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AMERICAN COMMERCE manufactured, and it has a considerable commerce

with the United States; sending to our shores in the ROCHELLE.

course of the year, many cargoes of brandy, wine, La Rochelle is a commercial city of France, in &c. Rochelle is chiefly remarkable as the strongthe department of the Lower Charente. It stands hold of the French protestants in the times of the on the shores of the Atlantick ocean, one hundred house of Valois, and the first Bourbons. In 1627, miles northwest of Bourdeaux. It is well built and it was besieged by Richelieu, and was reduced by strongly fortified, (by Vanban,) and contains many famine, after a heroick defence, in which fifteen handsome squares and fountains. The harbour-is thousand of the besieged perished. A great number safe and commodious, but is accessible for large ves- of the inhabitants fled to North America. La Rosels only at high water; and the Place d'Armes, or chelle has a population of rather more than eighteen du Château, is one of the finest in France. Glass, thousand persons. Longitude 1° 9 west, latitude stoneware, and refined sugar, are the principal articles 46° 9' north.



pius ; the latter, which vied in size and grandeur The above cut represents the temple of Concord, of design, with the finest buildings of Greece, is one of the most perfect ruins now existing on the said by Diodorus to have been three hundred and site of the ancient Agrigentum.

forty seet long, sixty broad, and one hundred and Agrigentum was much renowned among the an- twenty high, the foundation not being included, which cients. Different stories are told of its foundation ; was itself remarkable for the immense arches upon among which is the fabulous tale, that Dedalus, who which it stood. The temple was ornamented with fled to Sicily from the resentment of Minos, erected admirable sculpture. But a war prevented the comit. Its situation was peculiarly strong and imposing, pletion of it, when the roof only remained unfinishstanding as it did on a bare and precipitous rock, ed. Near the city was an artificial lake, cut out of 1100 feet above the level of the sea. To this mili- the solid rock, about a mile in circuit, and thirty feet tary advantage, the city added those of a commercial deep; from which fish were obtained in abundance nature, being near to the sea, which afforded the for the publick feasts. Swans and other water-fowl means of an easy intercourse with the ports of Afri- frequented it. Afterward, the mud having been ca and the south of Europe. The soil of Agrigen- suffered to accumulate in this basin, it was turned tum was very fertile. By means of these advantages, into a remarkably fruitful vineyard. Both the temthe wealth of Agrigentum became very great. It ple of Jupiter Olympius and the lake were the work was therefore considered the second city in Sicily, of a number of Carthaginian captives. The people and Polybius says that it -surpassed in grandeur of Agrigentum were noted for their luxurious and exof appearance, on account of its many temples and travagant habits. Their horses were also famous. splendid Publick buildings, most of its contempo- After the expulsion of the Carthaginians from Sicily, raries. Among the

most magnificent of these it fell, with little resistance, under the power of the buildings, were the temples of Minerva, of Ju- Romans. Diodorus states the population, in its best piter Atabyris, of Hercules, and of Jupiter Olym- days, to have been not less than 120,000 persons

Vol. IV.-59


sand. This should be done every day, or at leas The plumage, pretty form, and docility ; the several times a week. These tender birds, being charming familiarity which disposes it to nestle natives of a warm climate, and becoming more deliwithout fear or reserve beside us ; and, above all, cate instead of hardier from being kept in the house, its melodious song, have long introduced the canary require a temperature analogous to that of their native to all classes of society.

