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been treated, and which a large party in Hungary regarded as perse- on the 14th of February he was, as a favour, released from his fetters, cution. He was permitted to revisit Pesth, and there his reputation on the 21st of May the Hungarians took Buda by storm, and among stood so high that in 1844, when the Academy decided that the great the prisoners whom they found in the castle was Czuczor, who, by bis work of compiling a national dictionary which it resolved to under | intercession, saved the lives of an Austrian regiment from the rage take should be conducted under the superintendence of one individual, of the victors. His health had so suffered by his imprisonment that the choice unanimously fell on Czuczor. He was allowed to accept he left the capital for Tihany to try the effect of country air. The the illustrious task, and the advance he made was so rapid that in final success of the Imperialists, aided by the Russians, left him no 1848 he had already reached the letter I. In the revolution of that choice except between imprisonment and exile, and he surrendered year Czuczor joined the party of Kossuth, and in December gave to General Kempen. He resumed his labours on the dictionary at utterance to bis political feelings in an article in Kossuth's newspaper, the Franciscan monastery at Pesth, at which he was first confined, and entitled “Riado,' (The Tocsin.") The consequences to himself were at Kufstein to which he was afterwards removed, he was allowed a most disastrous. On the 18th of January 1849 when the Austrians separate cell for that purpose. The amnesty of 1850 set him again entered Pesth, he was seized and taken before a military tribunal, which at liberty, and by the reports of the proceedings of the academy in condemned him to six years' imprisonment in irons. The president the Uj Magyar Muzeum,' we perceive that he is steadily advancing in of the Academy, Count Teleki, himself the historian of Hunyadi, of his lexicographical labours. Our notice of his biography is chiefly whom Czuczor was the roet, interceded with Prince Windischgrätz for taken from an article apparently by Schedel in the Ujabb kori a mitigation of punishment, chiefly on account of the national import. Ismeretek Tara, published in 1850. auce of the lexicographical duties in which Czuczor was engaged, and

D DACIER, ANDRE, was born at Castres in 1651, and studied at Saumur the head of the line of the

dukes of Aquitaine aud of the counts of under Taneguy Lefèvre, whose daughter Anne (born in 1654) he Armagnac. Dagobert sustained wars against the Saxons from England, married in 1683. Both husband and wife became eminent among the the Vascones of the Pyrenees, the Slavonians, and the Bretons, and he classical scholars of the 17th century. They were employed with obliged Judicaël, the prince of Brittany, to give him satisfaction for others to comment upon and edit a series of the ancient authors for the incursions which he had made into his territories. When the the dauphin, which form the collection 'Ad usum Delphini.' Madame Bulgarians were flying from before the Huns, they took refuge in Dacier's commentaries are considered as superior to those of her Austrasia, where Dagobert granted them an asylum; but soon after, husband. She edited Calimachus, Florus, Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, fearing that these guests might become too powerful for him, he gave and the history which goes by the name of Dictys Cretensis, all of orders to have them all massacred in one night, when 10,000 families which have been repeatedly reprinted, with her notes. She published were put to the sword. Dagobert was cruel and debauched, like all French translations of the Amphitryon, Rudens, and Lepidicus of the rest of the Merovingian kings; and yet in the old ballads and Plautus, with a good preface; of the comedies of Terence, of the chronicles he is called "le bon Roi Dagobert." He published the laws Plutus and the Clouds of Aristophanes, and of Anacreon and Sappho. of the Franks; he encouraged commerce, and opened negociations for She also translated the “Iliad' and the Odyssey,' with a preface and that purpose with the Byzantine emperors; and he made Paris his notes. This led to a controversy between her and La Motte, who had permanent residence. The wealth and splendour of his court are spoken slightingly of Homer. Madame Dacier wrote in 1714 Con. extolled by the chroniclers. Eligius, or Eloi, a skilful goldsmith of sidérations sur les Causes de la Corruption du Goût,' in which she the time, became his treasurer and confidential minister, and was later defended the cause of Homer with great vivacity, as she did also in life made bishop of Noyon. Dagobert died in 638 in his thirty-sixth against Father Hardouin, who had written an Apology of Homer,' year, and left two sons, Siegbert II., who succeeded him in Austrasia, which was more a censure than an apology. The warmth however and Clovis II., who became king of Burgundy and Neustria. with which both the Daciers resented anything that was said against DAGOBE'RT II., son of Siegbert II., king of Austrasia, was shut up the ancient writers was carried to the extreme, and had at times some in a convent after his father's death in 656 by Grimoald, maire of the thing ludicrous in it; but Madame Dacier's enthusiasm was real, and palace, who gave the crown to his own son. Dagobert was sent to unaccompanied by pedantry or conceit. Neither did her learned Scotland, and the report of his death was spread in France. In lucubrations make her neglect her domestic duties as a wife and a Scotland he married Mathilda, a Scotch princess, and after many years mother; and she was generous and charitable towards the poor. She returned, and was acknowledged king of Austrasia. He was murdered died in 1720, and her husband in 1722. The latter, besides

his editions in 679 by Ebroïn, maire of the palace of Thierri III., king of Burgundy of the classics, translated also into French the works of Hippocrates, and Neustria. Pepin d'Heristel succeeded Dagobert in Austrasia, not the 'Edipus' and 'Electra' of Sophocles, the 'Poetica' of Aristotle, as king, but with the title of duke. and the lives of Plutarch, which last translation is inferior to Amyot's; DAGOBE'RT III. succeeded his father Childebert III. as king of he also translated Horace, but neither the translation nor the notes the Franks in 711. Pepin d'Heristel continued to enjoy the whole are much esteemed. The ' Bibliothèque des Anciens Philosophes,' 9 authority, as he had done under the preceding reigns, owing to which vols. 12mo, was published under Dacier's name, but he only furnished circumstance the nominal kings have been styled in history Rois some of Plato's dialogues and the Manual of Epictetus. Dacier was a Fainéans.' Pepin died in 714, and Rainfroy succeeded as maire of the member of the Academy of Inscriptions, secretary to the French palace. In 715 Dagobert died, leaving a child called Thierri, who was Academy, and keeper of the Cabinet of the Louvre, and he had a afterwards called Thierri IV., and was set up as a nominal king by pension of 2000 francs from Louis XIV.

