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don, at whose expence it was done. In the lobby is the portrait of Henry prince of Wales, son to James I.
The Long GALLERY, built by cardinal Pole, is ninety feet by sixteen. The wainscot remains in its original state, being all of mantled carving. In the windows are coats of arms of different archbishops. It is filled with portraits, among which are Martin Luther, archbishop Warham, and queen Catharine Par, over the chimney-piece. The gal. lery also contains an original portrait of archbishop Parker, by Lyne; a whole length of cardinal Pole; archbishops Arundell, Chichele, Cranmer, Grindall, Whitgift, Sheldon; bishops Pearce, of Bangor; Mawson, Fletcher, Moore, Patrick, and Gooch, of Ely; Lloyd, and Hough, of Worcester; Burnet, of Salisbury; Hoadly, of Winchester, (painted by his second lady); Berkeley, of Cloyne; and Randle, of Derry. Archbishop Moore made a very handsome bay window, in the modern taste, from the ceiling to the floor. This affords a fine view of the lawn and plantations; and, in the latter; openings have been made, through which Westminster Abbey, the bridge, the patent shot manufactory, St. Paul's, and the Monument, are seen to great advantage, and produce a fine effect.
The Great Dining Room has all the archbishops from Laud to Cornwallis. That of Laud is by Vandyck; Juxon, from a good original, at Longleate; Tenison, by Dubois ; Herring, by Hogarth; Hutton, by Huson; Secker, by Reynolds; and Cornwallis, by Dance.
Archbishop Bancroft made great additions to The Li. BRARY, in 1610; but it seems to have been of artient foun: dation, Archbishop Abbot took much pains to secure the books to the see, and left many more as a legacy at his decease. Had it not been for the strenuous endeavours of Selden, bowever, they would have been dispersed during the Civil War; but that learned antiquary interested himself with the ruling powers, to have the books deposited in Trinity College, Cambridge, on his assertion that the col. lege had a reversionary right to them, on the abolition of episcopal jurisdiction. When the parliament first seized the
books, books, they granted the use of them to Dr. Wincocke, and afterwards to Sion College; and many had gotten into private hands, till their preservation was accomplished by Mr. Selden. They continued in Trinity College, till archbishhp Juxon reclaimed them after the Restoration; and his successor archbishop Sheldon, prosecuting the claim, they were restored to the see; those in private hands, were in a great degree recovered; and those which were in the bands of John Thurloe and Hugh Peters, had been secured by order of Parliament in the year 1660. To this library archbishop Sheldon, made vast additions; and archbishops Tenison and Secker, also bequeathed part of their libraries : many valuable books have been added by archbishop Cornwallis; and the number amounts to twenty-five thousand volumes. On the north-east window is painted in glass the portrait of St. Augustine, with old English verses beneath; and near it is a figure of archbishop Chichele. This library is adorned with a fine picture of Canterbury cathedral, and prints of all the archbishops from Warham to the present time. Here also archbishop Cornwallis placed some small prints, framed, of the principal reformers from popery, and of the most eminent non-conformist ministers of the last and present century. The shell of a tortoise is shewn, to which a label is affixed, importing, that this tortoise was put in the garden by archbishop Laud, and killed in 1757 by the negligence of a gardener. This library stands over the cloisters, and forms a narrow gallery, which occupies the four squares of a quadrangle. Among the books, is an octavo edition of the Liturgy of the Church of England, translated into the Mohawk language by the famous Indian chief, colonel Brandt. Among the pictures are an original of archbishop Bancroft; Fox, bishop of Winchester ; Dr. Peter Des Moulin, librarian; and Dr. Wilkins, domestic chaplain at this palace.
THE LIBRARY OF MSS. stands over part of the last, and contains about eleven thousand MSS. many of which are very scarce. Archbishop. Moore gave a considerable sum for the fitting up of a proper repository for this collection; which, among others, contains the following curious MSS. The registers of the see of Canterbury, in excellent preser. vation; and the various collections of archbishop Tenison, the Rev. Henry Wharton, and George Carew, earl of Totness. Those of singular curiosity are, “ A Translation of the wise Sayings of the Philosophers,” by Woodville, earl Rivers, with a beautiful illuminated drawing of the earl presenting his book to Edward IV. engraved for lord Orford's “ Royal and Noble Authors.” The “ Daunce of Machabree," commonly called “ Death's Dance.” A Saxon MS. written by Adhelm, bishop of Shirebourn, iu the eighth century, with a drawing of the bishop in his pontifical chair, &c. “ Archbishop Cranmer's Household Book.” And a complete copy of “ Archbishop Parker's Antiquities,” printed in 1572, interleaved with original MSS. records, &c. This book having been lost out of the library, fortunately came into the possession of Dr. Trevor, bishop of Durham, and was restored by that prelate in the year 1757. This edition is so scarce, that there exist only two copies of it.
