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DAVY, SIR HUMPHRY. upon the same ground as De Thou in bis ‘Historia sui Temporis.' to Egypt, where his bravery was displayed in attacking and taking Some critics have noticed that Davila evinces a partiality for the the village of Aboukir after the action at that place had been fought French court, and especially for Catharine de Medici, who had been against the Turks. After the convention of El-Arish, he embarked at his father's benefactress. The facts however stated by Davila are Alexandria to return to France. The vessel was captured by an acknowledged to be true, and he was well acquainted with them English frigate, and he was carried as a prisoner of war to Leghorn; through his own and his father's connection with France. He was but an order was sent for his release within month. On his return familiar with the politics of his age, and with the leading contempo- Bonaparte created him general of division and commander-in-chief of rary characters. He was also well acquainted with the topography the cavalry in the army of Italy, in which capacity he contributed to of the places in which most of the events wbich he narrates occurred. the victory of Marengo. When Napoleon was declared emperor, His style is graphic and animated, especially when he describes a Davout was promoted to be a marsbal of France, and received the popular insurrection, a combat, or the storming of a town. His grand cross of the Legion of Honour with the colonelcy of the account of the massacre of St. Bartholomew may be quoted as a Imperial Grenadier Guards. He justified these favours by his conduct specimen. Apostolo Zeno, comparing Davila with Guicciardini, in the campaign of 1805, especially at the battle of Austerlitz, where he observes, that whilst the prolixity of Guicciarlivi in dwelling commanded the right wing of the army. After the treaty of Presburg, minutely upon minor matters becomes wearisome to the reader, the by which Austria surrendered large portions of her territory, Davout course of Davila's narrative runs on uninterrupted, adverting briefly to remained with his division in Germany; Prussia demanded that the circumstances of subordinate importance, and dwelling chiefly upon French troops should recross the Rhine, but instead of complying those which have materially affected the interests either of religion with this demand, Napoleon commenced an attack on Prussia, and, or the state. By common consent Davila is numbered among the on October 14th, 1806, utterly routed the Prussian army at Jena, best historical writers of Italy. His work has gone through many while Davout on the same day defeated, by his masterly manæuvres, editions, and bas been translated into several languages. Apostolo the Duke of Brunswick at Auerstadt, though the duke's army was Zeno published a splendid edition of it in 2 vols. fol., Venice, 1733, greatly superior in numbers. For this exploit he was created Duke to which he has prefixed a life of the author.
of Auerstadt. On the breaking out of the new war with Austria in 1809, (Tiraboschi, storia della Letteratura Italiana; Corniani, I Secoli he was called on to take an active part. His march through the della Letteratura Italiana.)
Upper Palatinate to the Danube and the taking of Ratisbon, was a DAVIS, JOHN, a celebrated navigator of the 16th century, was perilous but a successful enterprise. He was engaged at Eckmühl, born at Sandridge, near Dartmouth, in Devonshire, and distingui-hed and for his services there was afterwards created Prince of Eckmühl. himself by three voyages for the discovery of a North-West Passage, At Aspern only one of his four divisions could engage, but at Wagram which be undertook between 1585 and 1587. He discovered the strait he commanded the right wing, by whose movements the retreat of which bears his name, and sailed along the coast of Greenland as far the Austrians was mainly necessitated. After the battle he was made as 72° N. lat, but was not able to approach the opposite coast, on commander in Poland. In the expedition to Russia in 1812 Davout account of the numerous icebergs which lined it north of the Polar commanded one of the eleven corps of which the army was composed. Circle. He afterwards made five voyages to the East Indies, and was He was at the battle of Borodino, where he was wounded and had killed in the last (1605) in the Strait of Malacca, by some Japanese, several horses killed under him. After the disastrous retreat from as it is reported. He published an account of his second voyage to Moscow he fixed his head-quarters at Hainburg, which was immethe northwest, and of one to the East Indies. He also wrote • The diately attacked by the allies, but which he held with a tenacity
and World's Hydrographical Description; wherein is proved that the defended with an ability that rendered vain all their efforts. It was World, in all its Zones, Climates, and Places, is Habitable and not till April 1814, after the conclusion of peace, that he consented Inhabited, and the Seas likewise universally Navigable; whereby it to surrender the place, not to the allied generals, but to General appears that there is a short and speedy passage into the South Seas Gérard, the bearer of orders from Louis XVIII. Davout then retired to China, &c., by Northerly Navigation, to the renown, honour, and to bis estate at Savigny-sur-Orge. On the return of Bonaparte from benefit of her Majesty's Commonality,' 8vo, Lond., 1595; and 'The Elba he became minister of war, and in three months, in concert with Seaman's Secrets, divided into two parts; wherein is taught the three the emperor, had restored the French army to the same strength it kinds of Sailing, Horizontal, Paradoxal, and Sailing upon a Great had before the events of 1814, and provided it with immense quantities Circle,' 8vo, Lond., 1595.
