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CALAMIS.

CALAMY, EDMUND.

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by some noble Venetians. The following year he made the tour of supposed to be the 'Apollo Belvedere' of the Vatican at Rome. This Italy, visiting the most celebrated libraries, and collating manuscripts supposition however completely sets aside the criticisms of Cicero and in order to improve the text of Galen and Celsus. At Pisa he attended Quintilian upon the style of Calamis, for this work, so far from being the medical lectures of Matthæus Curtius, and then returned home hard, would be effeminately delicate for any male character below a through France and Germany. On his return he was incorporated divinity. Doctor of Physic at Cambridge, and tised with great distinction at Calamis made two other statues of 'Apollo :' the 'Apollo AlexiShrewsbury and Norwich. By the appointment of Henry VIII. he kakos' (* Deliverer from Evil'), which Pausanias saw at Athens; and read lectures on anatomy to the Company of Surgeons; but he does the colossal 'Apollo,' made for the city of Apollonia in Illyricum, and not appear to have settled in London till a later period, when he was which, according to Strabo, was brought to Rome by Lucullus, and made physician to Edward VI. He retained his appointment under placed in the Capitol

. Junius and Harduin supposed that Pliny and Jlary and Elizabeth.

Pausanias speak of the same work; but it is not at all probable that In 1547 Dr. Caius became a Fellow of the College of Physicians, and a work which was in Rome in Pliny's time would be in Athens in the was ever a strenuous upholder of its rights and interests. A difference time of Pausanias. This inconsistency has been pointed out before; having arisen between the physicians and surgeons in the reign of but many have been mislei by the opinion, and it seems to bave sugElizabeth as to whether the latter might administer internal remedies gested the idea which Visconti and Flaxman have adopted, that the in cases where their manual assistance was required, Dr. Caius, then Apollo Belvedere' and the 'Apollo Alexikakos' of Calamis are the president, was summoned to appear before the lord mayor and others same, or at least that the former is a marble copy of the brunze of the queen's delegates. On this occasion he pleaded the physicians' original by Calamis. Sillig supposes that the statue mentioned by cause so ably that, although the surgeons were supported by the Bishop Pausanias must have been of bronze, because it was placed in the of London and the Master of the Rolls, it was unanimously agreed by open air; this does not follow however, as many of the ancient Greek the commissioners that it was unlawful for the surgeons to practise marbles were placed in the open air. It was dedicated in honour of medically in such cases. Dr. Caius was president of the College of Apollo after the delivery of Athens from the plague, in Ol. 87. 4 Physicians for more than seven years. He left behind him a book of (B.C. 429), during the Peloponnesian war. It is the latest work by the college annais, from 1555 to 1572, written with his own hand in a Calamis mentioned, and must have been made at least three or four clear Latin style. Having obtained pirmission from Queen Mary, with years after the death of Phidias. His earliest work which is noticed wbom he was much in favour, to advance Gonville Hall into a college, is a pair of bronze horses mounted by boys, for the triumphal car of which still bears bis name, he accepted the mastership of the college, Onatas, placed by Deinomenes, the son of Hiero, at Olympia, and passed the last years of his life in it. Before his death he was in Ol. 78. 2 (B.C. 467), in commemoration of Hiero's victory at the reduced to a state of great weakness; and it appears from the following Olympic games, twelve years after the battle of Marathon. quaint passage in Dr. Mouffet's Health’s Improvement, or Rules con- Lucian also, in his description of Panthea, has recourse to the aid cerning Food, that he attempted to sustain his flagging powers by of Calamis. He takes some of Panthea's charms from a statue of reverting to the food of infancy :-“What made Dr. Caius in his last Sosandra by Calamis, which he mentions also in his 'Hetærean sickness so peevish and so full of frets at Cambridge, when he sucked Colloquies' as a paragon of beauty. Many other works by Calamis one woman (whom I spare to name) froward of conditions and of bad are mentioned by ancient writers--as an • Æsculapius' at Corinth, a diet; and, contrariwise, so quiet and well when he sucked another of Victory' at Elis, a Bacchus' and a ‘Mercury' at Tanagra, a 'Venus' contrary dispositions ? Verily, the diversity of their milks and con- at Athens, 'Jupiter Ammon' at Thebes, 'Hermione' at Delphi, &c. ditions, which being contrary one to the other, wrought also in him (Pliny, Hist. Nat., xxxiii. 12, xxxiv. 8, xxxvi. 4 ; Pausanias, i. 3; that sucked them contrary effects."

Lucian, Imag. 6, Dial. Meretr. iii.; Cicero, Brutus, 18; Quintilian, Dr. Caius died July 29, 1573, in the sixty.third year of his age, and Inst. Orator., xii. 10; Strabo, vii. 491; Junius, Catal. Artificum; was buried in the chapel of his own college. His monument bears the Sillig, Catal. Artificum ; Tbiersch, Epochen der Bildenden Kunst, &c.) pithy inscription, 'Fui Caius.'

CALAMY, EDMUND, was born in London in 1600. He entered The most interesting of the works of Dr. Caius is his treatise on Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, at the age of fifteen, and was honourably tht sweating sickness. The original edition is a small black letter and distinguished for his scholarship; but having incurred the resentment extremely scarce duodecimo of thirty-nine folios, 'imprinted at London of the Arminian party by his opposition to their opinions, he was by Richard Grafton, printer to the kynges maiestie. Anno Do. 1552.' disappointed in obtaining a fellowsbip. His conduct however attracted It is entitled ' A boke, or coupseill against the disease commonly called the notice of the Bishop of Ely, Dr. Felton, who made him his the sweate, or sweatyog sicknesse. Made by Jhon Caius, doctour in domestic chaplain, and gave him the living of Swaffham Prior, in pbisicke.' This was intended for the public in general; but in 1556 Cambridgeshire. Calamy lived with the bishop till his death. Soon the author published it in an enlarged form, and in the Latin language, after this event, in 1626, he resigned his vicarage, having been under the title · De Ephemera Britannica. The epidemic described by appointed one of the lecturers of Bury St. Edmunds. For the ten Caius was that of 1551, the fifth and last of the kind. It was an years that he officiated in this capacity he ranked among the Conintense fever, of which the crisis consisted in a profuse perspiration. formists, though of that class which was opposed to the measures of The death of the patient often followed two or three hours after this the high church party. When at length Bishop Wren's 'Articles' symptom, but if he survived the first attack of the disease twenty-four were published, and the order for reading the 'Book of Sports' began hours he was safe.