climate. They must be protected from the cold, Buffon, speaking of this beautiful and universal and never allowed to remain in winter in a cold favourite, says: “If the nightingale is the chantress room, which would occasion many diseases, or even of the woods, the canary is the musician of the death. But, in summer, it is proper to place them chamber; the first owes all to nature, the second, in the open air, and they enjoy it very much. Never something to art. With less strength of organ, less do they sing so gayly as on fine days, and their ca. compass of voice, and less variety of note, the canary ges should therefore be placed at the open window, has a better ear, greater facility of imitation, and a that they may have the advantage of the light and more retentive memory; and, as the difference of heat of the sun, which is particularly serviceable 10 genius, especially among the lower animals, depends them while bathing. in a great measure on the perfection of their senses, “ Their food is an important point; for, in proporthe canary, whose organ of hearing is more suscep- tion as it is simple and natural, it will be wholetible of receiving and retaining foreign impressions, some ; and, on the contrary, the more it is mixed becomes more social, tame, and familiar; is capable and rare, the more injurious and productive of disof gratitude and even of attachment; its caresses are ease will it be. What we have found the best is endearing, its little humours, innocent, and its anger summer rape-seed ; we mean that which is sown at neither hurts nor offends. Its education is easy; the end of spring, which is small and brown, in diswe rear it with pleasure, because we are able to in- tinction from the winter rape-seed, which is sown in struct it. It leaves the melody of its own natural tho autumn, and which is large and black. This tone, to listen to the melody of our voices and instru- seed alone agrees with canaries as well as linnets ; ments. It applauds, it accompanies us, and repays but, to give ihem the pleasure of variety, a little the pleasure it receives with interest, while the bruised hemp, or canary, or poppy seed is added to nightingale, more proud of its talent, seems desirous it, especially in the spring, when they are intended of preserving it in all its purity, at least it appears to to breed. Indeed, a mixture of rape-seed, oatmeal, attach very little to ours, and it is with great diffi- and millet, or canary-seed, may be given them as a culty it can be taught any of our airs. The canary great treat. But whatever seeds they may have, can speak and whistle ; the nightingale despises our they equally require green food, as chickweed in words, as well as our airs, and never fails to return spring, lettuce and radish leaves in summer, endive, to its own wild wood-notes. Its pipe is a master- watercress, and slices of sweet apple in winter. As piece of nature, which human art can never alter nor to that whimsical and coinplicated mixture, prescriimprove ; while that of the canary is a model of bed and used by many people, of rape, millet, hemp, more pliant materials, which we can mould at pleas- canary-seed, whole oats and oatmeal, poppy, lettuce, ure ; and therefore it contributes in a much greater plantain, potentilla, and pink-seeds, maize, sugar, degree to the comforts of society. It sings at all cake, hard biscuit, cracknels, buns, and the like, so seasons, cheers us in the dullest weather, and adds far from being wholesome, it injures the birds in to our happiness, by amusing the young, and delight- every respect. It spoils their taste, weakens their ing the recluse, charming the tediousness of the stomach, renders them feeble, sickly, and incapable cloister, and gladdening the soul of the innocent and of bearing moulting, under which they most frequentcaptive.”

ly die. It is true, that they may be accustomed to We think we shall be rendering an acceptable eat every thing which comes to table; but to teach service to many of our readers by giving a few plain this habit is also to prepare a poison for them, which directions for the treatment of these pretty warblers ; though slow is not the less sure, and brings them to a for which we are chiefly indebted to a useful, though premature death ; while every day we see bird-fanlittle appreciated work, entitled “Cage Birds,” by ciers, who are poor, who hardly know the names of Dr. Bechstein, and which our own experience has those delicacies, rear, on the simplest food, a conshown to be judicious :

siderable number of the healthiest, cleverest, and Except in the breeding season, the male cana- strongest canaries. We must, however, be guided ri:s should be kept alone in separate cages, which, in a great measure by the constitution of the birds. whatever the shape, ought not to be less than eight They should be daily supplied with fresh water, as inches in diameter and a foot in height, with two well for drinking as bathing, in which they delight. sticks placed across for the bird to perch on. The In the moulting season, a nail or bit of iron should be females may be allowed to range the room with one put into the water, in order to strengthen the stomwing clipped, or, what is better, kept in large cages ; ach. Saffron and licorice are in this case more where, from having plenty of exercise, their health hurtful than useful. Grains of sand, with which the and strength are better preserved. In the small ca- bottom of the cage is strewed, afford the birds a help ges, glass vases should be placed on the outside, at to digestion.” the extremities of the lower stick, to hold the food and water. These may be surmounted with a cap Avarice is a passion as despicable as it is hateof tin, or something of the kind, to prevent the seed ful. It chooses the most insidious means for the from being so easily scattered. Cleanliness being a attainment of its ends: it dares not pursue its means great preservative against most of their disorders, with the bold impetuosity of the soaring eagle, the bottom of the cage should be made to draw out, but skims the ground in narrow circles like ihe that it may more easily be cleaned and covered with swallow.


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FARMERS' DEPARTMENT. tages which they are capable of affording to the farm,

and to the bad quality of the fruit which is generally THE APPLE-ORCHARD.

cultivated. The nutritive properties of the apple deIn a mistaken zeal to eradicate the seeds of intem- pend upon the quantity of saccharine matter the; perance, we are afraid that some, by destroying their contain, or the specifick gravity of their juice ; and apple-orchards, are not only diminishing their inno- the difference in flavour and in their cooking propcent family comforts, but are seriously impairing their erties, are not sufficiently regarded, and not generalmeans of honest farm profits. We do not advocate ly known. We have probably the finest varieties the orchard on account of the alcohol its fruit affords of this fruit, of any country in the world, which in distillation such a practice we deprecate ; nor come to maturity in succession, so as to afford a will we urge tetotallers to cultivate the apple for ci- supply for the family the whole year, and yet probder, if they deem this liquor hurtful—though we still ably not one family in a thousand enjoy them, or adhere to ihe “steady habits” of our New England know the existence of the better half. ancestry, in taking a glass of this racy beverage with

Albany Cultivator. our dinner-we will not advocate the orchard for the liquor it affords, but for the food--the beef, pork, milk, &c., into which its fruit can be readily trans

THE DAIRY. formed.

