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and by never abandoning a path traced by nature, and matured by the most sublime philosophy.
Pursuing our path in the subject of design, we at once come to the human form. The whole of our readers have, no doubt seen in the elementary trea. tises on drawing, the series of curves which form the human structure ; to illustrate this, however, in the readiest way, we may turn to that great master of design, Raphael.
It is proportioned by similar principles : the large disk makes the body, inclining right and left upon the end of the oval. The neck and leg are both made from the smaller oval disk ; the dotted lines to the ovals of the leg. The handle and concave lip of the cup, are made by an application of the same disk. The altitude contains four parts, the body two parts, the leg one part, and the neck one other part ; the handle rises one eighth above. Every portion of
In this beautiful group, representing the Holy this figure is created by the two disks previously Family, the principle of the circle advancing to an named. The foliage rises from below and descends oval is beautifully portrayed. In childhood, the cir. from above, one fourth of the whole height of the cle predominates, but at a later period of life the face body to the commencement of the concavity of the is elongated, and now though much of the prettiness neck, where the beading runs round. It has been begins to pass away, it is succeeded by the markremarked, that by adhering to regular proportional ings of a higher degree of intellect. The deeper quantities of one and two, three and five, two and and more powerful workings of the mind succeed to five, seven and two, &c., and using elliptick disks the infantile simplicity which marked the first dawnor curves, very great beauties are derived.
ing of reason. The motion of ships at sea is described in gentle
In the beautiful curves which composed the vases elliptick curves ; the wings and plumage of birds as- first noticed, the forms must of necessity be the same sume the oval and elliptick curves; all the fibres of under all circumstances ; hence it will be obvious their feathers have that form ; some flattened, others that the difficulty increases very considerably when more rounded; the pine-apple and numberless fruits we come to the varying characters, ages, and pashave all an oval character of outline. Many take sions of mankind. the character of eggs, pointed at one end, and large
There is more of skilful design essential to a right and blunt at the other extremity. The leaves of trees arrangement of the folds in the drapery of a figure have the oval shape more than any other; the bend of the branches, and the whole external form of many trees, are oval. There is no form of created things which may not be found to correspond in all its dependant shapes, to ovals and ellipses of various disks : even objects which at first sight seem to contradict the possibility of meeting this system.
The Greek artists so confined themselves to certain rules and principles of unerring consequences, in the production of beauty, grace, or grandeur in their figures, that all their compositions depended upon the same species of rule and order. It is much to be regretted that fashion is in all countries the destroyer of taste ; that it unfits the mind for fixed principles; that where it dominates, there taste will be always fluttering and never settle, nor have a sure dominion. The Greeks do not appear to have suffered themselves to be diverted from a pure course of design in their studies, and, as such, arrived at a very high degree of perfection in most scientifick pursuits, by following sure principles as their guides,
than the young artist is apt to imagine. The ancients Frank Howard, in the pictorial art, stand highexcelled in picturesque, but not in natural drapery.-est in the power of imbodying what is beautiful in An example of the latter will be found in the fore- the ancient school with the more natural character going figure, designed by Flaxman.
of real life. The dramatick illustrations of the latWe have heard of sculptors who design their dra- ter form a distinct era in art.
Brit. Cyc. pery by laying layers of wet and flexible clay over the figure they are about to execute, but by such a process as that, little of real excellence could be produced. The ancient masters appear to have arran
CLOTHING OF CHILDREN. ged their draperies as the upholsterer nails his cur- The general rule which reason suggests in regard tain, in faultless form, and perfect order-nothing to the clothing of children, is that " a child have no ) was left to chance. Now, to give a piece of drapery more clothes than are necessary to keep it warm, the slightest claim to a natural character, its whole and that they be quite easy for its body.". In conarrangement must be that of chance; and no person formity to this rule, the dress of children should be can examine the simply natural masses, shown in simple, clean, light and cheap-free, wide and open, the previous figure, without at once observing the so as neither to impede the vital functions, nor the vast inferiority of the ancients under this head. free and easy motions of the body, nor prevent the
We must not, however, forget that this simplicity access of fresh air, and be easily put on or taken off. may easily degenerate into vulgarity, and poverty of Pins should be used as little as possible, and the conception. We may take as an example, the exquis- clothes fastened with strings, which would prevent ite piece of drapery introduced by Chantrey, in his the occasional scratching of their tender skins, and bust of the late Sir W. Scott. Now this has been those alarming cries which so frequently proceed copied by other inferiour artists, and they have al- from this cause. Such a light and simple dress tempted, by the aid of a small handkerchief, or tow- would induce children to live with less restraint in el, to give the massive folds and beautiful contour of the original, and the consequence has been failure of the worst kind. Great depth of finish is not essential to good drapery—but just conception, and an acquaintance with the mechanical character of different fabricks.