Charles Martel, the natural son of Pepin d'Heristel. (Henschenius, D’AGINCOURT, JEAN-BAPTISTE-LOUIS-VEROUX, was born Historical Dissertation on the Three Dagoberts, 4to, 1663; Sismondi, at Beauvais, April 7, 1730. He received a superior education, on Hist. des Français ; Michelet, Hist. de France.) completing which he served for a short time in a cavalry regiment, DAGUERRE, LOUIS JACQUES MANDÉ, was born in 1789 at but quitted it while yet young, and was named fermier-général by Cormeille in the department of Seine-et-Oise, France. At the outset Louis XIV. Having devoted himself to the study of archæology, he of life he obtained a situation in a government office, but he early in 1777-78 visited England, Holland, and Germany, and spent the three quitted that employment, and became a pupil of M. Degoti

, scenefollowing years in the chief cities of Italy, his object being to examine painter at the opera. As a scene-painter, Daguerre in a few years the treasures of art and antiquities. He then returned to France, but surpassed his instructor, and placed himself on a level with the first soon after went to reside in Rome, in order to prepare a work he had professors of that art in Paris

, while he quickly extended the capa. long been meditating on the history of the fine arts. This very bilities of the art by various ingenious contrivances, which he invented extensive and valuable production appeared in parts, and was only for producing increased pictorial effect. He also assisted M. Prévost completed in 1823, long after M. D'Agincourt's death. It was entitled in the preparation of his panoramic views of the great cities of the "L'Histoire de l'Art par les Monuments, depuis sa Décadeuce au world. The experience he thus acquired suggested to M. Daguerre Quatrième Siècle jusqu' à son Renouvellement au Seizième,' and is in the idea of producing a kind of scenic exhibition, in which the illu6 vols. large folio, with 325 plates. The Histoire de l'Art par les sion should be more perfect than in the panorama, and he invented, in Monuments,' though displaying no great grasp of mind, is a monument conjunction with Bouton, a method of so throwing coloured lights to the untiring industry of its author, and a work of great value to and shadows upon the view, as to produce the appearance of changes the student by bringing together so great a variety of examples in all of season, day and night, storm and sunshine, &c. This they termed the various branches of art. An English edition has been published a diorama, and when exhibited, July 1822, in a circular structure with the plates arranged in a more compact form. M. D'Agincourt erected for the purpose in Paris, the success was complete. The also published a 'Recueil de Fragments de Sculpture Antique, en diorama in fact, made what the Parisians term a sensation, and no terre cinte,' 4to, Paris, 1814. He died at Rome, September 24, 1814. long time elapsed before Messrs. Bouton and Daguerre erected a similar

DAGOBE'RT I., son of Clotarius II., succeeded him in 628 in the building in London, to which each picture was removed, when it bad Frankish monarchy. He gave his brother Caribert a part of Aquitania, been exhibited for its season in Paris. For some seventeen years with the city of Toulouse; but Caribert dying in 630, Dagobert reunited picture followed picture, each rivalling its predecessor, but in 1839 a the whole monarchy under his sceptre, and caused Chilperic, Caribert's fire destroyed the building, and the view then exhibiting in it. eldest son, to be put to death. Boggis, another son of Caribert, was Daguerre's loss was very great, and the building was not re-erected, as



478 the public interest in dioramas, which had now lost their novelty, scapes, and there is also a good deal of mannerism in their general was beginning to flag.

