dalechamp with marginal the Welsh bards. Cædmon, far from having the gift of song, when notes, Lyon, 1567, 8vo. The best edition is that of Almeloveen, the harp passed round among the guests, was fain as it approached Amsterdam, 1722 and 1755. The last complete edition is that of him to shrink away from the assembly and retire to his own house. Haller, in two volumes, 8vo, 1774. Once after it had thus happened as he was sleeping at night, some (Sprengel, Essai d'une Histoire pragmatique de Médecine; Hist. one seemed to say to him, “ Cædmon, sing me something?" He traduit par Geiger, tom. ii.; Le Clerc, Histoire de la Médecine; Haller, replied, "I cannot sing;” and he told how his inability to sing had Biblioth. Med., vol. ii.) been the cause of his quitting the hall. “Yet thou must sing to me,” CÆSAR (Kaloap), the cognomen or distinctive family name of a said the voice; "What must I sing?" said he; "Sing me the origin branch of the illustrious Julian gens or house. Various etymologies of things." The subject thus given him, he composed the short ode of the name have been given by Roman writers, but they all seem in question. When he awoke, the words were fast in his mind. unsatisfactory, and some of them ridiculous, except that which con

Cædmon in the morning told his vision and repeated his song. The nects it with the word cæsaries, properly 'the hair of the head.' It effect was that the Abbess Hilda and the learned men whom she had was not unusual for the family names among the Romans to be derived collected round her in her monastery at Whitby believed that he had from some personal peculiarity: examples of this are Naso, Fronto, received from Heaven the gift of song, and when on the morrow he calvus, &c. The Julian gens was one of the oldest patrician houses returned with a beautiful poetic paraphrase of a passage of Scripture of Rome, and the branch of it which bore the name of Cæsar deduced which they had given him to versify as a test of the reality of his its origin from Iulus, the son of Æneas, and consequently claimed a inspiration, they at once acknowledged the verity, and earnestly descent from divine blood. (Sueton. "Cæsar.') The Julian gens is besought bim to become a member of their company. He continued traced back historically to A.U.c. 253, or B.c. 501, but the first person to receive poetic inspiration, and he composed numerous poems on who bore the distinctive family name of Cæsar is probably Sextus sacred subjects, which were sung in the abbey for the edification of its Julius Cæsar, who was quæstor A.U.C. 532, and from Caius Julius inhabitants Sacred subjects were his delight, and to them he con. Cæsar, the dictator, may be traced through five descents. (* Transactions fined himself. He continued in the monastery for the remainder of of the Royal Society of Literature, vol. i. pt. 2.) his life, and there he died, as is conjectured, about 680.

In pursuance of the will of C. J. Cæsar, the dictator, Octavius, The authenticity of the little poem above mentioned is perhaps afterwards the Emperor Augustus, who was the grandson of the unquestionable. But besides this, a very long Saxon poem, which is dictator's sister, Julia, took the family name of Cæsar. Tiberius Nero a metrical paraphrase on parts of the Scriptures, is attributed to who was adopted by his stepfather Augustus, also took the name of Cædmon. An edition of it was printed at Amsterdam in 1655, under Cæsar. Caligula and Claudius, his successors, were descended from the care of Junius. Hickes expresses doubts whether this poem can Julia, the dictator's sister; and in the person of Nero, the successor be attributed to so early a period as the time of Cadmon. He thinks of Claudius, the family of Cæsar became extinct. Nero was removed he perceives certain Dáno-Saxonisms in it which would lead him to five descents from Julia, the dictator's sister. (AUGUSTUS.] refer it to a much later period. It has been again printed with a When Hadrian adopted Ælius Verus, who was thus received into much more accurate text, by Mr. Thorpe, as a publication by the the imperial family, Verus took the name of Cæsar. Spartianus, in Society of Antiquaries, London, 8vo, 1832. Mr. Thorpe is of opinion his life of Ælius Verus, remarks, “Verus was the first who received that it is substantially the work of Cædmon, but with some sophisti- the name of Cæsar only, and that not by will, as before, but pretty cations of a later period, and in this opinion our best Anglo-Saxon nearly in the same way as in our times (the reign of Diocletian) scholars appear inclined to coincide. The poem seems to have been Maximianus and Constantius were named Cæsars, and thus designated popular, and to have been much used in later times by the makers as heirs to the empire.” Thus the term Augustus under the later of the mysteries wbich furnished so much of the amusement of our emperors signified the reigning prince, and Cæsar or Cæsares denoted ancestors. An attempt has been made to show that the parts the individual or individuals marked out by the emperor's favour as respecting the creation and our first parents had been studied by being in the line of succession. Milton.