In proof of what we have now been advancing, we may take one of the most beautiful groups probably in existence, and to which our artist has done ample justice. Cupid and Psyche possess in a peculiar degree all the graces of the antique school. It has in this respect also its peculiar faults.
The waist of the male figure is encircled by a double row of drapery, forming unbroken lines of small plaits-now this is neither natural, nor yet picturesque. The drapery of Psyche much resembles that of the Caryatides, and is as quaint as it is unnecessarily indelicate. Flaxman and Canova, among modern sculptors, and Retsch and
[Simple dress of a little girl.) the society of each other; and check that silly pride which leads them to ape the fashions of their superiours, and to value themselves on account of the finery of their clothes. During the first months, the head and breast may be slightly covered ; but as soon as the hair is sufficiently long to afford protection, there appears little necessity for either hats or caps, unless in seasons of rain or cold. By keeping the breast and neck uncovered, they acquire more firmness, are rendered hardier, and less susceptible of being affected with cold. Besides, a child has really a more interesting aspect, when arrayed in the beautiful simplicity of nature, than when adorned with all the trappings which art can devise. The following anecdote, related by Herodotus, illustrates the advantage connected with a cool regimen of the head : “ After the battle fought between the Persians, under Cambyses, anıl the Egyptians, the slain of both nations were separated ; and upon examining the heads of the Persians, their skulls were found to
be so thin and tender, that a small stone would im- lasts should nearly correspond, after having ascermediately perforate them; while, on the other hand, tained the curve of the upper part of the foot. the heads of the Egyptians were so firm, that they With regard to the clothing of children, in general, could scarcely be fractured by the largest stones.” it is the opinion of Dr. Faust, that from the beginning The cause of this remarkable difference was attrib- of the third to the end of the seventh or eighth year, uted to the custom of the Egyptians shaving their " their heads and necks must be free and bare, the heads from earliest infancy, and going uncovered in body clothed with a wide shirt, and frock with short all states of the weather ; while the Persians always sleeves, the collar of the shirt to fall back over that kept their heads warm by wearing heavy turbans. of the frock, with the addition of a woollen frock, lo
Attention ought likewise to be paid to the proper be worn between the shirt and the linen frock, ducovering of the feet. It is scarcely necessary for ring winter, and that the feet be covered only with a children to use shoes before they are a year old; or pair of socks, to be worn in the shoes.” Such a if they do, the soles should be thin and soft. The cheap and simple dress, if generally adopted, would form of the human foot is such, that at the toes it is undoubtedly be beneficial to mankind in general, and broad, at the heel narrow, and the inside of the foot tend to promote the strength, beauty, and graceful is longer than the outside—a form which is evident- attitudes of children, and at the same time check the ly intended by nature, to enable us to stand and walk foolish propensity of parents to indulge their children with firmness and ease. It is therefore a dictate of in flimsy ornaments and finery, beyond what their Nature, that shoes should be made in the same form means
can afford. At present, children are frequentas the feet, and be sufficiently roomy for the toes to ly muffled up with their caps, hats, bonnets, cravats, move with ease ; and in order to this, they must be pelisses, frills, muffles, gloves, ribands, and other formed upon two separate lasts, corresponding to the paraphernalia, as if they were to be reared like plants right and the left foot. How shoes came at first to in hot-beds ; so that the shape and beautiful proporbe made tapering to a point at the toes, almost like tions which nature has given them can scarcely be a boakin—how high heels became the darling fash- distinguished. I shall only add, that the dress of ion of the ladies—and how a small foot came to be children ought to be kept thoroughly clean ; as dirty reckoned genteel—I pretend not to determine ; but clothes not only gall and fret their tender skins, but certainly nothing can be more absurd and preposter- tend to produce disagreeable smells, vermin, and ous. Such opinions and practices, along with many cutaneous diseases; and no mother or nurse, how. others which abound, particularly in the fashionable ever poor, can have any valid excuse for allowing world, have a direct tendency to counteract the be- her children to wallow in dirtiness.
Dick. nevolent intentions of Nature, and are nothing short of an attempt to arraign the wisdom of the Creator, in his arranging and proportionating the different parts of the human frame-as if puny man, by his
THE RESTLESS ONE. foolish whims, were capable of improving the work
BY LIEUTENANT G. W. PATTEN, U. 8. ARMY. manship of Infinite Intelligence. The following fig.