style, yet the wild grandeur of Norwegian scenery has probably by M. Daguerre had before this been directing his attention to a matter no one else been so extensively and well painted, or under such which was destined to secure for him a more permanent reputation various aspects. The coast and marine views of Herr Dahl are by tban his scenery or his dioramas. This was the mechanical production many of his admirers more highly esteemed than even his rock and of fac-simile delineations of objects by tho chemical action of light. forest scenery. [See SUPPLEMENT.] As early as about the middle of the 16th century, Fabricius had dis- DAHL, MICHAEL, a Swedish portrait-painter, was born at covered the property which salts of silver possess of changing colour Stockholm in 1656, was taught painting by Ernstraen Klocke, and when exposed to the action of light, and this property had been the came to England in 1678. He went about a year afterwards to Paris, subject of many experiments by scientific men. Sir Humphry Davy where he remained a year; and from thence to Italy, where he spent among recent chemists had sought by various applications of this three years in its principal cities. In 1688 Dahl came again to property to obtain copies of simple objects, but though he succeeded England, where he had a very successful career. During the reigns in doing this, he was unable to prevent them from being effaced when of Anne and George I., Dahl was the principal rival of Sir Godfrey exposed to the light. In France M. Niepce began about 1814 to Kneller. Walpole mentions, among other works by Dahl, a portrait pursue a similar course of experiments, and he succeeded in rendering of his mother at Houghton, which he says possessed great grace. the images he obtained insensible to the subsequent action of the There is an equestrian portrait by Dahl, at Windsor, of Charles XI. light; but his discovery remained very incomplete when Daguerre of Sweden, and there are several portraits in the gallery of admirals commenced similar experiments. About 1829 Niepce and Daguerre at Hampton Court, and some whole-lengths of ladies at Petworth. joined in the prosecution of their investigations. Niepce died in 1833, He died in London in 1743, and was buried in St. James's church. before they had made any decided approach to success. But Daguerre DAILLÉ, JEAN, was born at Chatelleraut in 1594, of a Protestant persevered, and at length his zeal and rare ingenuity met with an family. In 1612 he undertook the education of the two grandsons ample reward. He discovered in fact a method by which he was able of Duplessis Mornay, the friend of Henri IV., and he travelled with so to prepare metallic plates, that by placing them in the darkened them in several countries of Europe. At Venice he became acquainted chamber of a camera-obscura, they received a distinct impression of with the famous Fra Paolo Sarpi. On his return to France he the images thrown upou them by the lens of the camera, which he became pastor at Charenton in 1626. He published many works on was enabled by a subsequent process to render indelible. It does not divinity, both in Latin and French, and especially on controversial belong to this section of our work to state the steps by which he subjects; and was esteemed one of the most learned and powerful arrived at this grand discovery, or the method he finally adopted for advocates of the Protestant doctrines in his time. His principal producing, rendering visible, and fixing this sun-picture. It will be productions are:- Traité de l'emploi des SS. Pères pour le jugement enough to say that with remarkable patience and ingenuity he sur des différends de la religion,' Geneva, 1632, which was also published mounted every difficulty, and eventually produced his discovery, as to in Latin, with the title " De Usu Patrum :'it is one of Daillé's best its principles, perfect. Other experimentalists had in this country works and still much esteemed; ‘De la croyance des Pères sur le fait and elsewhere been at work, unknown to Daguerre, at the same idea, des images ;' Adversus Latinorum traditionem de religiosi cultus but to M. Daguerre is due the priority of publication of the discovery, objecto;' De cultibus religiosis Latinorum.' These three last works and no doubt also the priority of discovery, as far as the producing attempt to prove, that in the early or primitive Christian church there sun-pictures upon metallic plates is concerned. What has proved to was no religious worship paid to the host, to relics, cross, images, &c. be the more generally applicable process of photography, was as De confirmatione et extrema unctione;' 'De sacramentali sive unquestionably the result of the independent investigations of our auriculari Latinorum Confessione,' Geneva, 1661. This last work own countryman, Mr. Talbot; but, as was to be expected, both the puts forth the strongest arguments against the practice of auricular processes as now practised are very different to what they were when or private confession. De scriptis quæ sub Dionysii Areopagitæ et originally promulgated by their inventors or discoverers.

Sancti Ignatii Antiocheni nominibus circumferuntur,' Geneva, 1666. Great was the excitement among both learned and unlearned when Daillé, in this work, which exhibits much historical and critical in January 1839 M. Arago gave, at a sitting of the Académie des learning, looks upon the works attributed to Dionysius and Ignatius, Sciences, an account of the new method by which, as was said, the of Antioch, as apocryphal. 'De pænis et satisfactionibus humanis.' sun himself became the artist, and some of the delineations, with all He also wrote an apology of the reformed churches and numerous their wonderful delicacy of detail, were exhibited. At the same time sermons, which have been collected in several volumes, and also Daguerre made a public exhibition of numerous pictures produced by Dernières heures de Duplessis Mornay,' Leyden, 1647. Daillé died what he termed the Méthode Niepce perfectionnée. An examination at Paris April 15, 1670. His son, Adrien Daillé, left France at the of the merits of the new method was, at the suggestion of M. Arago, revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and retired to Zürich, where he promptly ordered by the French government to be made, and in con- wrote his father's life. sequence of the favourable nature of the report, M. Daguerre was in DALBERG, KARL THEODOR ANTON MARIA VON, was born June 1839 nominated an Officer of the Legion of Honour; and the on the 8th of February 1744, at Hernsheim. The barony of Dalberg project of a law was on the same day presented to the Chambers-by was the oldest in Germany, and his father held high offices under the whom it was readily adopted-which accorded to M. Daguerre, on conArchbishop-Elector of Mainz. Young Dalberg received a sound edudition of the full publication of his method, an annuity for life of 6000 cation at home, and when only fifteen was sent to the University of francs, and one of 4000 francs to the representative of M. Niepce. Göttingen, whence he removed to that of Heidelberg, where in 1761 (NIEPCE] The rapid extension and improvement of the process of he received the degree of LL.D. He then travelled for a while, and Daguerre (or the Daguerreotype, as it soon came to be generally on his return resolved to devote himself to the clerical profession, for called) aster its being thus freely made public property, was due which purpose he studied theology and the canon law at Worms, perbaps more to others than to M. Daguerre, who however never Manheim, and Mainz. He soon received ecclesiastical preferment, ceased to labour at its improvement during the remainder of his being made a prebendary of Mainz, and a canon of Wurzburg and life. He died July 12th, 1851, at Petit-Brie-sur-Marne, where a hand- Worms. In 1772 he received the appointment of governor of Erfurt, some monument has been erected by subscription to his memory. and during his long continuance in that office distinguished himself

M. Daguerre is the author of two short works – Histoire et Descrip highly by his judicious and benevolent conduct. He was unwearied in tion des procédes du Daguerréotype, et du Diorama,' 8vo, Paris, 1839; encouraging art, science, commerce, and agriculture; and the little town and 'Nouveau Moyen de préparer la couche sensible des plaques and district under his government flourished so remarkably as to testify destinées à recevoir les images photographiques,' 8vo, Paris, 1844. to his capabilities for a higher situation. He maintained an intercourse

(Arazo, Rapport à l'Académie des Sciences; A. de Lacaze, art. during his whole life with the highest minds of Germany-Herder, Daguerre in Norv. Biog. Gen.; and the various historical notices of the Göthe, Wieland, Schiller, &c. His abilities and virtues attracted the Daguerreotype and Photography.)