of military stores. After the defeat at Waterloo he received the * DAVIS, SIR JOHN FRANCIS, BART., was born in London in command of the army assembled under the walls of Paris, and 1795. His father was a director of the East India Company; and would have fought, had he not received the order of the provisional wben Lord Amherst was sent ambassador to China in 1816 Mr. Davis government to treat with the enemy, and having signed the conaccompanied bim. He subsequently succeeded Lord Napier as chief vention of Paris he retired with the army beyond the Loire. He superintendent at Canton. On his return to England, after a residence made his submission to the Bourbon government on July 14, 1815, in China of more than twenty years, he published, in 1836, “The and within a few days gave up the command to Marshal Macdonald. Chinese : a General Description of China and its Inhabitants,' in When the ordonnance of July 24th was issued proscribing Generals 2 vols. This is undoubtedly the most valuable systematic work on Gilly, Grouchy, Excelmans, Clauset, &c., he wrote to Marshal Gouvion China that had been produced in this country. In 1841 he also de St. Cyr, then minister of war, demanding that his name should be published 'Sketches in China,' with notices and observations on the substituted for theirs, as they had only acted by his orders; and he war between that country and Great Britain then proceeding. In opposed the proceedings against Ney with much determination. For 1841 Mr. Davis was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the a while he lived in retirement, but re-entered the chamber of peers colony of Hong-Kong, which office he held until 1847. He was created in 1819. He died on June 1, 1823. a baronet in 1815, and received the civil order of Kuight Grand Cros3 Davout was unquestionably possessed of great military talents; he of the Bath in 1854. Sir Francis has also published translations was a brave soldier and a skilful general; but his severity and firmness of Chinese Romances' and dramas, and Chinese Miscellanies '(1866). too often became cruelty; his rapacity was insatiable; and the
DAVOUT (and not DAVOUST as it is usually written), LOUIS extortions he exercised on those he was appointed to govern was NICHOLAS, was born at Appoux in the department of the Yonne such that even Bonaparte censured him for his conduct while in (part of the former Burgundy) in the year 1770. His family was Poland, and his treatment of Hamburg will not speedily be forgotten. noble, and he was sent to the military academy at Brienne, where DAVY, SIR HUMPHRY, was born at Penzance, in Cornwall, on te was a fellow-student with Bonaparte. In 1785 he was appointed | the 17th of December 1778. His ancestors had long possessed a small sub-lieutenant in the Royal Champagne cavalry regiment, and in estate at Varfell, in the parish of Ludgvan. His father was a carver 1790 clonel of a regiment of Youne volunteers. He had already in wood. At the time of his father's death Humphry was sixteen years taken the revolutionary side, and under Dumouriez at the battle of old, but his mother lived to witness the rapid progress made by her Jemappe, on the 8th of November 1792, he distinguished himself son in the various departments of chemical science. In his early youth by his activity and boldness. After the check which Dumouriez he appears to have had a vivid and fertile imagination, and his brother received at Neerwinden in the following March, he began to enter into bas preserved several favourable specimens of his poetic talent; other. negociations with the Prince of Coburg for the surrender of his army; wise he showed no great precocity of talent. Under Dr. Cardew, this was suspected, and Davout formed a project for seizing him in whose school he quitted in 1793, he appears to have made considerable the midst of the arty, which had nearly succeeded. In June 1793 progress in learning, but certainly not such as gave any indication of he was nominated å general, but in consequence of the decree his future eminence. In the beginning of 1795 he was apprenticed incapacitating the nobility from active service, he was forced to resign. to Mr. Borlase, a surgeon and apothecary of Penzance, where he The downfall and death of Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor (July appears to have laid down an extensive plan of study, not merely of 27) 1794, removed the impediment and restored Davout to his rank the sciences which related to his profession, but the learned languages, in the army. He distinguished himself in the army of the Moselle at mathematics, history, &c. Dr. Davy states that he is not able to give the siege of Luxenbourg, and afterwards in the army of the Rhine a precise account of the nature and extent of his medical studies ; but under Pichegru ; but when Pichegru was defeated at Heidelberg in in the fourth year after he had commenced them he was considered 1795, he evacuated Manheim, and Davout was there taken prisoner; competent by Dr. Beddoes to take charge of an establishment which he however soon recovered his liberty by being exchanged. In 1797 he had founded at Bristol under the name of the Pneumatic Institution; his prudent generalship in the passage of the Rhine, as well as his this was in 1798, when he was scarcely twenty years old. In the folpersonal valour, was greatly admired, and in the campaign in Italy lowing year Dr. Beddoes published a work, entitled “Contributions to his real and activity procured him the friendship and support of Physical and Medical Knowledge, principally from the West of England.' Bonaparte, under whom
he then served. He accompanied that general Among these were contained " Essays on Heat, Light, and the CombinaBIOG, DIV, VOL. IL
tions of Light, with a new Theory of Respiration; on the Generation was only able to ascertain a few of their properties in a hasty manner. of Oxygen Gas, and the Causes of the Colours of Organic Bodies. By They were of silvery lustre, solid at ordinary temperatures, fixed at a Humphry Davy. Most of the peculiar views developed in these essays red heat, and heavier than water. At a high temperature they were speedily abandoned by the author; indeed his brother admits abstracted oxygen from the glass, and at ordinary temperatures from that many of the speculations, he might perhaps have said most, were the atmosphere and water, the latter of which in consequence they wild and visionary; and adds, what will be readily admitted, " that decomposed. the wildest of them are most natural to a young mind just entering “ The names he proposed for them, and by which they have since on the twilight of physical science, gifted with high powers and a vivid been called, were barium, strontium, calcium, and magnium, which imagination."
he afterwards altered to magnesium. His next recorded experiments relate to the existence of silica in “The same analogies were nearly as strong applied to the proper various plants, especially in the epidermis of cane; and in 1800 he earths; and he attempted their decomposition in a similar manner, published in 1 vol. 8vo a work entitled Researches, Chemical and but not with the same success. By the action of potassium proof was Philosophical, chiefly concerning Nitrous Oxide and its Respiration.' obtained that they consist of bases united to oxygen; but whether In this work, which contained the details of numerous highly-interesting these bases were inflammable substances merely, or metallic inflam. experiments, he has minutely detailed the extraordinary effects pro- mable substances, was yet a problem, which has since been solved by duced both upon himself and others by respiring nitrous oxide, a gas the labours of Wöhler, Bussy, and Berzelius. Analogy was in favour till then deemed irrespirable. This work also contains an account of of the latter inference, as was also the circumstance that the bases of some extremely hazardous experiments which he made upon himself these earths are capable of entering into union with iron; and this in breathing carburetted hydrogen, carbonic acid gas, azote, hydrogen, has been confirmed by the inquiries just mentioned as regards the and nitric oxide : in these dangerous trials his life was more than once majority of them, all but the basis of silica, which yet remains nearly sacrificed.