The other apartments of this structure consist of THE New BUILDINGS: a house on the right hand of the first court, built by archbishops Sancroft and Tillotson. The GREAT Hall: the dimensions of this hall are ninety-three feet by thirty-eight. It has a Gothic roof of wood. THE GUARD CHAMBER, antiently used as such, fifty-six feet by twenty-seven one-half; supposed to bare been built before the year 1424. It is roofed like the hall. Adjoining to this are a drawing room and dressing room, built by archbishop Cornwallis.
The gardens and park, which contain near thirteen acres, are laid out with taste. They have been enlarged and improved by archbisbop Moore, who (beside building an extensive brick wall) has made a new access to the house, for carriages, through the park. In the garden are two remarkable fig-trees, of the white Marseilles, which bear delicious fruit. Tradition says, they were planted by cardinal Pole.
They cover a surface of fifty feet in height, and forty in breadth. The circumference of the southernmost is twentyeight inches, and the other twenty-one.
On the decollation of king Charles the First, it was purchased as above, for 10731. by colonel Scott, who, besides, converting the chapel into a dancing room, demolished the great hall, and, in other respects, reduced the venerable pile to a ruinous condition. Archbishop Juxon rebuilt the great hall, at the expence of 10,5001. and the archbishops Sheldon, Sancroft, Tillotson, Tenison, Wake, Secker, and Cornwallis, spared no cost to render this antient structure not only convenient and comfortable, but worthy of being the residence of the primates of all England. In 1776 it was determined to be extra-parochial, by a decision in the court of Common Pleas.
It is curious that this is the only habitable house belonging to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury; Lambeth Palace has, however, had its share of historical consequence. Here was held a synod in the year 1100, at which archbishop Anselm presided, to consider of the propriety of Henry I. marrying with the princess Maud, sister to the king of Scotland, which was declared legal, because, though the princess had been educated in a religious house, she was not a professed nun. Several synods were afterwards held here after it became the metropolitan residence.
Wat Tyler's rebels in 1381, attacked and despoiled the palace, burnt the furniture and books, drank up the li. quors, and destroyed all the registers and other records, The amiable archbishop Sudbury fell a sacrifice in this commotion. A scene of a different kind was exhibited here by aschbishop Bourchier, when he entertained with festivities, Henry VII. previously to his coronation. It was the residence of Catharine of Arragon, and her ladies, before she was married to Henry, prince of Wales, (afterwards Henry VIII.) Mary I. often visited her cousin cardinal archbishop Pole, in this palace, which she had caused to be furnished at her own expence for his reception. Queen Elizabeth also was
frequently here on visits to the several archbishops, particularly archbishop Parker, at one of which the following circumstance occurred; the queen could never be reconciled to that part of the reformation which allowed of the marriage of ecclesiastical persons; and unfortunately Parker had not only written a treatise on the lawfulness of priests marrying, but had absolutely confirmed his opinion by entering into that holy state before the statute which forbid celibacy had been repealed. The haughty Elizabeth, though she had been entertained by the archbishop and his lady for several days, could not refrain from venting her resentment in the following rude manner at her departure; ad. dressing herself to Mrs. Parker, by way of taking leave, she said, “Madam I may not call you; Mistress I am ashamed to call you; yet as I know not what to call you, yet I thank you.”*
This seems to have been a place peculiarly devoted to oxperience popular fury, as though religious sentiment, on account of the rectitude of its principles, was in a singular manner obnoxious to outrage and sedition. In the year 1641, the palace was attacked by the dissolute London apprentices, who had been spirited up to this violation of or. der by the seditious placards of the factious Lilbume. For this some of the ringleaders were apprehended, and one executed for high treason. Archbishop Laud, whose life had been threatened, was removed hence by the desire of king Charles I. to Whiteball; the ruling powers however profaned the sanctuary which the king had afforded, by removing the reverend prelate to the Tower, where he was soon after beheaded; a lamentable prelude to the horrid tragedy which afterwards followed of murdering the sovereign before his own palace The extremities which archbishop Laud suffered during his imprisonment, are scarcely cre. dible. His palace was converted to a prison, in which the soldiers lived in outrageous excess. His furniture was sold, and the coal and wood reserved for those military free Sir John Harrington's View of the State of the Church.