attention of the Emperor Joseph and of Frederick the Great, by whose * DAHL, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, one of the most eminent of the influence, in 1787, he was chosen coadjutor in the archbishopric and moderu German school of landscape painters, was born at Bergen in electorate of Mainz, to which, on the death of the archbishop in 1802, Norway, February 24th, 1788. He was originally designed for the he succeeded, as also to the dignity of archchancellor of the empire. church, but on reaching manhood abandoned the study of theology By the treaty of Luneville however the electorate was abolished, part for that of art, to wbich he had been inclined from childhood. In of the territory surrendered to France, and the remainder secularised. 1811 he went to Denmark; some years later he removed to Berlin; In order to recompense him in some degree, the districts of Ratisbon, and he then proceeded to Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship and Aschaffenburg, and Wetzlar were assigned to him. advice of Bartholdy and Thorwaldsen. Since 1821 he has resided at In 1804 Dalberg went to Paris to arrange with Pope Pius VII. the Dresden; he has been largely patronised by the court and leading affairs of the German Roman Catholic Church, and to obtain, if possiadmirers of art in Denmark, and has seen his reputation extend ble, some milder terms from Napoleon. This journey brought him throughout Germany, and his pictures find purchasers among the into ill repute with his countrymen, who, from the extreme comcollectors of England and America. Dahl has painted many views of plaisance he evinced, naming Cardinal Fesch as his successor, and Italian and Tyrolean scenery, and not a few landscape compositions ; becoming a corresponding member of the Institute, believed that he but it is by his representations of the remarkable scenery of his had sacrificed his country in order to for ard his own preferment. native country that he is best known, and on them his fame will He certainly became a favourite with Napoleon, who caused him to be depend. To an eye accustomed to the rich colouring of the Italian made Prince-Primate of the Rhenish Confederation, and President of masters and the freshness of that of the English landscape painters, the Assembly of the States. In 1810 he surrendered the principality there is much that is unsatisfactory in the colouring of Dahl's land of Ratisbon to Bavaria, and Napoleon in consequence created him





Grand-Duke of Frankfurt, with a condition that Eugene Beauharnois, had subsequently taken place to the end of 1796: these form the Napoleon's step-son, should be named his successor instead of Cardinal subjects of a volume which was published separately. Fesch. Dalberg's grandeur however was very evanescent. In 1813 he In the year 1799, on the formation of the Royal Military College was forced to renounce all his secular acquisitions, and withdraw him at High Wycombe, Dalby was appointed professor of mathematics in self to his spiritual duties as archbishop of Ratisbon, the only dignity the senior department of that institution. He continued to hold that he retained, and in that town he died on the 10th of February 1817. appointment during the years that the department to which he

Throughout his career Dalberg maintained his character for active belonged remained at High Wycombe, and subsequently to its benevolence. During his last residence at Ratisbon, notwithstanding removal to Farnham in Surrey; but in 1820, it being then united to his age, he fulfilled the duties of his office in an efficient and con- the junior department at Sandhurst in Berkshire, his infirmities scientious manner, relieving the poor, assisting the industrious, encou-obliged him to resign. , He continued however to reside at Farnham raging the good, and reproving the bad, alike by his example and his till his death, which took place October 14, 1824, when he was in the discourse, in which he was never severe or impatient. As a scholar eighty-first year of his age. his reputation was very high, and there were few branches of art or His attention to his duties was unremitting; and besides his conscience of which he had not considerable knowledge. His writings tributions to the · Ladies' Diary' and other works, he wrote for the were chiefly on subjects of practical philosophy and ästhetics, which use of the Military College, a valuable Course of Mathematics,' in a winning eloquence of style rendered very popular. The principal 2 vols., which, with successive improvements, extended to a sixth are, ‘Betrachtung über das Universum ("Contemplations of the edition. Universe'), 1777; Grundsässe der Æsthetik' ('Principles of Æs- (Leybourn,

Mathematical Repository, vol. v.) thetics '), 1791; Von dem Bewustsein als allgemeinem Grunde der D'ALEMBERT. (ALEMBERT, D'.) Weltweisheit' ( Of the Memory as the General Foundation of Know- DALGARNO, GEORGE. The following short notice of this original ledge'), 1793; Von dem Einflusse der Wissenschaften und Künste in but neglected author is in Anthony-d-Wood's Athena Oxonienses, Beziehung auf öffentliche Ruhe' ("On the Influence of the Sciences vol. ii., p. 506. “The reader may be pleased to know, that one and Arts with reference to the Public Quiet '), 1793; and Perikles, George Dalgarno, a Scot, wrote a book entitled 'Ars Signorum, Vulgo über den Einfluss der schönen Künste auf das öffentliche Glück' Character Universalis et Lingua Philosophica,' London, 1661. This (“Pericles, on the Influence of the Fine Arts on the Public Pros- book before it went to press the author communicated to Dr. Wilkins, perity'), 1806.. He also contributed many valuable papers to various who, from thence taking a hint of greater matter, carried it on, and German periodical works.