doubtful. In 1801 Davy came to London, and on the 25th of April he gave his “ The application of these facts to geology was full of promise; and first lecture at the Royal Institution. He began with the history of he indulged in the hope that they might serve to explain not only galvanism, detailed, the successive discoveries, and described the some of the most mysterious phenomena of nature, as earthquakes different methods of accumulating it; and on the 31st of May 1802 and volcanoes, and the combustion of meteoric stones and falling he was appointed professor. From 1800 to 1807 a great variety of stars, but might ultimately lead to a general hypothesis of the forma. subjects attracted his attention, especially galvanism and electro- tion of the crust of the earth.” cheinical science; the examination of astringent vegetable matter in His ideas on this last subject, which he afterwards in great measure connection with the art of tanning, and the analysis of rocks and relinquished, may be seen in Dr. Davy's 'Life of Sir Humphry,' minerals with relation to geology and to agricultural chemistry. In vol. i. p. 397. November 1807 his second Bakerian lecture was read, in which he After effecting the decomposition of the fixed alkalis, Davy, announced the most important and unexpected discovery of the reasoning from analogy, conjectured that ammonia might also contain decomposition of the fixed alkalis by galvanism, and of the metallic oxygen, and his first experiments were favourable to this supposition; nature of their bases, to which he gave the names of potassium and but they contained a fallacy. In his various papers on 'oxymuriatic sodium. Dr. Paris has well observed that “Since the account given acid and its compounds,' he establishes the views of Scheele respecting by Newton of his first discoveries in optics, it may be questioned its nature, and proves that the reasoning of Berthollet, which had whether so happy and successful an instance of philosophical induction generally been admitted by chemists, was fallacious. He shows that has ever been afforded as that by which Davy discovered the compo- oxymuriatic acid is not a compound, as supposed, of muriatic acid and sition of the fixed alkalis.” From the year 1808 to 1814 the following oxygen, but an undecomposed body, to which, on account of its green papers by Davy were read before the Royal Society, and published in colour, he gave the name of chlorine. In 1810 he published the first their ‘Transactions :'— Electro-Chemical Researches on the Decom- volume of his Elements of Chemical Philosophy, which, although position of the Earths; with Observations on the Metals obtained from they bear marks of haste, contain much interesting matter: no further the Alkaline Earths, and on the Amalgam procured from Ammonia,' portion of this work was printed. His Elements of Agricultural read June 30th, 1808. 'An Account of some New Analytical Researches Chemistry,' which appeared soon after, is a work containing much on the Nature of certain Bodies, particularly the Alkalis, Phosphorus, useful matter, and replete with sound and practical views of the Sulphur, Carbonaceous Matter, and the Acids bitherto uncompounded; subject. with some general Observations on Chemical Theory,' December 13th, One of his greatest inventions was that of the miner's safety-lamp, 1808. 'New Analytical Remarks on the Nature of certain Bodies; the first paper in relation to which appeared in the 'Philosophical being an Appendix to the Bakerian Lecture for 1808,' February 1809. Transactions for 1815, and the last in 1817. • The Bakerian Lecture for 1809; on some New Electro-Chemical Sir Humphry became president of the Royal Society in 1820, and Researches on various Objects, particularly the Metallic Bodies, from he continued to contribute papers on subjects of great interest for the Alkalis and Earths, and on some Combinations of Hydrogen,' some years. Among the most curious of these, and full of promise as November 16th, 1809. Researches on the Oxymuriatic Acid, its to utility, were those which related to the modes of protecting the Nature and Combinations, and on the Elements of Muriatic Acid; copper sheathing of ships ; from causes however which even bis with some Experiments on Sulphur and Phosphorus,' July 12th, 1810. sagacity could not foresee, the plan proved abortive. • The Bakerian Lecture for 1810; on some of the Combinations of We have thus given a very imperfect and slight sketch of the Oxymuriatic Acid Gas and Oxygen, and on the Chemical Relations of discoveries of this very extraordinary man and eminent chemist; a those Principles to Inflammable Bodies,' November 15th, 1810. 'On list of his works, or at any rate the principal of them, will be found a Combination of Oxymuriatic Gas and Oxygen Gas,' February 21st, at the end of Dr. Paris's Life of him. With respect to his pbilo1811. 'On some Combinations of Phosphorus and Sulphur, and on sophical character, the parallel which has been drawn between him some other Subjects of Chemical Inquiry,' June 18th, 1812. "On a and Dr. Wollaston by the late Dr. Henry, while it does justice to both, New Detonating Compound,' November 5th, 1812. "Some further presents the powers of Davy in a strong and clear point of view, and Observations on a New Detonating Substance,' July 1st, 1813. “Some in the language of one who was deeply versed in the sciences of which Experiments and Observations on the Substances produced in different he is speaking, and intimately acquainted with the philosopher whose Chemical Processes on Fluor Spar,' July 8th, 1813. “An Account of portrait he draws. some New Experiments on the Fluoric Compounds, with some Observa- "To those high gifts of nature which are the characteristics of tions on other Objects of Chemical Inquiry,' February 13th, 1814. genius, and which constitute its very essence, both these eminent men
After the enumeration of these important subjects, we cannot do united an unwearied industry and zeal in research, and habits of better than refer to them in the words of his brother and biographer : accurate reasoning, without which even the energies of genius are “I shall not,” says Dr. Davy, "attempt an analysis of these papers ; inadequate to the achievement of great scientific designs. With these I shall give merely a sketch of the most important facts and disco- excellences, common to both, they were nevertheless distinguished by veries which they contain, referring the chemical reader to the original marked intellectual peculiarities. Bold, ardent, and enthusiastic, for full satisfaction. After the extraction of metallic bases from the Davy soared to greater heights; he commanded a wider horizon, and fixed alkalies, analogies of the strongest kind indicated that the alka- his keen vision penetrated to its utmost boundaries. His imagination, line earths are similarly constituted ; and he succeeded in proving in the highest degree fertile and inventive, took a rapid and extensive this in a satisfactory manner. But owing to various circumstances of range in the pursuit of conjectural analogies, which he submitted to peculiar properties, he was not able on his first attempts to obtain close and patient comparison with known facts, and tried by an appeal the metals of those earths in a tolerably pure and insulated state for to ingenious and conclusive experiments. He was endued with the the purpose of examination. On his return to the laboratory after spirit and was a master of the practice of the inductive logic; and he bis illness, this was one of his first undertakings. He accomplished it has left us some of the noblest examples of the efficacy of that great to a certain extent by uniting a process of MM. Berzelius and Pontin, instrument of human reason in the discovery of truth. He applied who were then engaged in the same inquiry, with one of his own. By it not only to connect classes of facts of more limited extent and negatively electrifying the earths, slightly moistened, and mixed with importance, but to develop great and comprehensive laws, which red oxide of mercury, in contact with a globule of mercury, he embrace phenomena that are almost universal to the natural world. obtained amalgams of their metallic bases ; and by distillation, with In explaining these laws he cast upon them the illumination of his peculiar precautions, he expelled the greater part of the mercury. Even now, in consequence of the very minute quantities of the bases beauty, order, and harmony which are conspicuous in the perfect
own clear and vivid conception; he felt an intense admiration of the which he procured, and their very powerful attraction for oxygen, he chemistry of nature; and he expressed those feelings with a force of
DAVY, JOHN, M.D., F.R.S.