to be enforced, he publicly declared his objections to them, and left The works of Dr. Caius are exceedingly numerous, and display his the diocese. Thirty other clergymen did the same. Soon afterwards talents as a critic, a linguist, a naturalist, and an antiquary, as well he was presented to the valuable rectory of Rochford in Essex; but as a physician. His original works consist of treatises— De Medendi this place was so unhealthy that it brought on a quartan ague, from Methodo,' 'De Ephemera Britannica,' De Ephemera Britannica ad which he never perfectly recovered, and he was compelled to quit it. Populum Britannicum,' 'De Antiquitate Cantabrig. Academiæ,' •De In 1639, being chosen minister of the church of St. Mary, AldermanHistoriâ Cantabrig. Acaderniæ,'De Canibus Britannicis,' 'De Rariorum bury, he removed to the metropolis, having separated from the Animalium atque Stirpium Historia,'. De Symphoniâ Vocum Britan. Church, and openly avowed his attachment to the Presbyterian disnicarum,' . De Thermis Britannicis,' 'De libris Galeni qui non extant,'cipline. In the contentious controversies of that period on the ‘De Antiquis Britanniæ Urbibus,' De Libris propriis,'' De Pronun- subject of ecclesiastical affairs, Mr. Calamy bore a distinguished part. ciatione Græcæ et Latinæ Linguæ cum Scriptione Nova, De Annalibus His opinions against episcopacy were stated in a work, very popular in Collegii Medicinæ Lond.,' 'De Annalibus Collegii Gonevilli et Caii,' its day, entitled Smectymnuus,' written in answer to Bishop Hall's 'Compendium Erasmi Libri de verâ Theologiâ.' He also edited, Divine Right of Episcopacy. This composition was the work of translated, and commented upon many pieces of Hippocrates, Galen, five individuals—S. Marshal, E. Calamy, . Young, M. Newcomen, and others. During his life, and for many years after his death, the and W. Spurstow - the initial letters of whose names were put writings of Dr. Caius were regarded with deep veneration. Several of together to form this singular title. As a preacher Mr. Calamy was his treatises were reprinted under the superintendence of Dr. Jebb, greatly admired, and listened to by persons of the first distinction London, 1729, 850; and his treatise 'De Ephemera Britannica' was during the twenty years that he officiated in St. Mary's. Llis celebrity edited by Dr. J. F. C. Hecker, Berolini, 1833, 12mo.

was so well established by his writings, as well as by the distinguished (Hutchinson, Biographia Medica; Aikin, Biographical Memoirs station which he occupied among the ministers in the metropolis, that of Medicine in Great Britain ; Dr. J. F. C. Hecker, Der Englische he was one of the divines appointed by the House of Lords in 1641 Schweiss.)

to devise a plan for reconciling the differences which then divided the CALAMIS, a very celebrated Greek sculptor, of the 5th century church, in relation to ecclesiastical discipline. This led to the Savoy before Christ. Neither bis native place nor the exact period of his conference, at which he appeared in support of some alterations in the care r is known; he was however contemporary with Phidias, but Liturgy, and replied to the reasons urged against them by the probably his senior in years, as, according to Cicero and Quintilian, episcopal divines. who probably expressed the general opinion, notwithstanding the Like most of the Presbyterian clergy, he was averse to the execution general excellence of his works, there was a hardness in his style. He of the king, and to the usurpation of Cromwell; during whose worked in various styles, in marble, in bronze, and ivory, and as an ascendancy he held himself aloof from public affa resisted his proengraver in gold. He was also very famous for his horses, in which, position for a single government, and did not scruple to declare Pliny says, he was without a rival.

his attachment to the dethroned prince. Accordingly he was among Many works by Calarnis are mentioned in ancient writers, Greek the foremost to encourage and promote the efforts that were made for and Latin, but one in particular claims attention ; this is the 'Apollo' the restoration of Charles. He strongly recommended it in a sermon of the Servilian gardens at Rome, mentioned by Pliny, and by some preached before the House of Commons, on the day prior to that on

BIOG, DIV. VOL. II.

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CAHEN, SAMUEL

CAIUS, DR. JOHN.

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wrote various astronomical treatises and papers, mostly in the memoirs M. Cailliaud returned to Paris in 1819, but went back to Egypt before of the Italian Society, which should be consulted from the beginning the end of the same year for the purpose of extending his travels. He to find them. The title of these memoirs is ‘Memorie di Matematica left his journals, portfolios, and other materials, with M. Jomard, who e Fisica della Società Italiana, Modena,' quarto.

was thus enabled to compile the · Voyage à l'Oasis de Thèbes, et dans Cagnoli's trigonometry is one of those invaluable works which bring les Déserts situés à l'Orient et à l'Occident de la Thébaïde, fait pendant up the state of a science completely to the time at which it is written, les Années 1815, 1816, 1817, et 1818,' 2 vols. folio, one of text and and furnish those who want the means of application with varied one of plates, Paris, 1821. stores of methods. Elementary writers on the practical parts of M. Cailliaud, after his return to Egypt, performed a difficult and mathematics are among the last to adapt their rules to the actual exhausting journey across the desert which lies to the west of Egypt, state of science, unless somebody, who is well versed in the theory, as far as the oasis of Siwah, where he visited the remains of the performs the service which Cagnoli did for trigonometry. The con- famous temple of Ammon. He had been about four months employed sequence has been, that works on that subject have assumed a better here and in visiting the other oases of the desert, when he learned form, and the constant reference which has been made to Cagnoli's that the pasha was preparing an expedition to Upper Nubia, which treatise is the test of the frequency with which it has been used. was to be placed under the conduct of his son Ismail. M. Cailliaud The late Professor Woodhouse, whose treatise on trigonometry has immediately proceeded to Cairo, where he obtained the pasha's perpowerfully contributed to foster a taste for analysis in this country, mission to join the expedition. He went with it as far as 10° N. lat., seems, on a smaller scale to have taken Cagnoli for his model. The which was the farthest point south to which it advanced. M. Cailliaud work we speak of is a quarto of 500 pages in the French translation, is considered to have discovered at Assour, above the confluence of the second edition of which is angmented by the author's communi. the Taccazzé with the Nile, the ruins of the ancient city of Meröe. cations), and treats very largely of the application of trigonometry to The pasha's son Ismail died here. In 1822 Cailliaud returned to astronomy and geodesy.