brought it up to that which you see extant. This Dalgarno was born DALBY, ISAAC, one of the many self-taught men of this country, at oid Aberdeen, and bred in the university of New Aberdeen; taught who have attained considerable eminence in mathematical science by a private grammar-school with good success for about thirty years the mere force of genius, and in defiance of the obstacles opposed by together in the parishes of St. Michael and St. Mary Magdalen in fortune to their progress, was born in Gloucestershire, in the year Oxford ; wrote also 'Didascalocophus, or the Deaf and Dumb Man's 1744, and he appears to have been instructed in the rudiments of Tutor ;' and dying of a fever on the 28th of August 1687, aged sixty, Latin and arithmetic at a grammar-school in that county. By his or more, was buried in the north body of the church of St. Mary friends he was destined to be a clothworker, but his taste leading Magdalen.”. According to the above account, Dalgarno was born in him to the study of mathematics, he laboured, by the aid of Stone's or before the year 1627, and he must have been residing at Oxford Euclid,' Simpson's 'Algebra,' and Martin's Trigonometry,' to qualify in the year 1657; whether previous to that time, it does not appear, himself to be an usher in a country school. In that capacity he was but it may not be erroneous to conclude that he went to Oxford to employed for about three years, when he opened a school on his own avail himself of the advantages of that seat of learning. From the account in another part of the country, but meeting with no success, works which Dalgarno left behind him, it may be concluded that he he came up to London in 1772. Here he received the appointment of was a man of original talent, and of great acquirements; his specuusher to teach arithmetic in Archbishop Tenison's grammar-school lations concerning a universal language, a favourite subject with the near Charing Cross, and while fulfilling the duties of that employ- learned men of his time, undoubtedly preceded those of Bishop ment he became known to many of the most celebrated men of science Wilkins, at that time dean of Ripon, and he received the testimony in town. Among these were Dr. Maskeline, the astronomer royal, of Dr. Seth Ward, the bishop of Salisbury, Dr. John Wallis, and Dr. Hutton and Mr. Bonnycastle, both of the Royal Military Academy others, that he had discovered a secret "which by the learned men at Woolwich, the Rev. Messrs. Crakelt and Lawson, and Mr. Landen, of former ages had been reckoned among the desiderata of learning.". Mr. Wales, mathematical master of Christ's Hospital, and Mr. Witchel, We have carefully sought for some acknowledgment of the merits of master of the Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth. Mr. Bayly, whó Dalgarno in the Essay towards a Real Character' of Bishop Wilkins, had been employed in making astronomical observations in a building but his name is not once mentioned, though assistance from Dr. Ward erected near Highgate by the Hon. Topham Beauclerk for philoso- and others is noticed. Wilkins's work was published in 1668. Its phical purposes, being engaged to sail with Captain Cook, Dalby, after appearance had been delayed for two years in consequence of the having been about a year at the school above mentioned, was appointed whole impression, when nearly printed, with the exception of two to succeed him. In this situation, besides his duties as observer and copies, having been destroyed in the great fire of London. Allowing librarian, he performed, under Dr. Fordyce, that of experimenter in for this delay, Dalgarno's work had the priority by several years, and chemistry; and amidst these employments he found time to make Dr. Wilkins had the advantage of seeing it “ before it went to press." himself acquainted with the French language and revive his know. This treatise, 'Ars Signorum,' &c., exhibits a classification of ideas, ledge of Latin. In 1781, Mr. Beauclerk's establishment being broken and a series of arbitrary signs or characters adapted to the classificaup, and the library, instruments, &c., sold, Dalby was engaged to make tion, so as to represent each idea by a specific character, without a catalogue of the library of Lord Beauchamp; and in the following reference to any language of words. All those persons who are year he was appointed mathematical master of the Naval School at acquainted with the Essay' of Wilkins will see the germ of it in Chelsea. This was supported by voluntary contributions, and it suc- this design of Dalgarno's. The “Didascalocophus' develops views ceeded for a time under the management of Mr. Jonas Hanway; but on the instruction of the deaf and dumb, both comprehensive and the subscriptions falling off, the institution was given up.

practical. It is a truly philosophical guide, by which the writer shows In 1787 Mr. Ramsden, the distinguished maker of philosophical how capable the deaf and dumb are of understanding and applying a instruments, to whom for several years Dalby bad been known, written language, and of their capacity to speak and to understand recommended him, as an assistant, to Major-General Roy, who was the speech of other persons. He shows that the art of teaching this then employed in the trigonometrical observations for connecting the class of persons requires the exercise of common sense, perseverance, meridians of Greenwich and Paris ; and during that and the following and ordinary patience, under a teacher, fertile in expedients, and one year he was employed in extending the triangulation through Kent who is able to turn even disadvantages and difficulties to good and part of Sussex to the coast opposite France. Dalby was subse-account. Dalgarno's style is quaint and pedantic, and rather abounds quently employed in making the con utations preparatory to the with long and technological words, which serve to exhibit the learning publication of the account of the proceedings; and on this occasion of the author more than to increase the perspicuity of his work. he was led to apply a theorem (ascribed to Albert Girard) to the But this was the garb which learning too often assumed in his day. purpose of computing the excess of the three angles of a spherical To Dalgarno is due the credit of inventing what is perhaps the first triangle above two right angles. The account was published in the manual alphabet for the use of the deaf and dumb, and the one from Philosophical Transactions for 1790; and in the volume for the which the two-handed finger-alphabet now in use has probably been same year is a paper by Dalby on the figure of the earth, in which it derived. As few copies of his work are now to be met with, we is proved that the 'excess' is, without sensible error, the same whether shall give his hand-alphabet, and accompany it by as much of his own the earth be a sphere or a spheroid. General Roy died in 1790, and explanation as seems necessary for understanding his views on dactylin the following year Dalby was engaged, together with Colonel ology. “After much search and many changes, I have at last fixt Williams and Captain (since Major-General) Mudge, to carry on the upon a finger or hand-alphabet according to my mind; for I think it survey of England. The operations commenced by a remeasurement cannot be considerably mended, either by myself or any other (without of the original base on Hounslow Heath, and before Mr. Dalby quitted making tinker's work), for the purposes of which I have intended it; that service the triangulation was extended through the southern that is, a distinct placing of and easy pointing to the single letters; counties of England to the Land's End. The accounts of the survey with the like distinct and easy abbreviation of double and triple were published in the Philosophical Transactions;' but in 1798 consonants. Dalby, together with Colonel Mudge, made a revision of General Roy's “The scheme (I think) is so distinct and plain in itself, that it needs papers, and connected the operations of that officer with those which not much explication, at least for the single letters, wbich are as








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distinct by their places as the middle and two extremes of a right despatched an expedition against Pegu, and in a few weeks the entire line can make them. The rules of practice are two:-1. Touch the coast of Burmah was in his hands. Finding that the King of Ava places of the vowels with a cross touch with any finger of the right still refused our just demands, he ordered the British troops to occupy band. 2. Poynt to the consonants with the thumb of the right Pegu, and incorporated it with our dominions. This was effected I

at the close of 1852; from that time to the end of his administration our Indian empire enjoyed comparative peace. The rich districts of Nagpore, Sattara, Jhansie, Berar, and Oude were severally annexed to our possessions by Lord Dalhousie, either in consequence of the failure of rightful heirs among the native dynasties, or else to put an end to the cruelty aud oppression which those princes exercised towards their own subjects. It is almost needless to add that the social condition of each of the annexed provinces has proportionably improved.