For the family, apples may be made lo contribute The properties of a good milk-house are, that alike to health, to pleasure, and to economy, and it be cool in summer, and moderately warm in wingreatly to diminish the consumption of more costly ter, so as to preserve a temperature of about fortyfood.

As dessert fruits, they are surpassed but by five degrees throughout the whole year; and that it few in quality, and by none in durability; while in be dry, so as to admit of its being kept clean and the culinary department, they afford a grateful repast, sweet at all times. A butter-dairy should consist of baked, boiled, roasted or fried, and to borrow terms three apartments—a milk-house, a churning-house from the cook's book, may be served up with rice, with a proper boiler, and other conveniences for flour, &c., in black-cap, charlotte, cheese-cakes, scalding and washing the implements, which should compotes, cumplings, fritters, festoon, floating-islands, be dried out of doors when the weather will permit fool, fraze, glazed, in gelly, marmalade, pancakes, The cheese-dairy should likewise consist of three pies, puddings, preserves, poupeton, soufflet, in wa- apartments--a milk-house, a scalding and pressingier, à la Turque. In all these forms, we believe the house, and a salting-house.. To these should be apple is perfectly guileless, and in unost of them may added a cheese-room or loft. A dairy for a small be indulged in by the robust and the delicate, and family may be formed in a thick-walled dry cellar, by rich and poor.

having windows on the north and east sides, which In the economy of the farm, apples are no less ser- are preferable for ventilation. In winter these winviceable. Every kind of farm stock feeds and fat-dows should have bauble sashes, and in summer, a tens upon them. They serve as a substitute for corn fixed frame of close wire netting, or bair-cloth, to in the piggery, for oats in the horse-stable, and for exclude flies and other insects. slops in the cow-stall. They were evidently des- In most places cows are milked twice in twentytined for the comfort of man ; and because they are four hours, throughout the year. Where quantity of capable of being converted to a bad use, shall we, milk or cheese is an object, three times milking for this reason, reject the many benefits they are cal- must be preferable, but as twelve hours are necesculated to afford us? Because bread corn is convert- sary for the due preparation of the milk in the cow, ible into alcohol, is it less worthy of our care and it must be inferiour in quality if drawn more than culture as an article of food ? 'Those alone who abuse twice a day. Whatever be the times of milking, the the gifts of Providence, are obnoxious to publick milk should be drawn off clear, otherwise, what is morals.

left will be reabsorbed into the system, and no more Our orchard, though a young one, is of great value be generated than is requisite to supply the quantity to us. The early droppings of fruit were gathered actually drawn. The milker, whether a man or a by our pigs, and they contributed much to fit them woman, ought to be mild in manners, and good temfor the falling pen ; and subsequently by boiling them pered. If the operation is performed harshly, it bewith small potatoes, for fattening hogs, they have comes painful to the cow, who, in this case, often enabled us to save a good portion of our soft corn, brings into action her faculty of retaining her milk which in ordinary years has not suffered for finish- at pleasure ; but if gently performed, it seems rather ing our pork, say forty or fifty bushels, to deal out to to give pleasure. When cows are ticklish, they our store shoats. Our orchard has enabled us to should be treated with the most soothing gentleness. dispose of some fifty barrels of choice winter fruit, and never with harshness or severity ; and when the and to manufacture nearly as many barrels of cider, udder is hard and painful, it should be tenderly foand it is now in the form of pomace, adding greatly mented with lukewarm water, and stroked gently. to the products of our diary. On the first of Decem- by which simple expedient the cow will be brought ber, we began to feed the pomace to seven milch into good temper, and will yield her milk without Cows, and have continued to feed them with a com- hesitation. Whenever the teats of cows become mon wheelbarrow full per diem, and the effect has scratched, or wounded, so as to produce soul or corbeen to increase the quantity of milk nearly fifty per rupted milk, it ought on no account to be mixed with cent. The pomace has not undergone but slight' if the sweet milk, nor carried into the milk-house, lest any fermentation.

it should taint the atmosphere, and this prove injuriThe great indifference to orchards, we have no ous to the rest of the milk. doubt, arises from an ignorance of the many advan