She knew his brow was clouded, ures (taken from Dr. Faust) plainly show the absurd
And she lean'd it on her hand, ity of the shapes which have been given to shoes.
And gently woo'd him to her side, Fig. 1 shows the original shape of the sole of the
With breath like breezes bland;
But he gazed upon a banner, left foot: Fig. 3 shows how the sole of the left shoe
As it floated on in pride, ought to be formed; and Fig. 2 shows clearly that
And while he marked its gleaming stars,
They won him from his bride. the shoes usually worn, and made on one last, cannot correspond to the natural shape of the foot.
They lured him from the presence
of the cherish'd and the true, If they taper towards a point, the large toe, and some
No more to gaze upon her face, of the small ones, must be crushed and pressed
Her gentle step pursue ; against each other, causing pain to the wearer, and
And yet, through Life's long pathway,
When the aisles of Hope grew dim, producing corns. The simplest and most accurate
Bright as a deed of glory, mode of taking the true measure and form of shoes,
Was the smile she had for him. is to place each foot upon a sheet of paper, and then
She knew they must be parted draw its shape with a pencil, to which two separate
Ere they had scarcely met,
And faster tear-drops dimm'd her eyes
That none but HERS were wet :
Which she learn'd unto her lute;
And the lover's ear was mute.
For the musick of the plain-
For pæans o'er the slain :
That voice like a mockbird's tone
For him it sung alone.
What the sword might ne'er disarm-
As the might of the mail'd arm :
And the siren voice is dumb,
And he strikes the doubling drum.
squares of the other two sides.” It should be repreWHEN the dimensions of the mason-work of a sented as under : nouse are required, the different parts of the build
EDINBURGH. ing, which require separate calculations, as the sidewalls, the end-walls, ib., gables, the chimney-stalks, &c., should be separately delineated; and if such delineations are not found in the books where the questions are stated, the pupıl, before proceeding to his calculations, should be desired to sketch a plan of the several dimensions which require his attention, in order that he may have a clear conception of the operations before him. Such questions as the following should be illustrated by diagrams. “ Glasgow is forty-four miles west from Edinburgh; Peebies is exactly south from Edinburgh, and fortynine miles in a straight line from Glasgow. What
49 miles. is the distance between Edinburgh and Peebles ?” In a similar manner should many other examples This question is taken from “ Hamilton's Arithme- connected with the extraction of roots be illustrated. tick," and is inserted as one of the exercises con- The following question can scarcely be understood nected with the extraction of the square root; but or performed, without an illustrative figure, and yet no figure or explanation is given, excepting the fol- there is no figure given, nor hint suggested on the lowing foot-note: “The square of the hypotenuse subject, in the book from which it is taken. “A of a right-angled triangle, is equal to the sum of the ladder, forty feet long, may be so placed as to reach
a window thirty-three feet from the ground on one to have been introduced among the Europeans in the side of the streets; and by only turning it over, time of the Crusades. without moving the foot out of its place, it will do The kettle-drum, the base-drum, tambarine, and the same by a window twenty-one feet high on the other kinds, are all common in the East. The drum, other side. Required the breadth of the street ?" as a military instrument, is used both to beat the The foregoing is the representation that should be march and to give signals. No man, who had not given, which, with a knowledge of the geometrical experienced it, can imagine the exciting power of the proposition mentioned above, will enable an arith- drum. The fatigued and exhausted soldier is at once metical tyro to perform the operation, and to perceive animated by its sound; and in battle it preserves the reason of it.
order, and inspires courage in a body attacking en By this figure, the pupil will see that his calcula- colonne. The French drummers perform admirably, tions must have a respect to two right-angled trian- and, under Napoleon, a great number were attached gles, of which he has two sides of each given to to each battalion. A drum which has acquired his. find the other sides, the sum of which will be the torical celebrity, is that which, by the order of Zisca, breadth of the street.
was covered with his own skin, that he might still
aid in batile, where he had so often commanded, DRUMS.
even after he had become blind. The drum is an instrument which produces sound by means of a tightly-extended skin ; they are com- In cases of doubtful morality it is usual to saymon in almost every part of the world. The tam- " Is there any harm in doing this ?" The best methbarine is found among most nations; the ancients od of answering this question by the genuine dictates called it tympanum. All these instruments are used of the conscience, is to ask another : viz., “ Is there both for profane and sacred purposes. But the any harm in letting it alone ?" or, “ Is it good and peculiar use of the drum for military purposes seems 'proper to be done ?”