During this time great changes were effected by Lord Dalhousie in the government and civilisation of India, and in the development of its resources. A yearly deficiency in the revenue was converted into a surplus until the years 1853-54 and 1854-55, when, chiefly in consequence of the vast public improvements undertaken, there was a deficiency of nearly half a million. The shipping of India doubled in tonnage, a Legislative Council was organised, the civil service was thrown open to competition, the annual accounts were expedited, and prison discipline was improved under the superintendence of Mr. Thomason. A system of uniform cheap postage was also introduced by Lord Dalhousie; a large portion of the Peninsula intersected by railways, and all the large towns brought into immediate connection by means of the electric telegraph, laid down by Dr. O'Shaughnessy, 4000 miles having been constructed and placed in working order between November 1853 and February 1856. The manufacture of salt, the production of cotton, tea, and flax, the breeding of sheep, and the improvement of agricultural implements – none of these points were too trivial for Lord Dalhousie's attention. The development of the resources of the country in iron, coal, and other minerals, is a matter on which he bestowed peculiar care; and measures were

also taken for the preservation of the forests, and for making their hand. This is all that I think to be needful for explaining the scheme, produce available. At the same time a new and uniform survey of so far as concerns the single letters." Dalgarno's works were privately the ceded districts was commenced, and the limits of subject states reprinted by Lord Cockburn and Mr. Thomas Maitland, and presented accurately defined. Irrigation on a large scale was effected in Scinde, to the Maitland Club of Glasgow.

Madras, and Bombay; the navigation of the Ganges, Indus, Nerbudda, DALHOUSIE, JAMES ANDREW BROUN RAMSAY, tenth and Burrampooter was improved; grand trunk roads were carried to Earl and first Marquis of, was born in 1812. His father was a general Delhi, through the Panjab, and to Patna, and others made in Pegu in the army, employed in the Peninsular war and at Waterloo, was and Scinde. A road is also being constructed from Hindustan to the for a time governor of Canada, and commander of the forces in India frontiers of Tibet, commencing from the plains of the Sutlej; and from 1828 to 1832. James was the third son by the heiress of the another is in progress from Arracan over the Yomah ridge to Pegu. Brouns of Colstoun in Haddingtonshire. He was educated at Harrow, The most stupendous work however which signalised his government and subsequently at Christchurcb, Oxford, where he was fourth class was the Ganges Canal, carried out by the skill and energy of Sir in classics (1833), and gradi ted M.A. in 1838. By the deaths of his Proby T. Cautley. Under his vigilant author also the department elder brothers he became Lord Ramsay in 1832, and in 1834 he strove of public works was reformed throughout, and a college founded to for a seat in the House of Commons, contesting Edinburgh against train young men specially in civil engineering Schools and colleges Sir John Campbell, now Lord Campbell, and James Abercrombie, after were established and placed under government inspection, and the wards speaker of the House of Commons and Lord Dunfermline. education of female natives provided for. The most strenuous efforts He was unsuccessful then, but in 1837 he was returned for the county were at the same time made for the eradication of the systems of of Haddington. In 1838, on his father's death, he was called to the Suttee and Thuggee, and the practice of infanticide. The condition House of Lords, where he showed great attention to business details, of the European soldiers was likewise greatly improved. Provision but did not distinguish himself as a speaker. He first entered official was also made for both Protestant and Roman Catholic worship, on life in 1843, during the ministry of Sir Robert Peel, to whom his equal terms, and extensive changes were made in matters of criminal business habits bad recommended him. He was appointed Vice- and civil justice. Lord Dalhousie was also the author of another President of the Board of Trade, and in 1844 became President of the important alteration in Indian administration : he required the govern. same department. In these offices he actively investigated all the ment of each presidency, each lieutenant-governor, and the chief details of the railway system, made himself acquainted with the officer of every province, to send in to the governor-general an annual financial and practical management of railways, and framed regula. report of the chief events that occurred within their several juristions for the conduct of the numerous bills that were pressed upon dictions, in order to test the progress made by the nation at large. parliament during the railway mania of 1844-45. His reforms and For his successes in the Panjab, Lord Dalhousie was raised to a improvements in the Board of Trade had been so extensive and so marquisate in 1849; and on his return to England in May 1856, with judicious, that on the accession of Lord John Russell to office in shattered health and a broken constitution, the East India Company 1846, Lord Dalhousie was requested to retain his position, with which settled on him a life pension of 50001. a year. He had previously request he complied.