CÆSAR, CA'IUS JUʻLIUS, the son of C. J. Cæsar and Aurelia, was CÆLIUS AURELIA'NUS, the only remaining writer of the sect born B.C. 100, on the 12th of Quintilis, afterwards called Julius from of the Methodici in medicine, is believed to have been born at Sicca in the name of the person of whom we are speaking. His aunt Julia was Africa. The time when he lived is uncertain; as neither he nor Galen the wife of Caius Marius, who was seven times consul. In his sevenmention each other, it has been supposed that they were contem- teenth year he married Cornelia, the daughter of Cinda, by whom he poraries; while others have thought, from the barbarousness of his had a daughter, Julia. This connection with Marius and Cinna, the style, that he must have lived as late as the 5th century. But his two great opponents of the dictator Sulla, exposed him to the resent. African origin as well as the imperfect education which, in common ment of the opposite faction. By Sulla's orders he was deprived of with the majority of the Methodici, he probably received, will account his wife's dowry and of the fortune which he had inherited by descent, for his barbarous Latinity, as well as his blunders in Greek. His stripped of his office of priest of Jupiter (Flamen Dialis) and work, which consists of eight books, three on acute and five on chronic compelled to seek safety by flight. (Plut. "Cæsar,' i.; Suetonius, diseases, is a translation into Latin of the writings of Soranus, a Greek Cæsar.') Sulla is said to have spared his life with great reluctance, physician, of the time of Hadrian, with additions from his own practice observing to those who pleaded his cause, that the youth would be and from other authors.

the ruin of the aristocratic party, for there were many Marii in Cæsar." Cælius Aurelianus appears to have been an observant practitioner, He first served under M. Thermus in Asia, and distinguished himself and gives several original cases in medicine as well as surgery. The at the capture of Mitylene (B.C. 80 or 79); but his reputation suffered medical sect of the Methodici held a middle place between the dog by & report (possibly an unfounded one) of scandalous profligacy matists and the empirics. The dogmatista maintained that the practice during a visit which he paid to Nicomedes, the king of Bithynia. In of physic must depend upon the theory, and that he who is ignorant the following year he served under Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia. The of the origin of diseases cannot treat them with advantage. The news of Sulla's death soon brought him back to Rome, but he took empirics, on the other hand, alleged that medicine depends on expo- no part in the movements of M. Æmilius Lepidus, who made a


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fruitless attempt to overthrow the aristocratical party, which had been An affair which happened during Cæsar's prætorship caused no little firmly established during the tyranny of Sulla. It is not unlikely, as scandal at Rome. While the ceremonies in honour of the Bona Dea Suetonius observes, that he had no confidence in Lepidus, and that he were performing in the house of Cæsar, at which women only could had penetration enough to see that the time was not come for be present, the profligate Clodius, putting on a woman's dress, conhumbling the aristocracy of Rome. Whatever opinion may be enter trived to get admission to these mysterious rites. On the affair being tained as to Cæsar having very early formed a design to seize on the discovered Cæsar divorced his wife Pompeia, whom he had married sovereigu power, it is at least certain that from his first appearance in after the death of Cornelia ; and Clodius, after being brought to a public life he had a settled purpose to break the power of the aris- public trial on a charge of impiety, only escaped by bribing the tocracy, from which he and his relatives had suffered so much. After judices or jury. (Cic. ' Ep. ad Att.' i. 12, &c.; Don. xxxviii. 45.) his unsuccessful impeachment of Dolabella for mal-administration in his From motives of policy Cæsar did not break with Clodius : he probably province, he retired to Rhodes, and for a time became the pupil of the feared his influence, and already saw that he could make him a useful rhetorician Molo, one of the greatest masters of the art, whose instruc- tool, and a bugbear to Cicero. tion Cicero had attended, probably a year or two before Cæsar's visit. The year B.C. 60 was spent by Cæsar in his province of Hispania