DE CANDOLLE, AUGUSTIN PYRAMUS.
eloquence which could issue only from a mind of the highest powers place in the Customhouse, and died when Thomas was a year old, and the finest sensibilities." ("Elements of Chemistry,' 11th edition.) leaving him a fortune of 12001. a year. He received his school educa.
Davy was knighted on the 8th of April 1812, and on the 11th of the tion at the Charterhouse, and at the age of sixteen was entered a same month he married Mrs. Apreece, the widow of Shuckburgh gentleman commoner of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he Ashby Apreece, Esq., eldest son of Sir Thomas A preece; this lady remained for three years, but left without taking a degree. He then was the daughter and heiress of Charles Kerr, Esq., of Kelso, and spent some summers in travelling through and residing in France and possessed a very considerable fortune. He was afterwards created a other parts of the continent. He had already adopted certain strong baronet. He died on the 29th of May 1829, at Geneva. His widow and peculiar opinions on the subject of education, holding apparently survived him till 1855.
on the one hand that the common mode of education was wholly * DAVY, JOHN, M.D., F.R.S., the brother and biographer of Sir vicious, and on the other, that by a proper education there was scarcely Humphry Davy, and eminent as a chemist, geologist, and physiologist. anything that might not be accomplished. About the year 1769 he Dr. Davy studied medicine in Edinburgh, and took his degree of proceeded to put his theories to the test of a bold experiment, by Doctor of Medicine in that University in 1814. He entered the army selecting from the foundling hospital at Shrewsbury two girls of 83 a surgeon, and is now inspector-general of army hospitals on half; twelve years of age, with the design of rearing them according to his pay. He has been a most copious writer, having written several own notions, and then making one of them his wife; and although volumes on general subjects, besides a large number of papers ranging this speculation failed in the main point, its eccentric author never over nearly the whole field of natural science. His general works having married either of his protegées, both the girls, with the portions are :-1, 'An Account of the Interior of Ceylon and of its Inhabitants, he gave them, obtained husbands, and by the propriety of their conwith Travels in that Island, London, 4to, 1821. 2, 'Life of Sir duct through life did honour to his training. In 1778 Mr. Day married Humphry Davy, London, 2 vols. 8vo. 3, 'Notes on the Ionian Miss Milnes, of Yorkshire, a lady similar to himself in her tastes and Islands and Malta, London, 2 vols. 8vo, 1842. 4, . The West Indies opinions, and having a fortune as large as his own. The following before and since Slave Emancipation,' London, 1 vol. 8vo. 5, “The year he was called to the bar; but he never practised. Meanwhile in Angler and his Friend,' 1 vol. 8vo.
1773 he had made his first appearance as an author, in conjunction Dr. Davy's physiological researches have been principally published with his friend Mr. Bicknell, in a poem entitled “The Dying Negro,' in the ‘Philosophical Transactions,' the Transactions of the Royal a production which is said to have had a considerable share in Society of Edinburgh, and the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society. exciting the public feeling against the atrocities of the slave-trade. He has also published two volumes entitled 'Researches Physiological In 1776 he published another poem, called "The Devoted Legions, and Anatomical,' London, 8vo, 1839. It is almost impossible to give being an attack upon the American War. It was followed the next in a few words an idea of the extent and variety of these researches. year by another on the same subject, entitled 'The Desolation of They embrace a wide field of observation, and afford abundant America.' After this he published several political pamphlets in evidence of a highly cultivated mind and habits of accurate obser prose; namely, in 1784, 'The Letters of Marius; or Reflections upon vation. The subject of animal heat has perhaps been more illustrated the Peace, the East India Bill, and the Present Crisis,' and 'A Fragby Dr. Davy's researches than any other on which he has written. ment of a Letter on the Slavery of the Negroes' (in the United The title of some of his papers will show the range of his physical States); in 1785, 'A Dialogue between a Justice of Peace and a enquiries. On the Specific Gravity of different parts of the Human Farmer;' and in 1788, 'A Letter to Arthur Young, Esq., on the Bill Body,' 'An Account of some Experiments and Observations on the to prevent the Exportation of Wool.' In 1783 appeared the first Torpedo,'. On the early Generative Power of the Goat,''On the Como volume of the work by which he is now principally remembered, his position of the Colostrum,' 'Miscellaneous Observations on Blood and History of Sandford and Merton;' the second volume was published Milk.' The sciences of meteorology and geology have both received in 1786, and the third in 1789. The object of this fiction is to valuable contributions from the pen of Dr. Davy. In all his researches illustrate and recommend the views of the author on education and he has displayed an intimate acquaintance with the science of chemistry, on human nature generally; and it is a good picture of both his and one of his most recent works consists of a series of 'Lectures on intellectual and his moral character. Its freshness and vigour, and the Study of Chemistry,' in which this science is regarded in its the strain of disinterestedness and philanthropy that pervades it, have relations to the atmosphere, the earth, the ocean, and the art of a charm, especially for the young; but the narrowness of the writer's agriculture.