been appointed to the Wardenship of the Cinque Ports on the death Towards the close of 1847 Lord Hardinge was re-called from India, of the late Duke of Wellington in 1852. [See SUPPLEMENT.] and the governor-generalship of that country was offered to Lord (Lord Dalhousie, Minute, reviewing his administration in India.) Dalhousie. He went to India with a plan of action already formed DALLAWAY, REV. JAMES, was born at Bristol February 20, 1763. on certain principles, and to those principles he firmly adhered during He was educated at the grammar-school, Cirencester, and at Trinity the eight years of his government. He felt that the pacific policy of College, Oxford, where he became known by his talent for versifica: his predecessors had not succeeded, and that situated as India was, it tion. He took his M.A. degree in 1784, but failed in being elected required to be ruled by a firm and uncompromising hand. When he Fellow of his college on account, it is said, of some satirical verses he entered on the government of that country peace prevailed. But a had written. For several years he served as curate, and whilst so long continuance of peace could scarcely be expected among 120 acting became editor of Bigland's Collections for Gloucestershire.' and millions of subjects, between whom and ourselves conflicting interests took the degree of M.B. at Oxford in 1794. About 1795 the Duke of and the variety of caste and opinion are apt to raise constant hostilities Norfolk, to whom he had dedicated his Origin of Heraldry,' obtained and feuds. On reaching Calcutta, Lord Dalhousie lost no time in him the appointment of chaplain and physician to the embassy at proclaiming his policy : We are lords paramount of India, and our Constantinople, and on his return to England Mr. Dallaway published policy is to acquire as direct a dominion over the territories in pos- Constantinople, Ancient and Modern, with Excursions to the Shores session of the native princes, as we already hold over the other half and Islands of the Archipelago, and to the Troad,' 4to, 1797. Some of India.” Soon after his arrival, news was brought that British years later he contributed to the ‘Archæologia,' vol xiv., a paper On officers were murdered at Mooltan, and that Moolraj was in revolt; the Walls of Constantinople.' In 1797 the Duke of Norfolk as Earl Lord Dalhousie marched a force into the north-western provinces, Marshal appointed Mr. Dallaway his official secretary, and in 1799 defeated the Sikhs and Afghans, and annexed the Panjab to our his grace gave him the rectory of South Stoke in Sussex, and in 1801 dominions in the East. When little more than two years were passed, the vicarage of Leatherhead in Surrey. He resigned South Stoke the government of India found itself involved in hostilities with in 1803 for the sinecure rectory of Slinfold. During his early years Burmah, where British traders 'had been insulted by the officers of Mr. Dallaway devoted a good deal of attention to the subject of the King of Ava. Remonstrance proving useless, Lord Dalhousie heraldry, and his first original publication was 'Enquiries into the

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Origin and Progress of Heraldry in England,' 4to, 1792. He had gave consistency to the body of Scots law; and till our own day has before (1789) edited the Letters of Dr. Rundle, Bishop of Derry, to guided the determinations of the Scottish lawyers. From his retireMrs. Sandys. Later he devoted himself to artistic and topograpbical ment at Leyden he transmitted to the Edinburgh press his 'Decisions antiquities. He published in 1800 Anecdotes of the Arts in England, of the Court of Session from 1661 to 1681 ;' the first volume appear. or comparative Remarks on Architecture, Painting, and Sculpture;' ing in 1684, and the second in 1687. And in 1686 he published at in 1806 "Observations on English Architecture;' in 1816 Statuary Leyden his 'Philosophia Nova Experimentalis.' He also busied and Sculpture among the Ancients.' He edited in 1826 an edition of himself about this time on a work relating to the mutual obligations Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting' and the Letters and other Works of the sovereign and his people, but it was never published. Do the of Lady Mary Wortley Montague, from her original Manuscripts, accession of King James II., Dalrymple's eldest son was appointed with Memoirs of her Life,' 5 vols. 8vo, 1806. He wrote also a lord advocate of Scotland in the room of Sir George Mackenzie ; and •Memoir' of Bishop Ridley; but the work by which he is best known, in this place he had influence enough to procure a pardon for his and one which will serve as the basis of the labours of any future his father, who, on the testimony of Spence, the secretary of Argyll, had torians of Sussex, is his History of Western Sussex,' of which the been prosecuted and outlawed for his alleged concern in the Ryethird part (“Rape of Bramber') was edited by the Rev. E. Cartwright. house Plot. Sir John held the situation of lord advocate for about Mr. Dallaway was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in twelve months, when he was appointed successor to Foulis of Colinton, 1789; and he contributed several papers to the Society's Archæo- both as lord justice clerk and as an ordinary lord of session. His logia' he was also an occasional contributor to the Gentleman's father, on coming over to this country with the Prince of Orange, Magazine,' the 'Retrospective Review,' &c. Both as an antiquary and with whom he had been much in favour while in Holland, was a writer on art he belonged to the old school, and there is in all his reinstated in the presidency of that court; and on the 21st of April writings a great want of precision, depth of research, and reach of 1690, raised to the peerage by the style and title of Viscount Stair. thought. He died at Leatherhead June 6, 1834.

The same year Sir John was re-appointed lord advocate; and the next DALRYMPLE FAMILY. The surname of this family is derived year advanced to be one of the principal secretaries of state, in which from the lands of Dalrymple, in the shire of Ayr, of which, in remote latter place he continued till the year 1695, when he was driven from times, the chief of the house was proprietor. The family appears to office upon the parliamentary inquiry into the equally impolitic and have been of importance very early, for in the reign of King barbarous massacre of Glencoe, of which he appears to have been the Robert III., Duncan Dalrumpill had a charter of the office of Tos- chief instigator. cheodorach (or principal executive officer of the crown) in Nithsdale; Stair died in the end of the same year, on the 23rd of November and in 1462 James de Dalrymple was clericus regis.

