صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

situated. The old church had stood above two hundred years, when, in 1736, it was in so ruinous a condition that the inhabitants applied to parliament for leave to pull it down, which being granted*, the present structure was bnished in 1739.

Tbia edifice is built with brick, and ornamented with stone. It is enlightened by a double range of windows, and the corners both in the tower and body are strengthened with a handsome rustic . The tower, in which are eight bells, consists of two stages: in the lower are a door and window; in the upper a window and dial; and the whole is terminated by a balustrade, from which rises a circular base that supports a kind.of lanthorn, very elegantly constructed with Corinthian columns; over these are urns with flames; and from the roof of this lanthorn rises a well-constructed spire, terminated by a ball and fane. This church is a rectory, in the gift of a lay patron. >'.• •. >

The only monument worthy of particular notice is in the church-yard, with the following inscription:

"To the memory of Prince Lee Boo, a native of the Pelew, or Palis Islands, and eon to Abba Thulle, rupack or king of the island Goo-roo-raa, who departed this life on the 27th of December 1784, aged twenty years;'this stone is inscribed by the Honourable East India Company, as a testimony of the humane and kind treatment afforded by his father to the crew of their ship the Antelope, captain W'Hson, which was wrecked off that island in the night of the 9th of August, 1783. . i . .

Stop, reader, stop, let Nature claim a" tear,

A Prince of mine, Lee Boo, lies buried here.1 . ■

An account of this amiable, prince is given in Mr. Keate's ipteresting narrative of captain Wilson's adventures at the, Pelew Jslands. j V '• '"''

A passage under the Thames is ' now \{February"l^osj forming from Rotherhrthe to Limehouse, under the sanetien qf an act of parliament, and the management of, JJr. R Tjev^thjck,, ,the ingenious • inventor of ,an. '.'improved..

• Stat. II. Ceo. II. c. IC. •. "iiU

No. 101. . I strncted.. structed by Harledire, of Bridgenorth, in Shropshire, is erected to lift the water which drains into the works. There is no doubt but that this water issues from the drainage of the surrounding country, and not from the river under which it passes; for it is ascertained, that the river is sustained-by a mass of clay, impervious to water, about sixteen to twenty feet in thickness. Under this, and through which the tunnel passes, the stratum varies, being at the entrance a running sand, towards the middle a hard compact limestone with intermixture of iron-ore, generally in the form of branches of trees, yet so rich with iron, as to yield 80lb. on an assay. The present tunnel is intended for foot passengers only, to be of an elliptical form, eleven feet diameter, to be secured by cast metal segments, so as to render it completely water tight. The passage under th« river is about six hundred feet, which will be lighted with lamps at proper distances; the passages to it at the ends arc about three hundred feet each. These arc intended to remain open, though at the entrance of the archway the height of the walls will be upwards of forty feet. The draining way under the river is effected, the time which it took up was little more than six months. It is conjectured that the archway will be completed in a year from the present date, for foot passengers. Thus will a footway be established between the opposite sides of this important river, where a bridge would have ruined the navigation. Indeed it is worth considering whether this principle cannot be put in practice in .other situations, where bridges now appear difficulties to the accommodation of the metropolis.

Near the extremity of Rotherhithe parish are the docks for the Greenland ships. "A profitable nuisance," says Pennant, '* very properly removed t6 a distance from the capital." The great dock is supposed to have been the mouth of Canute's canal before mentioned.

We now enter the County Of Rent, and it is Necessary that some account should be given of tWs extensive district, as far a? consists with the present object'of this work. . "»'

Tlie comity of Kent, forms the south-eastern angle of the British island, and is bounded on the north by the German ocean, and the river Thames; on the west by Surrey; on the south by Sussex; and on the east by the Downs and Straits of Dover. It is of an irregularly quadrilateral figure, the shortest side towards Surrey, and the longest stretching along the Thames and its mouth. The greatest breadth of the county is its eastern side; but it is considerably narrowed on its southern side, and its contents, according to the most accurate computation, are about one thousand four hundred square miles, or nine hundred thousand statute acres.

Two chains of hills run across Kent, from west to east; tlie whole northern side of the county consists of chalk, intermixed with flints, with the exception of a line of marshes, or meadows, on the banks of the Thames, Med■nty, and other rivers. The Thames is equally bountiful to this as to many other counties, to which it serves in part of its course as a boundary. This noble river furnishes all the northern side of the banks with a border of rich marshes; serving also for the conveyance of the products of the neighbourhood to the metropolis, and other places.