Cows should be milked as near the dairy as pos

1 sible, in order to prevent the necessity of carrying milker, which often serves to diminish the quantity and cooling the milk before it is put into the cream- of milk afterward. ing dishes. Every cow's milk should be kept sep- The only disadvantage to be found in the above arale till the peculiar properties of each is so well method of treatment, is, that it requires some labour known as to admit of their being well classed, when to feed them, where they thrive equally well in evthose that are most nearly allied, may be mixed to-ery respect as those do that are permitted to suck in gether. The very best quality of butter can only be the ordinary way. economically made in those dairies where cheese is also made ; because in them the best part of each cow's milk (the first drawn off) can be set apart for Extracts from the discourse delivered before the N. Y. Lyceum throwing up cream, the cast part of this cream (the

of Natural History, by Prof. J. W. Francis. first separated) can be taken in order to make into butter, and the remainder, or all the rest of the milk

“In Herpetology we have sufficient to gratify the and cream of the dairy, can be turned into cheese. keenest desires of the most ravenous student in this The spontaneous separation of cream, and the

department of nature. The extraordinary aspect and

production of butter, are never effected but in conse

habits of a considerable portion of reptiles in particquence of the production of acid in the milk. Hence ular, which are found in the southern and western it is, that where the whole milk is set apart for the sections of the States, imperfect and superficial as our separation of cream, and the whole of the cream is knowledge on the subject still is, invite to researches separated, the milk must necessarily have turned which promise to repay with adequate returns. I besour before it is made into cheese ; and no very ex

lieve no naturalist has elsewhere found a more magnifcellent cheese can be made from milk which has icent specimen of the testudo coriacia, than that caught once attained that state.

in the waters of our bay, and now exhibited in the American Museum of this city. Several of the Op. hidea, are certainly peculiar, and the crotalus horndus,

the most formidable and invincible of poisonous serCALVES.

pents, was deemed by the fathers of our country, a fit The following mode of rearing calves, adopted by emblem to designate ihe national standard for the antithe society denominated Shakers in Canterbury, N. cipated glories of the new republick, created by the H., was communicated in a letter from Francis war of the revolution. For my own part, I concur Winkley to Levi Bartlett, of Warren, N. H., and in the wish of the patriotick Franklin, that the bald was published in the N. E. Farmer in 1824:- eagle had not been chosen as the representative of

“We let calves, that come in the fore part of the American confederacy : and I think his reasons March, suck a week or ten days, then take them abundantly cogent: "The eagle,' says he does not from the cow, giving them a moderate allowance of get his living honestly : he is a bird of bad moral new milk to drink till they have learned to drink it character: he is cowardly: the little king-bird, not freely; then put in some skimmed milk, taking care larger than a sparrow, attacks him boldly and drives to give it at about the temperature of milk taken di- him out of his district; therefore he is not a fit reprectly from the cow, by heating a part of it and mix- resentative of that yeomanry who have thus far driven ing it with the rest. Care should be taken not to all the king-birds out of the country.' So far, Dr. scald the milk, when heated : also not to give them Franklin. As to the Coctalus, or rattle-snake, he is any sour milk for it will make them scourge. The a genuine aboriginal : he is the beau-ideal of etitrough or vessel in which they drink their milk quette : he is never the first to molest, and he always should likewise be kept clean, and not suffered to gives due warning of his intentions by his rattles : become sour. We let the milk stand about twelve and when his person or his rights are invaded, his hours before it is skimmed; giving a call at first aim is unerring and triumphant. Our Indians, who about four quarts, night and morning; increasing the best know him, give him this chivalrick character. mess as need requires, till he is six weeks old, he “I would wish it to be most distinctly understand will require, perhaps, about twelve quarts per day. that the observations I have just made are to be con

When about ten weeks old, we begin to diminish fined to the bald eagle. The indefatigable Aulubolt the quantity of milk for about the space of two or bas lately given us a distinct notice and descriptist of three weeks, at which time we wean them. During the Falco Washingtonianus, or Washington cande. the whole process, from two to fourteen weeks of This noble bird first drew his atiention while voyaning age, calves should be well supplied with good hay, far up the Mississippi in 1814. The Washington salt and provender, such as Oats, wheat, bran, and eagle is bold, vigorous ; superiour to vulgar expediail-cake, ground fine.

ents, he disdains the piratical habits of the bald The particular advantages to be derived from the eagle, and maintains himself, without molesting the above method of treatment, are the following :

rights of others.” 1. It is much chaper than to let them suck in the ordinary way; whereas it makes a great saving of "In adverting to the sublime elevation of our native cream for butter, and 'hat without injuring the calves pine, it was aptly said by some European writer, The if they are properly at ended to.