Paris, and from the materials furnished by him M. Jomard compiled CAHEN, SAMUEL, was born on the 4th of August, 1796, at the Voyage à l'Oasis de Syonah,' 1 vol. folio, with many plates. The Metz, the capital of the French department of Moselle. His parents results however of these latter journeys were afterwar is published were Jews, and he was destined by them for the rabbinate, or learned by M. Cailliaud, himself, in the Voyage à Méroé, au Fleuve Blanc, profe-sion. At the age of fourteen he was sent to Mainz, in order to au delà de Fazoql, dans le Midi du Royaume de Sennår, à Syouah, et complete his studies under the chief rabbi of that city. After passing dans les Cinq autres Oases, fait dans les Années 1819, 1820, 1821, et some time in Germany as a private teacher, he returned to France, 1822,' Paris, 1826-27, 4 vols. 8vo, with a folio volume of plates. In 1831 and in 1822 fixed bis residence in Paris, where, from 1823 to 1836 he he published a splendid volume in small folio, with plates beautifully was the conductor of the Jewish consistorial school of that city. In coloured, entitled . Reserches sur les Arts et Métiers, les Usages, et la Vie 1824 he published at Paris a 'Cours de Lecture Hébraïque, ou Méthode Civile et Domestique, des Anciens Peuples de l'Egypte, des la Nubie, et Facile pour apprendre seul et en peu de Temps à lire l'Hébreu' (2nd de l'Étiopie, suivies de Détails sur les Meurs et coutumes des Peuples edition, 1842); and in 1836 a ‘Manuel d'Histoire Universelle depuis le Modernes des mêmes Contrées. M. Cailliaud afterwards retired to his Commencement du Monde jusqu'en 1836. In 1840 he commenced the native town of Nantes, having, with the cross of the Legion of Honour, monthly periodical called Archives Israelites de France;' and in 1842 received the appointment of conservator of the Museum there.

In published at Metz Exercises élémentaires sur la Langue Hébraïque;" 1856 he published a Mémoire sur les mollusques perforants.' but his great work is the translation of the Old Testament into French, CAIN was the eldest son of Adam. His history, with that of his 'La Bible, Traduction Nouvelle, avec l'Hébreu en regard' (with the brother Abel, is contained in the fourth chapter of Genesis. Cain, Hebrew on the opposite pages), 20 vols. 8vo, which occupied him from we are told, was a tiller of the ground, while Abel was a keeper of 1831 to 1851. [See SUPPLEMENT.)

sheep. The brothers offered sacrifices together, Cain's offering being CAILLET, GUILLAUME, a French peasant, was the leader of the the fruit of the earth, and that of Abel the firstlings of his flock. The • insurrection called the Jacquerie, which broke out in France in 1358. offering of Abel alone was accepted, as being an act of faith (ABEL), Caillet was a native of Mello, a small place in the Beauvoisin, a district and Cain being very wroth, when they were together in the field, so named from the city of Beauvais, in the old province of Isle-de- 'rose up against Abel his brother and slew him." For this, the first France, adjoining Picardie. At this time the French king Jean II. was shedding of human blood, Cain was driven forth “a fugitive and a a prisoner in England, having been taken at the battle of Poictiers in vagabond in the earth.” But on his crying out to the Lord that his 1356. The insurrectionists consisted almost entirely of peasantry, and punishment was greater than he could bear, “the Lord set a mark their leader Caillet received or assumed the name of Jacques Bon. upon him, lest any finding him should kill him,"—or, as it is perhaps homme (James Good-Man), which was applied in contempt to the lower to be understood, gave him a token or assurance that none who found classes, and hence the persons engaged in this outbreak were called him should kill him. Cain went and dwelt in the land of Nod on the Jacques, and the insurrection itself La Jacquerie. The rising of the east of Eden, and had a son, Enoch, after whom he named a city or peasants commenced, according to the Chroniques de France, on the settlement which he subsequently built. Of the remainder of Cain's 21st of May 1358, and was of a very ferocious character. It is stated life, or of its length, nothing is told in Scripture: the Talmudists and by the writers of the time, Froissart and others, to have been caused some early Christian writers have related many absurd fables and by the oppressions of the feudal lords and landed gentry, which, always traditions respecting his future career and the manner of his death, severe, had increased during the disturbed period of the king's captivity which however it would serve no good purpose to repeat here. It till they had become intolerable. The lawless bands were at first few will also be enough to mention that in the 2nd century of the Christian in number, and were armed only with knives and with sticks shod with era, a sect of heretics, who called themselves, or were called, Cainites, iron, but they rapidly increased, and ultimately extended throughout is said by ancient writers to have sprung up and numbered many Picardie and into the neighbouring provinces, and are said to have adherents. They are stated to bave held the person of Cain in great amounted to 100,000. Their object was, as they opeuly professed, to veneration, and to have adopted many very abominable practices as destroy the whole race of the feudal pobility and gentry as beings who well as opinions : they are regarded as a minor sect of Gnostics. ought to be no longer suffered to exist. The peasants forced their way Lardner gives an account of them in his ' History of Heretics,' but at into the castles and houses, plundered and then burnt them, and not the same time questions the existence of any such sect. only massacred the inhabitants of both sexes and every age, but CAIUS. [Gaius.] inflicted cruelties not fit to be described. At length, about the end of CAIUS, DR. JOHN, was born at Norwich, October 6, 1510. His the same year 1358, the insurrectionists were opposed and overcome real name was Kaye, or Key, which he Latinised by Caius. After by the combined forces of the lords of Picardie, Brabant, and Flanders, receiving the first rudiments of learning in his nutive city, he was sent having the Dauphin of France, afterwards Charles V., at their head. to Gonville Hall, in the University of Cambridge. He took the degrees Caillet himself was taken prisoner by the king of Nararre, and was of B.A. and M.A. at the usual times, and was chosen fellow of his beheaded in 1359.