The principal river however properly belonging to Kent, is the Medway, which rising from different heads on the borders of Surrey and Sussex, flows in a north-eastward direction to Maidstone, being first joined by the Beult, a considerable stream from the Weald, and then runs straight north to Rochester, at which city it again takes an eastern course, till it empties itself into tlie mouth of the Thames, between the isles of Shepey and Grain. A channel from it, called the Swale, completes the separation of the isle of Shepey from the main land. The Medway admits large men of war as far as Chatham, where its channel suddenly contracts. It is navigable, however, for large barges to Maidstone, and for smaller to Tunbridge.

The Darent is a rivulet springing near Sevenoaks, and flows northward to Dartford, below which it mixes with the Thames in Long Reach, having been first joined by the Cray.

I 2 Kent,

Kent, like other maritime counties on "the eastern side of England, is subject to cold ungenial blasts from the norths east) which frequently injure the vegetation in spring, and affects the health of the inhabitants. The low marshy grounds near the Thames, are also by their situation particularly unhealthy; and the garrison of Sheerness is supposed to suffer more from sickness than any other in the kingdom. The higher and more internal parts of the.country enjoy a pure and wholesome air, and many spots are distinguished for pleasantness and salubrity. The products of agriculture are earliest on the northern side.

This county has long been celebrated for a very intelligent and spirited system of agriculture, and more of arable than pasturage; annually sending out a great quantity of grain for the. supply of London, and other places. The manure principally used is sea-weed. On the banks of the Thames, about Deptford, Greenwich, and Gravcsend, garden vegetables are much cultivated for the London markets, and the supply of shipping. The Gravesend asparagus is acknowledged superior to any otlrer.

The London brewery is almost wholly supplied with its hops from Kent, of which the principal plantations are in the vicinity of Canterbury, and of Maidstone. The stony lands about .Maidstone, which form the hop grounds, likewise yield great quantities of apples, cherries, and filberts, which are commonly cultivated together. The fruit chiefly goes to the London market: cyder is also sometimes made from the apples.

Many of the Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, and South-down, sheep are kept as a favourite breed on the Sussex border, in West Kent.

The marsh land of the Med way, Thames, Swale, &c. containing about eleven thousand five hundred acres, is all devoted to the fattening of cattle and sheep, or the breeding of the latter. The waste commons of Kent are computed not to exceed twenty thousand acres.

There is no county in England where property is more divided than in Kent, a natural consequence of the tenure

of of gavel-kind, which is prevalent throughout the county, and one of the properties of which is the equal division of lands among all the sons of a family. Hence the yeomanry of Kent, have long been famous for their numbers and comparative opulence, and it is said that they are still on the increase. The Kentish freeholders are supposed to be about nine thousand, an extraordinary number considering the large possessions of the two episcopal dioceses of Canterbury and Rochester, and of other corporate bodies within, the county. There are also from twenty to thirty seats of Doblemen in Kent, as well as many mansions of the inferior gentry, to which are attached large estates.

The abundance of cover in this country renders game very plentiful. Its pheasants, in particular, are noted for their size and flavour. Fish abounds in its rivers, and other waters. The lobsters taken oft' the isle of Thanet are reckoned the fmest in England. Oysters form a considerable article of exportation, there being a particular corporation at Rochester for the management of those which are fed in the creeks of the Med way. Milton, near Feversham, has a species of oysters of peculiar excellence.

Kent is primarily divided into large districts, called Laths, of which there are five. Each of these is subdivided into bailiwicks, hundreds, and liberties, of which subdivisions the whole county contains fourteen bailiwicks, sixty-three hundreds, and thirteen franchises, or liberties. Kent, moreover, is divided into two moieties, East and West Kent; the first of which is reckoned to contain tho laths of Sutton at Hone, Aylesford, and the southern division of that of Scray. This makes nearly an equal partition of the county, and the courts of session for the districts in each are held four times in the year; those for the eastern at Canterbury, for the western at Maidstone.

The ecclesiastical division is, first, into tho two dioceses of Canterbury and Rochester. Each of these is subdivided into deaneries and parishes, of which Rochester contains four deaneries and one hundred and thirty-two parishes. Besides the cities of Canterbury and Rochester, there are

reckoned

« السابقةمتابعة »