For some time Cæsar seems to have had little concern in public life, Ulterior, or Southern Spain, where he speedily restored order and being kept in the background by the predominance of the aristocratical hurried back to Rome before his successor came, to canvass for the party, and the successful career of Metellus, Lucullus, Crassus, and consulship. The aristocratical party saw that it was impossible to Pompey. About B.C. 69, being elected one of the military tribunes, prevent Cæsar's election; their only chance was to give him a colleague he had sufficient influence to produce an enactment for the restoration who should be a check upon him. Their choice of Bibulus seems to of L. Cinna, his wife's brother, and of those partisans of Lepidus who have been singularly unfortunate. Bibulus was elected with Cæsar in after his death had joined Sertorius in Spain. (Suetonius.) The opposition to Lucceius, with whom Cæsar had formed a coalition, on following year he was quæstor in Spain, and on his return to Rome the condition that Lucceius should find the money, and that Cæsar he was elected Ædile for B.C. 65. Just before entering on office he should give him the benefit of his influence and recommendation. fell under some suspicion of being engaged in a conspiracy to kill the The scheme of Cæsar's enemies proved a complete failure. Bibulus, consuls Cotta and Torquatus, and effect a revolution. Whether there after unavailing efforts to resist the impetuosity of his colleague, shut really was a conspiracy or not may be doubted; Cæsar's share in it himself up in his house, and Cæsar, in fact

, became sole consul. at least is not clearly established. The office of Ædile gave Cæsar an (Dion. xxxviii

. 8.) In order to stop all public business, Bibulus opportunity of indulging his taste for magnificence and display, by declared the auguries unfavourable; and when this would not answer, which at the same time he secured the favour of the people. He he declared that they would be unfavourable all through the year. beautified the city with public buildings, and gave splendid exhibitions This illegal conduct only tended to justify the violent measures of his of wild beasts and gladiators. Cæsar, who was now five-and-thirty colleague. The affair, though a serious one for the hitherto dominant years of age, had enjoyed no opportunity of distinguishing himself in faction, furnished matter for the small wits of the day, who used to a military capacity; while the more fortunate Pompey, who was only sign their notes and letters in the Consulship of Julius and Cæsar,' six years older, was spreading his name and the terror of the Roman instead of naming both consuls in the usual way. arms throughout the East. A favourable occasion seemed to present Cæsar had contrived, by a masterly stroke of policy, to render itself in Egypt. Alexander, the king who had been honoured with ineffectual all opposition on the part of his opponents. Pompey was the name of friend and ally of the Roman people, was ejected from dissatisfied because the senate delayed about confirming all his Alexandria by the citizens. The popular feeling at Rome was against measures in the Mithridatic war and during his command in Asia; the Alexandrians, and Cæsar thought be had interest enough through Crassus, who was the richest man in the state, and second only to the tribunes and the democratical party to get appointed to an extra- Pompey in influence with the senatorial faction, was not on good ordinary command in Egypt; but the opposite faction was strongly terms with Pompey. If Cæsar gained over only one of these rivals, united against him, and he failed in his attempt. The next year he he made the other his enemy; be determined therefore to secure them was more successful. By a judicious application of money among the both. He began by courting Pompey, and succeeded in bringing poorer voters, and of personal influence among all classes (Dion. about a reconciliation between him and Crassus. It was agreed that xxxvii. 37), he obtained the Pontificatus Maximus, or wardenship of there should be a general understanding among the three as to the the ecclesiastical college of Pontifices, a place no doubt of considerable course of policy; that all Pompey's measures should be confirmed, emolument, to which an official residence in the Sacra Via was also and that Cæsar should have the consulship. To cement their alliance attached. (Sueton. 'Cæsar,' 13, 46.) This union of civil and religious more closely, Cæsar gave Pompey his daughter Julia in marriage, functions in the same person, at least in the higher and more profitable though she had been promised to M. Brutus. (Plut. 'Pomp.' 47.) places, was a part of the old Roman polity, which, among other conse Cæsar also took a new wife on the occasion, Calpurnia, the daughter quences, prevented the existence of a hierarchy with a distinct and of Piso, whom he nominated one of the consuls for the ensuing year. opposing interest.