college in 1533. His literary labours began at the age of twenty by * CAILLIAUD, FRÉDÉRIC, was born in 1787 at Nantes, in the a translation into English of St. Chrysostom, 'De Modo orandi Deum? French department of Loire-Inférieure. In 1809 he removed to Paris This was followed by a translation (somewhat abridged) of Erasmus, for the purpose of prosecuting his studies in geology and mineralogy. De verâ Theologia.' His third production was a translation of He afterwards travelled in Holland, Italy, Sicily, Greece, and Turkey. Erasmus's paraphrase upon the epistle of St. Jude. His excuse for In 1815 he visited Egypt, where he was well received by the pasha, writing in English is curious enough:—“These I did in Engli-he the Mohammed Ali, by whom he was employed on a voyage of exploration rather because at that tyme men ware not so geuen all to Englishe, but up the Nile. He spent some time in Nubia, and discovered on Mount that they dyd fauoure and mayteine good learning conteined in tongues Zabarah the emerald mines which had formerly been celebrated, and and sciences, and did also study and apply diligently the same themwhich had been wrought under the government of the Ptolemies. He selves. Therfore I thought no hurte done. Sence that time diuerse explored the vast excavations which had been made in working the other thynges I haue written, but with entente neuer more to write in mines, and found large quantities of tools and other articles which the Englishe tongue, partly because the commoditie of that which is so had been used by the workmen, and left there. He himself conducted written passeth not the compasse of Englande, but remaineth enclosed the mining operations for some time, and transmitted to the pasha within the seas," &c. (“A Counseill against the Sweat,' fol. 4.) ten pounds' weight of emeralds. From communications with the It was probably soon after this that he travelled into Italy, where Arabs he ascertained one of the lines of route from the Nile to the he remained several years. He studied medicine at Padua under Red Sea by which the commerce between Egypt and India was formerly Baptista Montanus and Vesalius, and took the degree of Doctor at carried on. He visited the ruins of Thebes several times, and obtained Bologna. In 1542 he gave lectures at Padua on the Greek text of many interesting antiquities, and copied a large number of inscriptions. Aristotle in conjunction with Realdus Columbus, the salary being

paid

CALAMIS.

CALAMY, EDMUND.

26

by some noble Venetians. The following year he made the tour of supposed to be the 'Apollo Belvedere' of the Vatican at Rome. This Italy, visiting the most celebrated libraries, and collating manuscripts supposition however completely sets aside the criticisms of Cicero and in order to improve the text of Galen and Celsus. At Pisa he attended Quintilian upon the style of Calamis, for this work, so far from being the medical lectures of Matthæus Curtius, and then returned home i hard, would be effeminately delicate for any male character below a through France and Germany. On bis return he was incorporated divinity. Doctor of Physic at Cambridge, and practised with great distinction at Calamis made two other statues of 'Apollo :' the 'Apollo AlexiShrewsbury and Norwich. By the appointment of Henry VIII. he kakos' ('Deliverer from Evil'), which Pausanias saw at Athens; and read lectures on anatomy to the Company of Surgeons; but he does the colossal 'Apollo,' made for the city of Apollonia in Illyricum, and not appear to have settled in London till a later period, when he was which, according to Strabo, was brought to Rome by Lucullus, and made physician to Edward VI. He retained his appointment under placed in the Capitol

. Junius and Harduin supposed that Pliny and Mary and Elizabeth.

Pausanias speak of the same work ; but it is not at all probable that In 1547 Dr. Caius became a Fellow of the College of Physicians, and a work which was in Rome in Pliny's time would be in Athens in the was ever a strenuous upholder of its rights and interests. A difference time of Pausanias. This inconsistency has been pointed out before; baring arisen between the physicians and surgeons in the reign of but many have been misled by the opinion, and it seems to have sug. Elizabeth as to whether the latter wight administer internal remedies gested the idea which Visconti and Flaxman have adopted, that the in cases where their manual assistance was required, Dr. Caius, then * Apollo Belvedere' and the Apollo Alexikakos' of Calamis are the president, was summoned to appear before the lord mayor and others same, or at least that the former is a marble copy of the bronze of the queen's delegates. On this occasion he pleaded the physicians' original by Calamis. Sillig supposes that the statue mentioned by cause so ally that, although the surgeons were supported by the Bishop Pausanias must have been of bronze, because it was placed in the of London and the Master of the Rolls, it was unanimously agreed by open air ; this does not follow however, as many of the ancient Greek the commissioners that it was unlawful for the surgeons to practise marbles were placed in the open air. It was dedicated in honour of medically in such cases. Dr. Caius was president of the College of Apollo after the delivery of Athens from the plague, in Ol. 87. 4 Physicians for more than seven years. He left behind him a book of (B.C. 429), during the Peloponnesian war. It is the latest work by the college appais, from 1555 to 1572, written with his own band in a Calamis mentioned, and must have been made at least three or four clear Latin style. Having obtained permission from Queen Mary, with years after the death of Phidias. His earliest work which is noticed whom he was much in favour, to advance Gonville Hall into a college, is a pair of bronze horses mounted by boys, for the triumphal car of which still bears bis name, he accepted the mastership of the college, Onatas, placed by Deinomenes, the son of Hiero, at Olympia, and passed the last years of his life in it. Before his death he was in 01. 78. 2 (B.C. 467), in commemoration of Hiero's victory at the reduced to a state of great weakness; and it appears from the following Olympic games, twelve years after the battle of Marathon. quaint passage in Dr. Mouffet's Health’s Improvement, or Rules con- Lucian also, in his description of Panthea, has recourse to the aid cerning Food,' that he attempted to sustain his flagging powers by of Calamis. He takes some of Panthea's charms from a statue of reverting to the food of infancy :-“What made Dr. Caius in his last Sosandra by Calamis, which he mentions also in his 'Hetærean sickness so peevish and so full of frets at Cambridge, when he sucked Colloquies' as a paragon of beauty. Many other works by Calamis one woman (whom I spare to name) froward of conditions and of bad are mentioned by ancient writers--as an . Æsculapius' at Corinth, a diet; and, contrariwise, so quiet and well when he sucked another of Victory' at Elis, a Bacchus' and a ‘Mercury' at Tanagra, a 'Venus' contrary dispositions ? Verily, the diversity of their milks and con- at Athens, 'Jupiter Ammon' at Thebes, 'Hermione'at Delphi, &c. ditions, which being contrary one to the other, wrought also in him (Pliny, Hist. Nat., xxxiii. 12, xxxiv. 8, xxxvi. 4; Pausanias, i. 3; that sucked them contrary effects.”