trunk of an individual American-tree is enough to 2. It prevents calves from moaning or pining so constitute a becoming spire for the proudest British much while weaning as they would otherwise do, cathedral :' and though not allowed on this occasion when taken from the cows.

to descant on the excellence of this tenant of the 3. It not only prevents the cows from being injur- forests as a material in ship-building, I am neverilieed in consequence of the calves biting the teats, but less just now forcibly reminded of an incident which also prevents their holding back the milk from the took place on my dining with some English savans,

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just after the close of the late war, at the house of foregoing definition, it appears that all places situaSir James Edward Smith, the president of the Lin- ted on the same parallel of latitude, are in the same næan Society of London. Many interrogatories climate ; but we must not infer from thence that they were put, touching the natural products of our vege- have the same atmospherical temperature. Large table world. “Your ships are built of pine, you tracts of uncultivated lands, sandy desert3, elevated cannot boast,” says one of the guests, somewhat sar- situations, woods, morasses, lakes, &c., have a coñcastically,“ of the English oak.”—“Talk not to the siderable effect on the atmosphere. For instance, doctor, of the English oak," interposed a third, (with in Canada, in about the latitude of Paris, and the softer feelings,)“ the American pines have done their south of England, the cold is so excessive, that the duty."

greatest rivers are frozen over from December to April, and the snow commonly lies from four to six feet deep. The Andes mountains, though some parts

of them are situated in the torrid zone, are at the ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE.

summit covered with snow, which cools the air in the adjacent country.

The heat on the western coast of Africa, after the wind has passed over the sandy desert, is almost suffocating ; while that same wind, having passed over the Atlantick ocean, is cool and pleasant to the inhabitants of the Caribbee islands.

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BY LIEUTENANT G. W. PATTEN, U. S. A. "The attack on fort Mellon was made, it is supposed, by Philip and his gang. The action must have taken place before the infor. mation of the truce could have been received by the Indians who made the attack.”-Southern paper

Blaze! with your serried columns,

I will not bend the knee!
The shackle ne'er again shall bind

The arm which now is free:
I've mail'd it with the thunder

When the tempest mutter'd low;
And where it falls ye well may dread

The lightning of its blow.
I've scared ye in the city,

I've scalped ye on the plain;
-Go, count your chosen where they fell

Beneath my leaden rain-
I scorn your proffer'd treaty,

The pale-face I defy;
Revenge is stamp'd upon my spear,

Blood" my battle cry.

Some strike for hope of booty,

Some to defend their allThe cut above represents the tree from which the I battle for the joy I have gum which is used so mach in Catholick churches

To see the white man fall : is received. It is a gum-resin, which distils from

I love among the wounded

To hear his dying moan, incisions made in the tree termed by botanists the

And catch, while chanting at his side, boswellia thur i fera ; this tree somewhat resembles

The musick of his groan. the sumach, and belongs to the same natural family ;

Ye've trail'd me through the forest, it grows upon the mountains of India. It is import

Ye've track'd me o'er the stream, ed in semitransparent yellowish tears, or sometimes

And struggling through the everglade,

Your bristling bayonets gleam : in masses : its taste is nauseous and bitter. When

-But, I stand as should the warriour, burnt, it gives out a strong aromatick odour, on

With his rifle and his spear; which account it was much used in the temples of

The scalp of vengeance still is red,

And warns ye-"Come not here." the ancients. The frankincense from Arabia is

Think ye to find my homestead! esteemed much more highly than that from India.

I gave it to the fire :
My lawny household do you scek?

1 am a childless sire.*

But should ye crave life's nourishment,

Enough I have and good;
By the word climate, is designated a part of the

I live on hato'tis all my bread, surface of the earth contained between two small

Yet light is not my food. circles parallel to the equator, and of such a breadth, I loathe ye with my bosomthat the longest day in the parallel nearest the pole,

I scorn ye with mine eye

And I'll taunt ye with my latest breath, exceeds the longest day in the parallel of latitude

And fight ye till I die. next the equator, by half an hour in the torrid and

I ne'er will ask ye quarter, temperate zones, or- by a month in the frigid zones,

And I ne'er will be your slave;

But I'll swim the sea of slaughter, so that there are twenty-four climates between the

Till I sink bencath its wave. equator and each polar circle, and six climates between each polar circle and its pole.

. It will be remembered, that many of the Seminoles killed their From the children; thuy being considered an incombrance to the war.

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