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This mount is neatly laid out in sloping walks round the hill, covered with verdure, and planted with shrubs and flowers. · The curtain contains seventeen portholes, in each of which is placed a piece of cannon, and on the leads of the tower is placed the royal standard, which is fourteen yards dong, and eight broad; and is hoisted on all state holidays, The union, which is nine yards by six, is always hoisted when the governor is present. Against the wall is this inscription: · " A list of the counties to be seen on the top of this round tower. Middlesex, Essex, Hertford, Bucks, Berks, Oxford, Wilts, Hants, Surrey, Sussex, Kent, Bedford.”
The lower court is larger than the upper. On the south and west sides of the outer part of this court, are the houses of the alms or poor knights of Windsor. On the north are the houses and apartments of the dean and canons of St. George's chapel, the minor canons, clerks, and other subordinate officers. In this ward are also several towers belonging to the officers of the crown when the court is at Windsor; also to the officers of the Order of the Garter, viz. the bishop of Winchester, prelate; the bishop of Salibury, chancellor; and Garter king at arms. A company of foot guards constantly do duty here under the command of an officer, but at all times subject to the constable or governor of the castle, to whom alone pertains the sole command of the garrison; as also of the magazine of arms, stores, and houses. The governor also, by virtue of his office, keeps a court of record in the castle, and is judge of the pleas between parties within the precinct of Windsor Forest. The deputy governor has neat and commodious jodgings or apartments at the entrance of the round tower. . Charles II. left little to be done to this castle except the painting of the apartments, which was carried on by his successors James II. aud William III. in whose reign the whole was completed. James II, during his residence at this - palace, gave an uncommon spectacle to his subjects on VUL. V. No, 118.
July 3, 1687, by the public entry of a nuncio from the pope. But that prince had the mortification to see that, notwithstanding the ceremony was conducted with much state and outward show, the whole procession gave offence to a people too sensible to be deluded by the idle parade of popish pageantry; and, at court, the duke of Somerset, lord of the bedchamber in waiting, refused to introduce the nuncio to audience, chusing rather to incur his sovereign's displeasure than to perform a task unsuitable to bis high rank, and contrary to the laws of the kingdom. Queen Anne made several additions' to Windsor Castle, particu. larly the fight of steps on the east side of the Terrace; and, though the court seldom resided at Windsor in the reigns of their late majesties George I. and II. the necessary repair of this castle and the royal apartmeņts were always continued. His present majesty George III. has made Windsor his summer residence, and, by new-erected buildings and alterations, added greatly to the splendour and magnificence of this royal castle.
The several foundations within this structure are, the royal college of St. George, consisting of a dean, twelve canons or prebendaries, seven minor canons, eleven vicars choral, one organist, one verger, and two sacrists. Tho most noble Order of the Garter, consisting of the sovereign and twenty-five knights companions. The alms knights, eighteen in number, viz. thirteen of the royal foundation, and five of the foundation of Sir Peter le Maire, in the reign of king James 1.*
* It is proper to notice, that William of Wickham, afterwards bishop of Winchester, was principally employed by Edward III. in building this castle, which when he had finished, in one of the towers he caused to be cut this doubtful sentence, “ This made Wickham,” which was reported to the king, as if that bishop assumed to himself the honour of building this royal castle. And had not the prelate, by a ready ad, dress, assured his royal master, that he intended no meaning derogatory to his sovereign, but only an acknowledgment that this building had made him great in the favour of his prince, and was the cause of his present high station, the prelate had probably fallen under the displeasure of that monarch by this inscription, which possibly in time inight have occasioned a double interpretation.
The The castle is surrounded by a most noble terrace, faced. on all sides with a noble and solid rampart of free-stone, with beautiful and easy slopes to the lower part of the park underneath. This Terrace may, with justice, be said to be the noblest walk in Europe, both with regard to the strength and grandeur of the building, and the fine and extensive prospect over the river Thames, and the adjacent country on every side, where nature and art vie with each other in beauty. . .
The royal apartments in the castle are on the north side, and commonly go under the name of the STAR BUILDING, from the garter and star largely displayed in gold in the middle of the building, on the outside next to the Terrace.