Lucian, Imag. 6, Dial. Meretr. iii.; Cicero, Brutus, 18; Quintilian, Dr. Caius died July 29, 1573, in the sixty-third year of his age, and Inst. Orator., xii. 10; Strabo, vii. 491; Junius, Catal. Artificum; was buried in the chapel of his own college. His monument bears the Sillig, Catal. Artificum ; Thiersch, Epochen der Bildenden Kunst, &c.) pithy inscription, 'Fui Caius.'

CALAMY, EDMUND, was born in London in 1600. He entered The most interesting of the works of Dr. Caius is his treatise on Pembroke Hall

, Cambridge, at the age of fifteen, and was honourably the sweating sickness. The original edition is a small black letter and distinguished for his scholarship; but having incurred the resentment extremely scarce duodecimo of thirty-nine folios, 'imprinted at London of the Arminian party by his opposition to their opinions, he was by Richard Grafton, printer to the kynges maiestie. Anno Do. 1552.' disappointed in obtaining a fellowsbip. His conduct however attracted It is entitled 'A boke, or counseill against the disease commonly called the notice of the Bishop of Ely, Dr. Felton, who made him his the sweate, or sweatyog sicknesse. Made by Jhon Caius, doctour in domestic chaplain, and gave him the living of Swaff ham Prior, in phieieke.' This was intended for the public in general; but in 1556 | Cambridgeshire. Calamy lived with the bishop till his death. Soon the author published it in an enlarged form, and in the Latin language, after this event, in 1626, he resigned his vicarage, having been under the title ‘De Ephemera Britannica. The epidemic described by appointed one of the lecturers of Bury St. Edmunds. For the ten Caius was that of 1551, the fifth and last of the kind. It was an years that he officiated in this capacity he ranked among the Con. intense fever, of which the crisis consisted in a profuse perspiration. formists, though of that class which was opposed to the measures of The death of the patient often followed two or three hours after this the high church party. When at length Bishop Wren's 'Articles' symptom, but if he survived the first attack of the disease twenty-four were published, and the order for reading the Book of Sports' began hours he was safe.

to be enforced, he publicly declared his objections to them, and left The works of Dr. Caius are exceedingly numerous, and display his the diocese. Thirty other clergymen did the same. Soon afterwards talents as a critic, a linguist, a naturalist, and an antiquary, as well he was presented to the valuable rectory of Rochford in Essex; but as a physician. His original works consist of treatises --De Medendi this place was so unhealthy that it brought on a quartan ague, from Methodo,' 'De Ephemera Britannica,'' De Ephemera Britannicâ ad which he never perfectly recovered, and he was compelled to quit it. Populum Britannicum,' 'De Antiquitate Cantabrig. Academiæ,' 'De In 1639, being chosen minister of the church of St. Mary, AldermanHistoriâ Cantabrig. Academiæ,' 'De Canibus Britannicis,' 'De Rariorum bury, be removed to the metropolis, having separated from the Animalium atque Stirpium Historia,' . De Symphonia Vocum Britan. Church, and openly avowed his attachment to the Presbyterian disnicarum,' 'De Thermis Britannicis,' 'De libris Galeni qui non extant,' cipline. In the contentious controversies of that period on the ‘De Antiquis Britanniæ Urbibus,' De Libris propriis,'' De Pronun- subject of ecclesiastical affairs, Mr. Calamy bore a distinguished part. ciatione Græcæ et Latinæ Linguæ cum Scriptione Nova,'De Annalibus His opinions against episcopacy were stated in a work, very popular in Collegii Medicinæ Lond., De Appalibus Collegii Gonevilli et Caii,' its day, entitled 'Smectymnuus,' written in answer to Bishop Hall's

Compendium Erasmi Libri de verâ Theologiâ." He also edited, 'Divine Right of Episcopacy.' This composition was the work of tmnslated, and commented upon many pieces of Hippocrates, Galen, five individuals—S. Marshal, E. Calamy, T. Young, M. Newcomen, and others. During his life, and for many years after his death, the and W. Spurstow — the initial letters of whose names were put writings of Dr. Caius were regarded with deep veneration. Several of together to form this singular title. As a preacher Mr. Calamy was his treatises were reprinted under the superintendence of Dr. Jebb, greatly admired, and listened to by persons of the first distinction London, 1729, 850; and his treatise 'De Ephemera Britannica' was during the twenty years that he officiated in St. Mary's. Llis celebrity edited by Dr. J. F. C. Hecker, Berolini, 1833, 12mo.

was so well established by his writings, as well as by the distinguished (Hut binson, Biographia Medica; Aikin, Biographical Memoirs station which he occupied among the ministers in the metropolis, that of Medicine in Great Britain ; Dr. J. F. C. Hecker, Der Englische he was one of the divines appointed by the House of Lords in 1641 Schweiss.)

to devise a plan for reconciling the differences which then divided the CALAMIS, a very celebrated Greek sculptor, of the 5th century church, in relation to ecclesiastical discipline. This led to the Savoy before Cbrist. Neither his native place nor the exact period of his conference, at which he appeared in support of some alterations in the care r is known; he was however contemporary with Phidias, but Liturgy, and replied to the reasons urged against them by the probably his senior in years, as, according to Cicero and Quintilian, episcopal divines. who probably expressed the general opinion, notwithstanding the Like most of the Presbyterian clergy, he was averse to the execution general excellence of his works, there was a hardness in bis style. He of the king, and to the usurpation of Cromwell; during whose worked in various styles, in marble, in bronze, and ivory, and as an ascendancy he held himself aloof from public affairs, resisted his proengraver in gold. He was also very famous for his horses, in which, position for a single government, and did not scruple to declare Pliny says, he was without a rival.

his attachment to the dethroned prince. Accordingly he was among Many works by Calamis are mentioned in ancient writers, Greek the foremost to encourage and promote the efforts that were made for and Latio, but one in particular claims attention ; this is the 'Apollo' the restoration of Charles. He strongly recommended it in a sermon of the Servilian gardens at Rome, mentioned by Pliny, and by some preached before the House of Commons, on the day prior to that on