1695, shortly after the publication of his work entiled ' A Vindication The lands of Stair, whence the viscounty and earldom are derived, of the Divine Perfections,' and was buried in the high church of came into the family by William de Dalrymple, who became pos- Edinburgh. He was succeeded in his title and estate by his eldest sessed of them in the middle of the 15th century by his marriage son, who on the 8th of April 1703 was advanced to be Earl of Stair, with his relation, Agnes Kennedy, heiress of the estate. The son of and who died suddenly on the 8th of January 1707, after a warm debate these parties married a daughter of Sir John Chalmers, of Gadgirth, that day on the 22nd article of the treaty of Union, which relates to in the same shire, whose first ancestor had held the high office of the number and privileges of Scots peers. By his wife, daughter and chamberlain of Scotland; and in lineal descent from him was James heiress of Sir John Dundas of Newliston, in the shire of Edinburgh, he Dalrymple of Stair, who married Janet, daughter of Kennedy of left a younger son, who was Knockdaw, and by her had

JOHN DALRYMPLE, second Earl of Stair. He was born at Edinburgh JAMES DALRYMPLE, first Viscount Stair. He was born in May 1619, on the 20th of July 1673, and in early youth had the misfortune to at Dummurchie, in the parish of Barr, 'county of Ayr, and lost his kill his elder brother by the accidental discharge of a pistol. For father before he had attained his fifth year. At that tender age he some years afterwards he was under the tuition of a clergyman in the was left under the guardianship of his mother, who survived her shire of Ayr, whence he was at length restored to his father's house. husband upwards of thirty years. His early education was acquired In 1692

he entered as a volunteer under the Earl of Angus, commander at the school of Mauchline, whence, at the age of fourteen, he was of the Cameronian regiment at the battle of Steinkirk. His parents removed to the college of Glasgow, where, applying himself closely to however appear to have been desirous of his adopting the profession of his studies, he qualified himself for king the degree of A.M. in the law, and for that purpose sent him to Leyden; byt on his return 1637. He left college the following year, and at the breaking out of in 1701 from his travels be accepted a commission as lieutenant-colonel the civil war obtained a captain's commission in the Earl of Glencairn's of the Scots regiment of Foot-guards. The year following he served regiment. About this time the chair of pbilosophy in the University as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough at the taking of Venlo of Glasgow became vacant, and having, by the advice of some of the and Liege, and the attack on Peer; and in the course of the year 1706 professors, become a candidate, he was in 1641, being then twenty-two he successively obtained the command of the Cameronian regiment years old, appointed to the place after a comparative trial. It was and the Scots Greys. On his father's death in the begioning of 1707 then the practice for every regent (as the professors appointed by the he succeeded to the earldom of Stair, and was soon afterwards chosen crown were called) to swear at taking office that he would demit on one of the representative peers of Scotland in the united parliament. his marriage. This Dalrymple did, and having in 1643 married in the subsequent victories of Oudenarde, Malplaquet, and Ramilies, Margaret Ross, co-heiress of the estate of Balneil in Wigton, he he held high command and obtained great distinction; but on the resigned the chair, but was soon afterwards re-appointed. In this accession of the new ministry in 1711, when the career of Marlborough place he sedulously pursued his studies, and particularly the study of was stopped, he sold out of the Scots Greys, and retired from the the civil law, with the view to the profession of the law, in wbich a army. When George I. succeeded to the throne the Earl of Stair was knowledge of the Roman jurisprudence was then of great moment. appointed a lord of the bedchamber and a privy councillor, and in the In 1647 he resigned bis chair, removed to Edinburgh, and after the absence of the Duke of Argyll was constituted commander-in-chief of usual trials, was admitted an advocate on the 17th of February 1648. the forces in Scotland. The next year he was sent on a diplomatic The following year he was appointed secretary to the commissioners mission to France; and it would seem that the embassy was distin. sent by the Scottish parliament to treat with Charles II., then an guished by much skill and address, and at the same time by remarkable exile in Holland, for his return to his native dominions. He held the splendour and magnificence. He was recalled in 1720, and for the same office in the more successful mission of 1650, and was on that next twenty-two years lived in retirement at bis seat at Newliston, occasion particularly noted for his “abilities, sincerity, and modera- where it is said he planted various groups of trees in a manner desigued tion.” During the Protectorate he was warmly recommended to to represent the arrangement of the British troops at one of the victories Cromwell by General Monk, as a fit person to be one of the judges he had been engaged in. He also turned his attention to agriculture, of the court of session, and on the 1st of July 1657, Dalrymple took and was the first in Scotland to plant turnips and cabbages in the open bis seat on the bench. At the Restoration he went to London with fields. On the dissolution of the Walpole administration in 1742 he the Earl of Cassilis to pay his respects to the king. On that occasion was recalled to public life, and served in a military capacity on different the honour of knighthood was conferred upon him; and by letter, important occasions till his death, which happened at Queensberry dated Whiteball, 14th February 1661, he was also nominated one of House, Edinburgh, on the 9th of May 1747. He left a widow, but no the lords of session. But refusing to sign the declaration enacted in children. 1663, bis place was declared vacant 19th of January 1664. Having His next brother, William Dalrymple of Glenmure, who was a some time after waited on the king in London, his majesty allowed colonel in the army, married Penelope, countess of Dumfries, and him to qualify his subscription to the Declaration, and restored him their issue succeeded to the earldom." His youngest brother, George to bis seat. He was created a baronet in June 1664; and on the Dalrymple of Dalmahoy, passed advocate, and on Baron Smith's resignation of Sir John Gilmour, he was appointed president of the advancement to the chair was made a puisne baron of Exchequer, in court of session 7th of January 1671. On the 28th of February 1672, which situation he continued till his death in July 1745. More lately bis eldest son, John, was admitted an advocate before the court: on there was on the bench of the same court a member of another branch the 25th of June 1675, his next son, James, was admitted; and his of the same family, Sir John Dalrymple of Cranstoun, Bart., who was third son, Hew, on the 23rd of February 1677. Dalrynıple continued appointed in 1776 one of the barons of the Exchequer, and so conpresident till the year 1681, wher, on account of his conduct on tinued till the year 1807, when he resigned. He was the author of occasion of the Test Act, he was superseded, and found it necessary Memoirs of Great Britain,' Tracts on Feudal Law,' and other to retire into Holland. In 1681 he published his ‘Institutions of the publications. He was descended from James, second son of the first Law of Scotland,' the work of a great and philosophic mind, but one Viscount Stair, who was author of Collections concerning Scottish deeply imbued with the principles of the Roman jurisprudence: it History preceding the Death of David I.,' and who was created a

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