The usual entrance into the apartments is from the upper court or ward, through a handsome vestibule supported by pillars of the Ionic order, with some antique brass bustos in the several niches; the principal of which are, a Roman yestal, and a slave in the action of picking a thorn out of his foot. The great staircare is finely painted with several fabulous stories from Ovid's Metamorphoses, particularly the story of Phaeton, who is represented on the dome peti. tioning Apollo for leave to drive the chariot of the Sun; and on the staircase, in large compartments, are the transformation of Phaeton's sisters into poplars, their tears dis. tilling amber from the trees; also the story of Cycnus king of Liguria, who, being inconsolable for Phaeton's death, was transformed into a swan. Over these, and on the se.. veral parts of the ceiling, supported by the Winds, are represented the signs of the Zodiac, with baskets of flowers, beautifully disposed ; and at each corner are the elements of Earth, Air, Fire, and Water, expressed by Cornucopiæ, Birds, Zephyrs, Flaming Censers, Water Nymphs with fishes, and a variety of other representations expressing each element; also Aurora, with her Nymphs in waiting, giving water to her horses. In proper attitudes, in several parts of this staircase, are also represented Comedy, Tra. gedy, Music, Painting, and the other sciences; and the whole
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staircase is beautifully disposed, and heightened with gold, and has a view to the back stairs, whereon is painted the story of Meleager and Atalanta. The painting of this staircase by Sir James Thornhill. · The Queen's GUARD CHAMBER, is completely furnished with fire arms, beautifully ranged and disposed into va. rious forms, with the star and garter, the royal cypher, and other ornaments intermised, cut in lime wood. Over the chimney is a full portrait of prince George of Denmark in armour on horseback, by, Dail, with a view of shipping, by VÄNDERVELD. On the cieling is Britannia, personified by queen Catharine, consort to Charles II. seated on a globe, bearing the arms of England and Portugal, with the four quarters of the world, and their respective symbols, attended by deities, presenting their several offerings, and surrounded by the signs of the Zodiac; the other embellishments consist of the heathen deities, &c.
The Queen's PRESENCE CHAMBER. Portrait of queen Catharine, attended by Religion, Prudence, Fortitude, and the other virtues. The room is hung with tapestry, representing the beheading of St. Paul, and the persecution of the primitive Christians; it is also adorned with paintings of Edward III. and the Black Prince, both by Belcame; and of James I. by VANDYCK. In this room also were the three following cartoons of Raphael :
The Sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas, at Lystra; the Miraculous Draught of Fishes'; Healing of the Cripple at the Beautiful Gate of the Temple. Here it is proper to mention, that the Cartoons have been lately removed to Hampton Court, where Mr. Holloway is taking exact copies of them for publication. .. The Queen's AudienCE CHAMBER. The cieling represents queen Catharine as Britannia, in a car drawn by swans to the temple of Virtue, åttended by Flora, Ceres, &c. The, canopy is of fine English velvet, set up by queen Anne; and the tapestry was made at Coblentz, and presented to Henry VIII. The portraits are, William and
Frederic Henry, princes of Orange, HONTHORST; and
THE BALL Room. On the cieling Charles II. is' repre.
The Queen's BedcHAMBER. The bed of state in this room was put up by queen Charlotte. It is said to have cost 14,000l. On the cieling is represented the story of Diana and Endymion; the room is adorned with the picture of her majesty at full length, accompanied by all her children, West; six landscapes, ZUCCARELLI; and two flower pieces.
The Room OF BEAUTIES, is so named from the original portraits of fourteen of the most celebrated beauties in the reign of Charles II.; riz. Mrs. Knot and Mrs. Lawson, WisSING;'lady Sunderland, lady Rochester, lady Denham and her sister, and Mrs. Middleton, LelY; lady Byron, HouseMAN; duchess of Richmond, countess of Northumber. land, lady Grammont, duchess of Cleveland, and duchess of Somerset, LELY; and lady Ossory, Wissing; with thir. teen portraits of ladies, after VandyCK, by RUSSEL.