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which the House resolved to invite the king back to his kingdom; tributed to those who were present. While Calanus was riding to the and he was one of those deputed to meet Charles in Holland with the pile, Alexander asked him if he had any requests to make. He replied, congratulations of the nation. On his majesty's return, he appointed “No; I shall see you soon in Babylon." Alexander died soon after Mr. Calamy one of his chaplains; the duty of which office, owing to in Babylon, B.C. 323. Calanus was in his seventy-third year when he prevailing animosities, he performed, it is generally said, no more than died. (Strabo, xv. 1; Arrian, vii.; Cicero, 'De Div.,' i. 23 ; Valer. once, but Pepys in his ' Diary,' June 6, 1660, notes that “his letters Max. i. 8.) tell him that Mr. Calamy had preached before the king in a surplice : CALDARA. (CARAVAGGIO.] he indeed adds a note, this I heard afterwards to be false," but he CALDAS, FRANCISCO JOSÉ DE, born at Popayan in New appears to mean the use of the surplice. It is certain that Calamy Granada, about 1773, deserves notice as an example not common any preached once subsequently. Pepys notes under August 12, 1660, where, but very unusual in South America, of a man who unaided by

(Lord's Day.) To White Hall Chapel, where Mr. Calamy preached, books or teachers arrived at a very respectable position as a man of and made a good sermon, upon these words, “To whom much is science. His studies and researches included botany, physical geogragiven, of him much is required.' He was very officious with his tbree phy, mechanics, and astronomy. Before Humboldt had opened the reverences to the king, as others do." It is evident that the king's region of the Andes to the scientific world, Caldas bad constructed Presbyterian chaplain was closely watched; but it appears also with his own hands a barometer and other instruments, and explored evident, judging from his text, that if he was ready to pay all the a considerable tract, and taken the altitude of several of the loftiest usual marks of reverence to his majesty, he was not disposed to shrink summits of that vast range. When Mutis made his celebrated explorafrom reminding him of the duties as well rs the privileges which his tion of New Granada, Caldas rendered him important assistance; the exalted position devolved upon him. Besides his chaplaincy Calamy admeasurements of Chimborazo and some other peaks were made by was offered the bishopric of Lichfield and Coventry, which it is him. About 1805 or 1806 he received the appointment of director of thought he would have accepted, if he could bave subscribed to the the observatory of Santa Fé de Bogota. His chief scientific labours terms of the king's declaration. His moderation was such, that he are embodied in the 'Semenario de la Nueva Granada,' of which he appeared only desirous of removing those restrictions which affected published the first number in 1807, and which ultimately formed two the Presbyterian clergy, accompanied with such reforms in the services 4to volumes. Caldas having eagerly embraced the cause of independof the church as would bave allowed a conscientious performance of ence, unfortunately fell into the hands of Morillo, who caused him to their pastoral duties. But finding the temper of the high Church be executed October 30, 1816. The scientific labours of Caldas bave party set upon their rejection by acts of further restraint and intole- been highly praised by several European savants, especially by Humrance, he seized upon the opportunity of the passing of the Act of boldt. A new edition of the 'Semenario,' augmented by the addition U iformity to resign his living. Being well received at court, bis of several of Caldas's inedited writings, was published at Paris under friends recommended him to petition for an indulgence; but his the care of M. A. Lasserre in 1849. (Acosta, Breve Noticia sobre F. de request was fruitless. He did not, like some of the other ejected Caldas ; Nouvelle Biog. Univ.) ministers, attempt to assemble a congregation elsewhere, but still CALDERA'RI, OTTO'NE, was born of a noble family at Vicenza continued to attend the church in which he had so long officiated. in 1730. Although that city is indebted to him for many important On one of these occasions, when no clergyman attended, some of bis additions to its previous architectural attractions, little has been told friends requested him to preach. After some hesitation be ascended respecting his life. His enthusiasm for architecture is said to have the desk, from which it had always been his custom to deliver his been first excited by viewing the Basilica of Vicenza by moonlight, discourses, and preached upon the concern of old Eli for the ark of which made so powerful an impression upon him that he thenceforth God, into which he introduced some matter that touched upon recent devoted himself to the study. One of his earliest recorded works was events; which being deemed seditious, he was committed to Newgate, the casino erected by him near Vicenza, in 1772, for the Count Antiwhere he lay, until the outcry raised by his friends induced the king Sola, which has a very extended front towards the gardens, with to order his liberation. He lived to see London in ashes; which event terraces uniting the house to the wings. In 1773 he built the small had such an eff ct upon his nerves, that he survived the melancholy Palazzo Bonini at Vicenza, with a facade of two orders, Doric and Ionic spectacle little more than a month. He died October 29, 1666. (of five intercolumns), surmounted by an attic; it is a most decided Mr. Calamy was considered an able theologian. His publications imitation of Palladio. The Palazzo Cordellina (1776) at Vicenza, consist of single sermons preached upon particular occasions, and a which is esteemed by his editors his "capo d'opera,” differs very little vindication of bimself against an attack made upon bim by Mr. Burton, from the preceding in the style of its façade, which presents the same entitled The Godly Man's Ark, or a City of Refuge in the Day of his orders. The Villa Porto at Vivaro, five miles from Vicenza, erected Distress.'

in 1778, is a happier specimen of his talent, and the Doric colonnades Two of Mr. Calamy's sons, who were educated at Cambridge for the between the body and wings, backed by a screen wall with openings church, took opposite sides on the disputed points of ecclesiastical in it, produce much scenic effect. In 1782 he built the Palazzo Loschi affairs; the eldest, Edmund, having, after his ejectment from his at Vicenza, a Corinthian order and attic on a rusticated basement; in living, become a decided nonconformist; while his other son, 1785 the Casino Todaro, and also the Palazzi Quinto and Salvi, in the Dr. Benjamin Calamy, not only adhered to the high church party, same city. Nor was Vicenza alone the scene of his architectural but wrote in its defence 'A Discourse against a Scrupulous Con labours, for he designed the beautiful atrium of the Seminario at science;' the tenour of which is, to stigmatise as crime the act of Verona, the Villa Capra, at Marano, and the Casa Cocastelli in the separating from the church.

Mantuan territory, A grandson of Mr. Calamy was a celebrated nonconformist divine, Count Calderari belonged to the principal academies and societies and is the well-known biographer of the ejected ministers; and also in Europe, and was elected by the French Institute expressly as being of Baxter's Life and Times. This gentleman, also called Edmund, "foremost among the Italian architects of that day;" vor can it be after his father and grandfather, on a visit to Scotland in 1709, denied that he is entitled to the admiration of those who hold Palladio received the decree of Doctor in Divinity from each of the universities to be a pattern of excellence. He died at Vicenza, October 26, 1803, of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. He was born in 1671, and and his éloge was pronounced by Diedo, secretary to the Academy of died June 3, 1732.

