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DEDICATED, BY PERMISSION TO HER MAJESTY.

BIOGRAPHY

OR

Third Division of “The English Cyclopædia,"

CONDUCTED BY

CHARLES KNIGHT.

VOLUME II.

LONDON:

BRADBURY, EVANS, & CO., 11, BOUVERIE ST., FLEET ST., E.C.

SCRIBNER, WELFORD, & CO., 654, BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

1867.

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CABALLERO, FERMIN, & Spanish author, journalist, and states- which he seems to have received both from his father and his teachers.

man, was born in 1800, of poor labouring parents, who exerted During a short interval, in which he was under the care of a kind and therselves to procure hiin a superior education. He showed' very judicious instructor, he indicated a decided taste for classical literaearly a predilection for geographical studies, and at the age of fourteen ture; but being soon removed from a teacher who saw and endeavoured bad produced a plan of bis native town, Barajas de Melo, in the pro- to develop his latent talents, and being again subjected to barshness, vince of Cuenca. The first work that brought him into notice was a he lapsed into such a state of idleness and obstinacy, that at the age of grries of criticisms on Miñano's 'Geographical Dictionary of the fourteen his father in absolute despair sent him alone to Paris, where, Peninsula,' a work of great extent (10 vols. 4to), and of apparent feeling he had no sort of influence over him, he abandoned him to his value, but in reality compiled with inexcusable carelessness. Miñano own course. The moment he felt himself free, this youth, bitherto was an especial favourite with King Ferdinand VII.; and his book, so indolent and intractable, became a diligent student, and for the though expensive, was subscribed for, however unwillingly, by every space of two years devoted himself with an intensity which has been person who held an official post throughout the kingdom. The rarely exceeded to the study not only of the Greek, Latin, and French attacks of Caballero, which began in 1829 and extended to as many classics, but also of the works of the metaphysical writers both of painphlets as Miñano's 'Dictionary'counted volumes, were as witty England and France. His love of poetry was ardent, and he soon as they were just, and were productive of unexpected benefit to their acquired no inconsiderable celebrity for some poetical pieces of his author. The minister Calomarde, who was undoubtedly jealous of own; but seeing nothing cheering in the prospect of the pursuit of the infuence of Miñano over the king, bestowed substantial favours literature as a profession, he chose the study of medicine, chiefly, as on his antagonist; and Caballero, who had hitherto been an obscure he himself states, on account of the varied sciences to which it lawyer, was soon know, in the character of a landed proprietor. It obliged him to direct his attention. Under the guidance of a friend, may be observed, that Miñano's work is now completely superseded by an able physician, he applied himself for six years to the sturly of Madoz's Diccionario de España,' in 16 closely-printed volumes a medicine with so much intensity that his health began to fail him, treasure of topographical information and research, which would do and being on this account obliged to leave Paris, he went to reside at honour to any country in Europe. In 1833 Caballero set on foot a Auteuil, where he became acquainted with the widow of Helvetius. journal of pote, the 'Boletin de Comercio,' and when that was sup. This acquaintance determined the character of his future life. At pressed by the minister Burgos, followed it up with the 'Eco del the house of this lady, who in a manner adopted him as her son, he Comercio,' which, chiefly owing to the talent of his leading articles, became intimate with the most celebrated men of that age, Turgot, became and continued one of the most infuential journals in Spain. D’Holbach, Franklin, Jefferson, Condillac, and Thomas. : Here too he After the peaceful revolution produced by the 'Estatuto Real,' he was lived familiarly for many years with Diderot and D'Alembert, and elected to the Cortes by the town of Cuenca, and was known as one occasionally saw Voltaire. He appears to have formed a strong attachof its most decidedly radical members. While the contest between ment to Mirabeau, for which he was exposed to no little obloquy; he Carlos and Christina was still doubtful, he voted that Carlos should was the chosen friend of Condorcet, and he had the gratification of be put to death if taken; and he afterwards voted that Christina being able to soothe the last moments of both these remarkable men. should be deprived of the guardianship of her children. On the He married Charlotte Grouchy, sister of General Grouchy and of accession of his friend Lopez to the ministry, in 1813, he formed one Madame Condorcet, with whom he lived happily until his death, of the cabinet, was expellid with Lopez by Espartero, and again which happened somewhat suddenly on the 5th of May 1808, in the resumed office on Espartero's fall. His tenure of it on the second fifty-second year of his age. He had borne no inconsiderable part in occasion was but short, and bis activity has since been mainly of a the events of the revolution; was one of the Council of Five Hunliterary kind. His reputation was materially injured by the publi- dred, and afterwards a member of the senate. He was the author of cation of a work entitled "Commentaries on Anquetil, the French several works of great celebrity in his day; but that which has given historian, in which, to the astonishment of the public, the principles to his name a permanent distinction is his treatise on the relation of absolutism were avowed and defended. In reply to the attacks between the physical and moral nature of man. This work, entitled upon him, Caballero made the singular defence, that though the book Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme,' is partly metaphywas published in his name the objectionable passages had been inserted sical and partly physiological, and displays no ordinary power of without his consent by an old academician connected with the censor- observation and analysis. It is remarkable too as being the first ship, Don Pedro Maria Olive. The friends of Olive indignantly denied attempt to treat, in a systematic form, the interesting but difficult the charge, and the matter appears never to have been satisfactorily subject which it investigates. This work may still be read with cleared up. His other works are almost entirely of a geographical interest and instruction by the physician and metaphysician, and the character. The two most important are, a quarto volume entitled practical educator. Janual geografico administrativo de España,' a work of great and CABET, ETIENNE, leader of the French Communists, or varied information, and a sınall pamphlet on the 'Geographical Icariens, was born at Dijon, January 2, 1788. His father, a cooper Learoing of Cervantes,' which will supply some valuable notes to in that city, give him a liberal education; in due time he was admitted future editors of 'Don Quixote.'

a member of the bar; and he appears to have early acquired, some CABANIS, PIERRE JEAN GEORGE, a distinguished physician practice. In 1816 he defended General Veaux, who, with several and pbilosopher, the son of Jean Baptiste Cabanis, an able agricul- others, was tried for conspiring against the restored Bourbons; and tur:t, was born at Copac in 1757. His natural disposition appears to Cabel's ardour on that occasion drew down upon him so large a have been somewhat violent, and the earlier period of his youth was measure of official displeasure, that he found it necesssary shortly after passed in continual strugg es against the severity of the treatment to quit Dijon. At Paris M. Cabet, failing to obtain distinction in his

BIOG, DIV. VOL. IL

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