views makes it useless for any practical purpose, and nearly equally DAWES, RICHARD, was born at Market-Bosworth in the year valueless as a piece of philosophy. Day is also the author of a shorter 1708. His first teacher was Anthony Blackwall, the well-known work of fiction, called The History of Little Jack. He was killed author of The Sacred Classics,' after which he spent some time at the 28th of September 1789, by a kick from a young horse, which he was Charter House, and went to Emanuel College, Cambridge, in the year training upon some new principle. 1725; he was elected Fellow in 1731. In 1736 he published a speci- DE CANDOLLE, AUGUSTIN PY'RAMUS, was born at Geneva, men of a translation of Paradise Lost' into Greek hexameters, which where his father was premier syndic, in 1778, the year in which Haller, proved, as he afterwards admitted (Pref. to his " Miscellanea Critica'), Linnæus, and Bernard de Jussieu died. His family originally came that he was then very insufficiently acquainted with the Greek from Marseille, but had for more than two centuries been settled at language. He became master of the grammar-school at Newcastle. Geneva. His earliest tastes were altogether of a literary kind, and upon Tyne in 1738 ; but his disagreeable manners diminished the from infancy he was distinguished for the ardour with which he number of his scholars, and he resigned the situation in 1749. In his pursued his studies. He was remarkable for the facility with which latter days his principal employment was rowing in a boat on the he wrote verses, a habit in which he indulged throughout life. In Tyne. He died at Haworth on the 21st of March 1766. The work 1792, with his mother and brother, he sought refuge, whilst the French on which his fame rests is his Miscellanea Critica, published at were besieging Geneva, in a village situated at the foot of the Jura. Cambridge in 1745, which places him in the same class with Bentley Here he amused himself in collecting wild plants, and acquired a taste and Porson as a verbal Greek critic. The work is divided into five for botany, which, on subsequently attending the lectures of Professor sections, of which the first contains some emendations of Terentianus Vaucher in his native city, became the occupation of his life. In 1796 Maurus; the second is a specimen of the want of accuracy in the he went to Paris, and attended the lectures of Vauquelin, Cuvier, and Oxford edition of Pindar; in the third are some general observations Fourcroy. He also became intimately acquainted with Desfontaines on the Greek language, to which are added some emendations of and Lamarck. Callimachus; the fourth is a short discussion on the Digamma; and The first efforts of De Candolle in botanical science were rather the fifth is devoted to the illustration of Aristophanes. The leading directed to the observation of facts and the accurate distinction of characteristic of the scholarship of Dawes is a proneness to rash species, than to the theories connected with the physiology or developgeneralisation; and though it has been termed the scholarship of ment of plants. His first publication was a description of succulent observation, it must be admitted that Dawes is too apt to form plants, delineations of which were supplied by Redouté. He also general rules from an insufficient number of passages, and conse- drew up the descriptions for the magnificent work of the same artist quently that his system scarcely deserves that title. Hardly one of on the 'Liliaceæ,' wbich was published in 1802. After a short withthe syntactical rules which Dawes has laid down has been admitted drawal from Paris on account of the political state of France, he as unexceptionable; and some of them have been completely over- returned there in 1804, and took his degree of Doctor of Medicine. thrown by the number of passages in which they are violated. The His thesis on this occasion was on the medical properties of plants. authority of the ‘Miscellanea Critica' was however so great for some In this masterly essay, which he subsequently republished much twenty or thirty years after its publication, that many readings sup- enlarged, he demonstrated satisfactorily the close connection that ported by manuscript authority were altered to meet the canons in exists between the sciences of botany and medicine, and it led to that book. The violent animosity which Dawes everywhere shows an increasing attention to the structure and secretions of plants, as towards Bentley may perhaps be accounted for by the universal affording at once the aliment of man in health and his medicine in dislike which that great scholar had incurred during his quarrels disease. In the same year he delivered in the College of France a with Trinity College, about the time when Dawes was a young course of lectures on the principles of botanical arrangement, of which member of the university. The best editions of the 'Miscellanea he gave a sketch in the introduction to the third edition of Lamarck's Critica' (which may now be considered as superseded by the advances Flora of France,' which was published in the following year. This which Greek scholarship has made during the last thirty years) are sketch gave an outline of those principles of classification which in those by Burgess, Oxon., 1781, and by Kidd, Cantabr., 1817, in which after life became the basis of those great works on which his fame as specimens of his other writings may be seen.