Fine Arts, Venice, and the chief editor of his 'Opere di Architettura,' CALA'NUS, an Indian philosopher of the sect called by the Greeks &c., 2 vols. folio, 1808–17. Gymnosophists, or naked philosophers.' Alexander the Great, in CALDERON DE LA BARCA, DON PEDRO, a great Spanish the course of his Indian expedition, met with a body of these singular dramatist, born of noble parents at Madrid, in 1601, suggests a striking men, and being desirous of speaking with them, he deputed Onesicritus parallel with Lope de Vega, his celebrated countryman and forerunner to invite tiem to visit him. Dandamis, their chief, refused to go in the same career. Both were wonderfully precocious: Lope wrote himself or to allow any of his followers to go, saying that he was as plays at the age of eleven or twelve, and Calderon exhibited no inferior much the son of Jupiter as Alexander, and that he wanted nothing genius at thirteen in his “Carro del Cielo' (the Heavenly Chariot). from Alexander, but was quite satisfied with what he had. Calanus Both devoted the vigour of life to the military profession, and their (Plutarch says his real name was Sphines, and that Calanus was a maturity to the ecclesiastical order; and the poetic taleut of both conname given to him by the Greeks from his custom of using the word / tinued to advanced age. Both of them acquired reputation and even kale instead of xaipe in saluting) was the only one who could be pre- affluence from a gift proverbially doomed to penury, and at the most vailed upon; and, amidst the reproacbes of bis colleagues, he consented hardly promising more than posthumous renown. to accompany Alexander in his expedition. On arriving at Pasargada Lope and Calderon gave the law to the Spanish theatre. With all in Persis he fell ill. He had never been ill before, and would not now their irregularity, they both exhibit a singular mixture of sublimity submit to be nursed or doctored, but insisted on being burnt. After and absurdity, with frequent flashes of genius, and passages of striking many fruitless endeavours to dissuade him from his resolution, Alex. truth to nature; thus frequently redeeming their numerous faults, and ander orriered a splendid pile to be raised, and a golden couch to be making amends for many to us now very ridiculous scenes. The placed on it by Ptolemæus, son of Lagus. Calanus was driven in a fertility of these two writers is not the least surprising part of their carriage to the spot, crowned after the Indian fashion, and chaunting history. Lope added 2000, and Calderon 500 pieces at least to the hymns to the gods in the Indian ton ue, he mounted the pile, and laid national dramatic stock. Their success could not fail to call forth himself down in the sight of the whole army, and continued motion numerous imitators at home and abroad : Corneille, there is little less amidst the flames. As soon as the fire had been kindled, trumpets doubt, formed his Heraclius upon the play of Calderon, as he certainly were sounded, and it is said that even the elephants joined the army took his Cid and his Menteur from Guillermo de Castro. Molière's in raising a war-shout in honour of Calanus. The various ornaments Femmes savantes' was suggested by Calderon's 'No hai burlas con el with which Alexander had ordered the pile to be decorated were dis- Amor' (Love is no Joke); and Scarron grossly disfigured, uprler the CALDERON, DE LA BARCA, DON PEDRO.

CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL.

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title of 'La fausse Apparence, Calderon's 'Nunca lo peor es cierto' the six last a great number of his ‘Autos Sacramentales. They were (The worst is never true). The French translations by Linguet reprinted at Madrid iu 1726 and 1760 in 10 vols. 4to. A collection of doubtless contributed largely to produce this effect. On Linguet's his Autos' appeared also at Madrid in 1759 in 6 vols. 4to. In 1830

Viol puni,' a trauslation of Calderon's 'Alcalde de Zalamea,' the well. George Keil published at Leipzig a splendid edition of Calderon in knowo Collet d'Herbois built his Paysan magistrat.' Not to mention 5 vols. 8vo; other editions of his plays have since been published. numerous other instances of a similar kind, it should not be forgotten The Teatro Español,' published by La Huerta, gives but a partial that Calderon's Secreto a voces' (The published Secret) has appeared idea of Calderon's talent; for he has selected the 'Comedias de Capa in the Italian, French, and German languages.

y Espada,' two only excepted, one of which is styled 'heroica,' although Calderon's talents, which had been early manifested at school under it belongs to the mythological class. the Jesuits, developed at Salamanca, and already admired in the CALDERWOOD, DAVID, was a native of Scotland, and was Spanish possessions of Italy and the Low Countries, were at last brought up to the church. He was born in 1575. In 1604 he became encouraged by the patronage of Philip IV., who bestowed on him a the minister of the parish of Crelling in the south of Scotland, where knighthood of Santiago in 1636; invited him to Madrid in 1640 to he was greatly respected. write the 'Certamen de Amor y Zelos' (the Contest between Love and When James I. of England visited Scotland in 1617 for the Jealousy), a sort of festival to be performed on the lake of Buen- purpose of introducing, by the aid of a Scottish parliament and Retiro; and soon raised his allowance to an escudo more per day. the general assembly, certain legal enactments, the object of which Subsequently, in 1649, he intrusted to his taste and ingenuity the plan was to bring the Scottish church into conformity with the church and directions of some triumphal arches, under which the royal bride of England, Calderwood was one of those who were most strinuous Mary Anna of Austria was to pass.

in their opposition. He and other ministers of the church having At the age of fifty Calderon entered the church, and two years signed a protest against the proposed measures, they were suinafterwards, the king bestowed on him a chaplaincy of Toledo. In moned before a court of high commission in which the king himself 1663 he gave him another similar piece of preferment, with a hand-presided. Persecution and threats having both failed to make CalderBome pension charged on the revenue of Sicily, and other similar wood change his opinions, he was thrown into prison, and was afteracknowledgments of his services and merits. During the long period wards banished from the kingdom. He went to Holland, where in of thirty-seven years he wrote, by special commission of the muni- 1621-23, he published in 4to a work in Latin, entitled “Altare cipality of Madrid, and of other cities, such as Toledo, Sevilla, and Damascenum,' &c., in which he enters into a full examination of the Granada, about 100 - Autos Sacramentales,' or sacred pieces, which principles of the Church of England, its government, ceremonies, and resemble those of the 16th century, commonly called Mysteries.' connection with the state. The work made a great impression at the The 'Autos' of Calderon soon superseded those of all previous time, and was translated into English under the title of The Altar of Spanish authors; and to their composition the poet devoted the Damascuis, or the Pattern of the English Hierarchy and Church, remaining thirty years of his life after he had entered the ecclesiastical obtruded upon the Church of Scotland,' 12mo, 1621. Å report having profession. In his eightieth year he wrote his 'Hado y Divisa.' As been spread that Calderwood was dead, a man named Patrick Scot the booksellers were now selling spurious works under his name, he published a pretended recantation, with the title “Calderwood's was urged by the Duke of Veraguas to make a true list of all bis Recantation, directed to such in Scotland as refuse Conformity to the works, but he merely sent a list of his 'Autos,' expressing, on Ordinances of the Church,' London, 1622. It was soon discovered to religious grounds, very little concern for the rest.