This union of Pompey, Crassus, and Cæsar is often called by modern At the time of the important debate on the conspiracy of Catiline writers the first triumvirate. The effect of it was to destroy the (B.C. 63), Cæsar was prætor designatus (prætor elect for the following credit of Pompey, throw disunion among the aristocratic party, and year), and accordingly spoke in his place in the senate. He was the put the whole power of the state in the hands of one vigorous and only person who ventured to oppose the proposition for putting the clear-sighted man. (As to the affair of Vettius (Dion. xxxviii. 9), see conspirators to death; he recommended their property to be confis- CICERO.) cated, and that they should be dispersed through the different muni- It is unnecessary to detail minutely the acts of Cæsar's consulship. cipia of Italy, and kept under a strict surveillance. The speech which From the letters of Cicero, which are contemporary evidence, we Sallust bas put into his mouth on this occasion, if the substance of perceive that the senate at last found they had got a master whom it it be genuine, will help us to form some estimate of Cæsar's character was useless to resist; Cato alone held out, but he stood by himself. and his policy at this period. The address is singularly well adapted One of the most important measures of Cæsar's consulship was an to flatter the dominant party, and also to keep up his credit with Agrarian law for the division of some public lands in Campania among those who were hostile to the aristocratic interests. His object was the poorer citizens, which was carried by intimidation. Pompey and to save the lives of the conspirators, under the pretext of inflicting on Crassus, who had given in to all Cæsar's measures, accepted a place in them a punishment more severe than that of death. But for Cato he the commission for dividing these lands. Clodius, the enemy of might probably have carried his motion. According to Suetonius, Cicero, was, through Cæsar's influence, and the help of Pompey, Cæsar persevered in his opposition till his life was actually threatened adopted into a plebeian family, and thus made capable of holding the by the armed Roman equites, who were introduced into the senate- office of tribune; an event which Cicero had long dreaded, and fondly house under the pretext of protecting the senate during their delibe- flattered himself that he should prevent by a temporisin, policy. rations. (Compare Plut. 'Cæsar,' viii.) Cicero, who was then consul, Clodius, the next year, was elected a tribune, and drove Cicero into and in the height of his prosperity and'arrogance, might, it is said, by exile. (Dion. xxxviii. 12, &c.) a single nod, have destroyed this formidable opponent of the order of The Roman consuls, on going out of office, received the government which he had become the devoted champion; but either his courage of a province for one year. Cæsar's opponents unwisely made another failed him, or some motive perhaps more worthy, led him to check the and a last effort against him, which only resulted in puttivg them in fury of the Equites. In the following year, during his prætorship, the a still more humiliating position: they proposed to give him the opposite faction in the senate, who were bent on crushing Cæsar's superintendence of the roads and forests. Vatinius, one of his rising influence, actually passed a decree (decretum) by which Q. Cæci- creatures, forth with procured a law to be passed, by which he obtained lius Metellus Nepos, one of the tribunes of the plebs, and Cæsar, who for Cæsar the province of Gallia Cisalpina, or North Italy, and strongly supported bim in his measures, were declared incapable of Illyricum, for five years : and the senate, fearing the people might continuing in the exercise of their official duties. Cæsar still dis- grant still more, not only confirmed the measure, but, making a merit charged the judicial functions of his magistracy, till he found that of necessity, added the province of Gallia Transalpina. “From this force would be used to compel his submission to this illegal and moment," remarks a lively modern writer (Schlosser, Universal. impolitic act of the senate. The populace were roused by this strange Histor. Uebersicht), “ the history of Rome presents a striking parallel proceeding, and Cæsar apparently might have had their best assist to the condition of the French republic during Bonaparte's first unce against his enemies ; but prudence for the present induced him campaigns in Italy. In both cases we see a weak republican administo check the zeal of his partizans, and the senate, apparently alarmed tration in the capital involved in continual broils, which the rival 'y this demonstration, repealed their own decree, and thanked him factions are more interested in fostering, than in securing the tranfor his conduct.

quillity and peace of the empire. In both cases we find a province

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