a botanist must principally rest. Although nearly every botanist had DAY, THOMAS, was born at London in 1748. His father held a yielded to the influence of the artificial system of Linnæus, De Candolle
at this period correctly estimated its merits. “The natural method,” explained in his previous work on the principles of classification. he observed, “endeavours to place each individual object in the midst This work was followed in 1832 by one on the physiology of plants, of those with which it possesses the greatest number of points of This was a comprehensive digest of all that had been done up to the resemblance; the artificial has no other end than that of enabling us period at which it was written. It was however published at a time to recognise each individual plant, and to isolate it from the rest of when the chemist and physiologist were both turning their attention the vegetable kingdom. The former, being truly a science, will serve to the functions of the vegetable, as affording the means of better as an immutable foundation for anatomy and physiology to build understanding the nature of the functions of the animal, and conseupon; whilst the second, being a mere empirical art, may indeed offer quently many of the views of the author have had to give way before some conveniences for practical purposes, but does nothing towards more extended investigation. enlarging the boundaries of science, and places before us an indefinite For several years previous to his death, De Candolle suffered from number of arbitrary arrangements. The former, searching merely ill-bealth. In 1841 he was induced to visit the meeting of naturalists after truth, bas established its foundation on the organs that are of held at Turin, in the hope that change of climate would restore his the greatest importance to the existence of plants, without considering failing powers, but he derived no beneat from his journey, and died wbether these organs are easy or difficult of observation; the second, on the 9th of the following September. aiming only at facility, bases its distinctions upon those which are As a botanist De Candolle must be placed in the first rank in the most reartily examined, and therefore present the greatest facilities century in which he lived. He possessed a quick apprehension, for study."
which enabled him to make use of the labours of others, added to a In the collection of plants De Candolle spared no personal pains, habit of methodical arrangement, by which he could at once refer the and from the time of his being associated with Lamarck to 1812, various facts that came to his knowledge to their proper position in travelled over every district of the then extensive possessions of France the departments of the science which he pursued. It was this wbich, for the purpose of examining its native plants. In these excursions combined with a clear and pleasing delivery, made him a successful also he was frequently employed by the government to report upon lecturer, and enabled him to produce with rapidity so many works the state of agriculture.
on botany. But he was not only a botanist: he was earnest in his In 1807 De Candolle was made Professor of Botany in the Faculty sympathies with mankind, and was a zealous philanthropist and of Medicine at the university of Montpellier. In 1810, a chair of energetic citizen. In Paris, in the early part of his life, under the Botany being constituted in the Faculty of Sciences of the same place, auspices of Benjamin Delassert, he took an active part in the formation he was appointed to it. During his residence at Montpellier le of the Société Philanthropique of Paris, and the Society for the devoted much time to the botanic garden; and published a catalogue Encouragement of National Industry was formed under his direction of the plants contained in it, with descriptions of many new species. and management. He was for many years a member of the legislative Circumstances however occurred which led him to quit Montpellier, body of Geneva, and also rector of the academy in the same place. and in 1816 he returned to his native city, which was restored to its The following is an alphabetical list of his works :independence on the re-establishment of the Bourbons on the throne 1. 'Astragalogia, nempe Astragali, Biserralæ, et Oxytropediz, necnon of France. A chair of natural history was established especially for Phacæ, Coluteæ, et Lassertiæ Historia, Iconibus illustrata a Redouté,' him at Geneva. In the same year be visited England to examine the fol., Paris, 1802. This work was an account of the Astragalus and collections of plants in the British Museum, the Lindæan and other some allied genera, and was illustrated by Redouté. 2. Catalogue societies, for the purpose of aiding him in the publication of his great des Arbres Fruitiers et des Vignes du Jardin Botanique de Genève,' work on the vegetable kingdom.
Geneva, 1820. 3. 'Eloge Historique d'Aug. Broussonet (the botanist), In 1818 appeared the first volume of this work, intended to com- 4to, Montpellier, 1809. 4. ' Essai Elémentaire de Géographie Botaprehend a description of all known plants. He had in a measure nique,' 8vo, Paris, 1821: a reprint of an article in the Dictionnaire enunciated the principles on which this work would be based by the des Sciences Naturelles. 5. Essai sur les Propriétés Médicinales des publication of bis · Théorie Élémentaire,' in 1813. In this work he Plantes, comparées avec leurs Formes extérieures et leur Classification not ouly carried out the principles of a natural arrangement of plants, Naturelle,' 1804, 8vo, Paris, 1816. This was his inaugural dissertation which had been previously developed by Jussieu and Adanson, but by on the medical properties of plants in 1804, which he republished in a more extended study of the principles of morphology he was enabled the year 1816. 6. • Flore Française, ou Description de toutes les to clear up many of the difficulties which existed in the grouping of Plantes qui croissent naturellement en France.' The third edition of plants in previous classifications. Whatever may be the claims of this work was edited by De Candolle. It was published at different previous writers in this department of botanical inquiry, to De Candolle times from 1803 to 1815, and contained a description of 6000 plants, must be conceded the merit of giving definite expressions for the and was accompanied by a coloured chart, indicating the distribution various causes wbich act upon the structure of plants, and pointing of plants throughout France. 7. 'Icones Plantarum Galliæ rariorum, out the relation between abnormal forms in individual plants and 4to, Paris, 1804. 8. * Instructions Pratiques sur les Collections normal forms in particular groups.