be a base forgery, and the king himself was accused of having lent Some of the 'Autos' of Calderon, especially that entitled 'La his assistance in writing it. Calderwood in the meantime bad returned Devocion de la Cruz' (the Devotion of the Cross, meaning its secretly to Scotland, where he lived some years in concealment. He miracles), are the best productions of the kind. Augustus Schlegel collected the materials for a 'History of the Church of Scotland,' bas translated this work, with some of the best of his dramas, such as which are preserved in manuscript in the Advocates Library, Edin'El Principe constante,'a tragedy which might be called the Lusitanian burgh, in 6 vols. folio, with a preface detailing the principal circumRegulus for its Portuguese lofty subject. It is indeed Calderon's stances of his life. From the materials of this work Calderwood masterpiece, and displays the full lustre of his genius. He wrote wrote his ‘History of the Church of Scotland from the Beginning of likewise a poem in octaves on the 'Novísimos,' or . Postrimerias' (the the Reformation unto the End of the Reign of James VI., begin. old scholastic and ascetic collective denomination of death, judgment, ning 1560 and ending 1625, folio. He is supposed to have died heaven, and hell). There is also among his works a discourse on in 1651. painting, 'La Nobleza de la Pintura ;' another in vindication of the CALEPI'NO, AMBRO'GIO, was born at Calepio in the province of stage, Defensa de la Comedia;' and many songs, sonnets, and ballads, Bergamo in 1435. He became an Augustine friar, but devoted himself with numerous short poems to which the highest prizes were adjudged chiefly to philology. His great work was a Latin dictionary, which on various occasions.

was one of the earliest works of the kind, and was first published at The date of Calderon's death is variously stated, but that of 1681, Reggio, fol., 1502. It went through many editions, most of them on the 25th of May, Whitsuntide day, is shown to be correct by with numerous additions, which made it almost a new work. Passerat's documents quoted in the introduction to Calderon's comedies (* Bib- edition, 1609, with the title “Dictionarium Octolingue,' contaivs the lioteca de Autores Españoles.'t. vii., xxxiii.).

corresponding words in Greek, Hebrew, Italian, German, Spanish, To revert to the parallel between the two great Spanish dramatists. French, and English. Other editions added the Slavopian and Lope was bolder and ruder, Calderon more brilliant and refined, a Hungarian. Facciolati

, assistí-d by Forcellini, published a new edition keener observer of the female mind and manners, a readier contriver of Calepino's, or rather Passerat's dictionary, also in eight languages, of plots, which are full of business and bustle, naturally arising from 2 vols. fol., Padua, 1731. While engaged on this labour Forcellini intricacies which are most happily disentangled in bis denođements. conceived the idea of a totally new and more complete and critical In this respect he surpasses even Moreto and Solis, but he does not lexicon, and after spending thirty years in compiling it, be published always keep within the rules of strict morality. He allows vice too it under the title of Totius Latinitatis Lexicon,' 4 vols. fol, Padua, frequently to triumph, out of deference, probably, as some would 1771. Forcellini's lexicon superseded all former Latin dictionaries. have it by way of apology for him, to the fashionable morals of the Calepino died November the 30th 1511. time. The chivalrous delicacy as to the point of honour, which often CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL, one of the most influential of supplies the place of morality, is displayed in its most favourable the recent statesmen of America, was born on the 18th of March 1782, aspect in some of his dramas. Sometimes he appears to be seized at Abbeville in South Carolina. His fatber, Patrick Calhoun, was by with a moralising fit, which contrasts strangely with the levity, birth an Irishman, but he emigrated to America early in life, settled merriment, intrigues, and mad gallantry wbich were exhibited for the in Carolina, and took an active part on the American side during the first time on the Spanish stage in his 'Comedias de Capa y Espáda' war of independence. John C. Calhoun graduated with distinction at (Plays of Cloak and Sword). These pieces take their name from the Yale College in 1804 ; and, having completed his legal studies in Condress in which they were performed (then the general costume of the necticut, returned to his native place in 1807 to enter upon the gentry throughout Europe), and in contradistinction to the Comedias practice of bis profession. He was elected the following year a memheroicas' (Historical Dramas), which were intended to excite surprise ber of the South Carolina House of Representatives, where his clear and admiration. In the latter, love is the feeling which actuated the vigorous intellect soon obtained for him considerable notice. In 1811 champions of chivalry, while in the former it is merely a verbose and he was sent as a representative to the United States Congress, and the glozing gallantry which succeeded to the poetical worship of the fair. rest of his life was spent at Washington. Luring the discussion of These being a sort of dramatised novels, on subjects selected from the important measures which in the course of the next five years fashionable life, gave full scope to Calderon's elegance of language, excited the public mind, Mr. Calhoun played a prominent part, and gracefulness of dialogue, facility of versification, richness of diction, his fervid eloquence, eagerly defending and stimulating the popular and fertility of imagination; qualities indeed which sometimes make war-cry, won for him a commanding position. On Mr. Monroe's him too diffuse.

election to the presidency of the United States in 1817, he appointed Caideron gave the last polish to the Spanish theatre without changing Mr. Calhoun his secretary of war, a post he retained during the eight its nature. He imparted dignity to ihe historical, or, as they were years of Mr. Monroe's tenure of office. His admiuistration was styled heroic' comedies; but while some of them are the best, others marked by energy and judgment, and secured his position as one of are the most trivial of his productions, and are full of historical the ablest public men of his time. On the next election, 1825, he was blunders.

named as a candidate for the presidency, but withdrew his claim, and The greater part of Calderon's works were published at Madrid in eventually he was chosen vice-president. To this high office he was 9 vol. 4to, 1689: the first three volumes contain his comedies, and re-elected in 1829, when General Jackson succeeded Mr. Adams as

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