Botaniques,' 8vo, Geneva, 1820. 9. "Mémoire sur les différents The natural system of the vegetable kingdom however was only Espèces, Races, 'et Variétés de Choux et de Raiforts cultivés en commenced; a second volume appeared in 1821, but the author was Europe,' 8vo, Paris, 1822. This is a translation of a memoir which obliged to abandon the design, as a work of too great magnitude. He appeared in the “Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London.' therefore in 1824 commenced the publication of a Prodromus of the 10. "Mémoires sur la Famille des Légumineuses,' illustrated by 70 larger work. But even this proved a work too extensive for com- plates, 4to, Paris, 1825. 11. • Notice sur l'Histoire et l'Administrations pletion during his lifetime. This work embraced descriptions of all des Jardins Botaniques,' 8vo, Paris, 1822. This was a reprint of an the known species of plants. Commencing with the phanerogamous article wbich appeared the 'Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles.' plants, each order in the natural system was exhausted as far as the 12. 'Organographie Végétale,' 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1827. 13. Plantarum materials of the author would allow. All the orders belonging to the Succulentarum Historia,' 4 vols. 4to and fol., Paris, 1799. 14. 'Plantes polypetalous division of Exogens were completed, as well as the orders Rares du Jardin de Genève,' 4to, Geneva, 1825. It was pub of the monopetalous division as far as the Compositæ. To this last lished in parts, each part containing six plates. 15. Prodromus difficult order De Candolle bad paid much attention, and his desire to Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, 8vo, Paris and London, 1824, give it in as perfect a form as possible led him to devote so much &c. 16. Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale,' 8vo. Paris, 1818. time to it as materially to injure his health. The work was left This work, which was to have contained a full description of all the incomplete at his death, but partly from the materials which he had plants then known, was only commenced by De Candolle, and the collected it was continued by his son, assisted by other eminent Prodromus' was published in its place. 17. • Projet d'une Flore botanists. The importance of this publication to the working botanist Géographique du Leman,' 8vo, Geneva, 1820. 18. •Rapport à la can hardly be overrated, as it supplies bim with the means of recog: Société de Lecture de Genève,' 8vo, Geneva, 1820. 19. Rapport sur nising a vast number of species that had before been either undescribed la Fondation du Jardin de Botanique de Genève,' Svo, 1819. A second or inaccessible to the student from the places in which they were report on the same subject was published in 1821. 20. Rapport sur published. Another point which enhances the value of this work is la Question des Magazins de Subsistance, fait au Conseil Représentant the care which the author bestowed in drawing up the descriptions of de Genève,' 8vo, Geneva, 1819. 21. ‘Rapport sur la Pomme de Terre, plants, which could not have been done so well by any one who fait à la Classe d’Agriculture de Genève,' 8vo, Geneva, 1822. This was possessed a less extensive herbarium and library than bimself. followed by two other reports on the culture and uses of the potato.
But although the labour bestowed on this great work, and the 22. • Théorie Elémentaire de la Botanique,' 8vo, Paris, 1813 and 1816. judgment with which it was executed, have given it the most pro- Besides the above works, De Candolle contributed papers to the minent position amongst his works, it can only be regarded as the Transactions' of almost every scientific society in Europe, a bare result of an accurate knowledge of the structure and function of list of which would far exceed the limits of this article. plants. On this subject he lectured for many years, and although (Dr. Daubeny, Sketch of the Writings and Philosophical Character of frequently producing monographs on various departments of botany, A. P. De Candolle ; Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 1842; Bischoff, which indicated bis knowledge of vegetable anatomy and physiology; Lehrbuch der Botanik; Quérard, La France Littéraire.) it was not till 1827 that he published his Organographie Végétale.' DECHÂLES, CLAUDE FRANÇOIS MILLIET, was born at In this work he proceeded on the principle of tracing each organ Chambery, the capital of Savoy, in 1611. He wrote largely on through all its several modifications of structure in the different several branches of mathematical, mechanical, and astronomical plants in which it occurs, and of reducing every part to its organic science; but the only work by which he is generally known is his clements. It is thus not a mere detail of particular structures, but a edition of Euclid, which was long a favourite text-book in France and development of the great doctrine of metamorphosis, wbich had been in other parts of the continent. It was also translated into English,
DECKER, SIR MATTHEW.
but did not obtain great popularity among our countrymen, whose DECKER, SIR MATTHEW, Bart., was born at Arnst-rdam in taste in geometry continued, till recently, to partake strongly of the the latter part of the 17th century, of a Protestant family originally pure severity of the ancient Greek writers.
from Flanders, where his ancestors had been engaged in commerce till Dechåles was however an accurate and elegant writer on the subjects they were driven out in the Spanish persecution under the Duke of which he treated; and there are interspersed through his works many Alva, leaving their estates to their Catholic relations, some of whom marks of considerable invention, as well as of a happy power of long continued to occupy eminent positions in the municipal governadaptation of the knowledge of his predecessors and contemporaries. ment at Brussels. Such was the account given by Sir Matthew bimStill he was not one of those men who had the power greatly to self to Collins, the genealogist, in 1727, as recorded by the latter in bis extend the boundaries of science; it was his province rather to place 'English Baronetage,' iv. 185 (published in 1741). Decker came over it in such a light as to facilitate its acquisition by others.
to England in 1702; and he was naturalised the following year by the He was appointed professor of mathematics in the college of Cler- 28th private Act of the 2nd of Anne. Having settled as a merchant mont, the chair of which he appears to have filled for about four in London, he rose to great commercial eminence, was made a baronet years; and thence he removed to Marseille, where he taught pavi. in 1716, and in 179 was returned to Parliament for Bishop's Castle. gation, military engineering, and the applications of mathematics to He only sat however in the House of Commons for four sessions, and practical science. °From Marseille he went to Turin, where he was his name does not occur in the reported debates. He married Hen. appointed professor of mathematics in the university, and died in that rietta, daughter of the Rev. Dr. Richard Watkins, rector of Wickford, city on the 28th of March, 1678.
in Warwickshire; and he died March 18th, 1749, when the baronetcy As a teacher, Dechâles was remarkable for his urbanity, and for the became extinct, and his estates devolved upon his three daughters. adaptation of his instruction to the previous acquirements of his It is said to have been in the gardens of Sir Matthew Decker's countrypupils; and as a man, his probity and amiable spirit gained for him seat at Richmond, in Surrey, that the pine-apple was first brought to the admiration and love of all with whom he was associated.
maturity in England. The works of Dechâles were published at Lyon in 1690, in four Decker is believed to be the author of a little work first published folio volumes, under the title of Mundus Mathematicus. A former in 8vo at London, in 1743, and entitled in the fourth edition, which edition of these was also published in three volumes; but this edition appeared in the course of the following year, 'Serious Considerations is far less complete than that of 1690.
on the several high duties which the nation in general (as well as its DECIUS CAIUS MESSIUS QUINTUS TRAJANUS, the Roman trade in particular) labours under; with a proposal for preventing the emperor, succeeded Philip, and chiefly distinguished himself for his running of goods; discharging the trade from any search, and raising violent persecution of the Christians. He and his son fell in an expe- all the public supplies by one single tax. By a well-wisher to the dition against the Goths, about A.D. 251.
good people of Great Britain.' In the seventh edition, which appeared in the same form in 1756, the tract is stated on the title-page to be
By the late Sir Matthew Decker, Bart.' It consists in both these editions of only 32 pages. The author explains his object in p. 15 : "My proposal,” he says, "in short, is this : that there be but one single excise duty over all Great Britain, and that upon houses." He would in this way raise an annual revenue of 6,000,0001., being as much as the ordinary expenses of the government then amounted to; with 1,000,0001. over to form a sinking-fund for the discharge of the debt. He calculates that in England, exclusive of Wales, there were then 1,200,000 houses; but of these he would tax only 600,000, counting off 500,000 as inhabited by the working and poorer classes, and 100,000 as uninbabited.
We do not know whether this scheme attracted much notice when Coin of Decius Trajanus,
it was first proposed, but, from the frequency with which it was Pritish Museum. Actual size. Copper. Weight 303} grains.
reprinted, we may infer that it did. It was at any rate elaborately
answered, soon after its republication in 1756, in a thick pamphlet of DE'CIUS MUS, a Roman who distinguished himself by many war
120 pp., entitled 'The proposal commonly called Sir Matthew Decker's like exploits, and received many honours. In a battle against the scheme, for one general tax upon houses, laid open, and showed to be Latins he voluntarily devoted himself to the Dii Manes. He had made a deep concerted project to traduce the wisdom of the Legislature, an agreement with his colleague, Manlius Torquatus, that the consul disquiet the minds of the people, and ruin the trade and manu. whose wing first gave way should devote himself to death. The cere facturies [sic] of Great Britain ; most humbly submitted to the conmony of consecration was performed with great solemnity, and having sideration of Parliament,' 8vo, London, 1757. The author of this directed the lictors to acquaint the other consul that he had given attack is understood to be Mr. Joseph Massie, a fertile mercantile himself up for the safety of the army, he rode into the thick of the writer of that day. It is, as might be expected from the title, very enemy, and was soon overpowered by a shower of darts, about B.c. 338. angry, and even somewhat abusive. His son Decius Mus followed his heroic example in a war against the
Decker has also been commonly supposed to be the author of Gauls, B.C. 295, as well as his grandson in the war with Pyrrhus, another more considerable work, first published in 4to at London, in B.C. 280.
1744, and reprinted in 12mo at Edinburgh, in 1756, both editions DECKER, JEREMIAS DE, one of the most esteemed Dutch without a name, under the title of 'An Essay on the Causes of the poets of the 17th century, was born at Dordrecht about 1610. His Decline of the Foreign Trade, consequently of the Value of the Lands father Abraham de Decker, who had embraced the reformed religion, of Britain, and on the means to restore both.' Adam Smith notices was, although of good family, in very moderate circumstances, first and comments upon this work as written by Decker, and designates as a tradesman, afterwards as a public broker. Aided merely by such the scheme of taxation advocated in it as "the well-known proposal instruction as his father could give him, and his own natural aptitude of Sir Matthew Decker," in the fifth book of his Wealth of Nations.' for learning, which was seconded by an excellent memory, young It is very evident however that it cannot be by the author of the De Decker made so great proficiency that while yet a lad he acquired 'Serious Considerations,' for various reasons. As Mr. M'Culloch has the Latin, Italian, French, and English languages, notwithstanding he remarked in his 'Literatura of Political Economy,' p. 328, “the was even then obliged to assist his father in his business. At no time impôt unique,' or single tax, proposed by the author of the Essay of his life in fact can literature be said to have been his occupation, is quite different from that proposed in the Considerations;' it is, yet that and poetical composition continued to the last to employ the in his own words, 'one tax on the consumers of luxuries,' or, as Smith intervals of leisure allowed by his commercial pursuits.
has put it, 'that all commodities, even those of which the consumption His earliest essays in poetry consisted of paraphrases from Jere- is either immediate or very speedy, should be taxed in this manner, miah, &c., and of translations and imitations from Horace, Prudentius, the dealer advancing nothing, but the consumer paying a certain Buchanan, to which may be added his 'Good Friday,' a collection of annual sum for the licence to consume certain goods." It may be pieces breathing the most pure devotional feeling. Indeed a strong added, that the edition of the 'Essay’ published in 1756 is ushered vein of unaffected religious sentiment runs through all his compositions. in by a preface, evidently by the author, in which he speaks of this as Even bis ‘Puntdichten' are many of them of a religious, all of a moral a second edition, which he had been induced to prepare by the public tendency, being for the most part so many condensed ethic lessons and demand, and in which he had taken an opportunity of correcting some reflections rather than epigrams, except as to the ingenious turn and things in the preceding impression. Decker, as we have seen, died point, which frequently render them highly impressive, although their in 1749. Mr. M'Culloch states, that in a work by Francis Fauquier, subjects may be familiar truths. The longest of all his productions entitled 'An Essay on Ways and Means for raising Money for the is big 'Lof der Geldzucht,' or 'Praise of Avarice,' a poem in which support of the present War without increasing the Public Debts,' that rice is satirised in a strain of amusing irony. It is replete with third edition, 8vo, 1757, it is affirmed that the Essay on the Decline learning, felicity of illustration, and a playfulness of tone which only of Foreign Trade' was written by a Mr. Richardson. serves to render it all the more caustic; no wonder therefore that it This • Essay' is rather a remarkable work. Besides his main project has been greatly admired, and has earned for itself a place beside for a single tax, which occupies above 200 of the 228 pages of which Erasmus's celebrated · Moriæ Encomium. This was almost the very the volume (in the 12mo edition) consists, he advances the four fol. last piece he ever wrote, nor did he live to enjoy its reputation, for belowing proposals : -1, to abolish all our monopolies, unite Ireland, died while it was in the press, in November 1666.
and put all our fellow-subjects on the same footing in trade; 2, to