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A GUIDE TO ORAL READING.
Axiom 1.-Know exactly what you are to teach.
Axiom 3.—Know exactly the action of the pupil's mind at each step taken.
Axiom 4.-Base all teaching on the known, and teach the nearest unknown.
Axiom 5.—Teach one thing at a time, thoroughly.
Haphazard teaching never amounts to much; but a graded plan, followed systematically, slowly, and thoroughly, will produce wonderful results.
READING is twofold: (a) Silent and (6) Oral.
Silent reading is reading for ideas. The power to gain from the written or printed page the ideas of an author, easily, rapidly, and without a conscious naming of the words, is the key to all studies.
Silent Reading stands first in the order of teaching as well as first in importance.
Oral Reading is reading aloud the words of an author so as to convey his meaning to the hearer. But, to express aloud fairly well the proper meaning, the author's ideas must be understood and then naturally expressed.
Oral Reading, then, depends : (a) on the ideas, which are obtained from silent reading; (6) on distinct articulation, which comes from proper phonic drill; (c) on the natural oral expression of the thought, which includes Emphasis, Inflection, and the proper Rhetorical Pauses.
Oral Reading will be treated under two heads : 1. ARTICULATION and 2. EXPRESSION.
A short exercise should be given every day on both Articulation and Expression.
1. ARTICULATION. Articulation is the utterance of the elementary sounds that are found in spoken words.
An elementary sound is a simple spoken sound.
These sounds are produced by emissions of the breath modified by the Organs of Speech. The Organs of Speech chiefly modifying the sounds are the tongue, teeth, lips, and palate. The nasal passages, lungs, larynx (in which are the vocal cords), pharynx, and windpipe (trachea) complete the list.
Elementary sounds are divided into vowels and consonants, which terms apply both to the sounds and to the letters representing them.
A vowel sound is a sound produced by an unobstructed utterance of the breath (as in whispering) or of the voice (as in speaking aloud).
Vowel sounds are Simple (having only one sound) or Compound (having two simple sounds united in utterance into a single sound).
A consonant sound is a sound produced by the partial or complete obstruction of the breath or voice by the vocal organs.
All sounds are formed or modified by the position of the tongue, the palate, the lips, or by the motions of the lower jaw; but the breath is not hindered from coming out freely in vowel sounds, while consonant sounds are produced by a partial or complete obstruction of the breath or of the voice by the tongue, teeth, lips, or palate, and are sometimes named from the organ by which they are formed, as LABIALS, DENTALS, PALATALS.
The following pages contain a complete vocal drill, covering the entire school course, and should be taught, little by little, slowly, carefully, and thoroughly, and, as fast as learned, should be applied to the Reading Lessons.
With most classes you may not be able to master half of this course. Select the drill suited to your pupils, and do your work so well that the course can be completed in the next grade without taking half the time to review the work attempted now.
a = ě; e, o, circum and u'=1; flex
u=ě; o = w; ^ u= w;y=ē.
wolf Wõrk côrn
one(wŭ) women() quit(w) busy (1) burylė) quay(6)
y my 00 moon
lowing as to be practically lost; e Used by the International to indicate a
long vowel unaccented, as sěndte, idēa. The sounds of these vowels (if indeed they have any sound) are 80 united with the sound of ý folin sergeant is either ? or ä.
U 015 i O
ou = OW
2. EQUIVALENT VOWEL SOUNDS.
O = ` wolf, pụll
moon, do 1 there, ther, cầre
book, pụll ē police, mē
out, Ô= a fôr, fall
oi boy, oil o= ŭ són, són j=imy, mine
ẽ =1 = 8 = ў ũ = 1 hymn, hľm hér, fìr, work, mỹrrh, õrge
3. CONSONANTS. REGULAR SOUNDS. ç soft, like s (merçy); e hard, like k (eat); ch, unmarked, as in child; çh soft, like sh (chaise); ã (or unmarked) hard (go); ġ soft, like j (age); th sharp, unmarked (thin); th flat, or vocal (thee); ng, unmarked (sing); n (sink); y, like gz (exact); x, unmarked, like ks (extreme); ş, like z (is); qu, unmarked, like kw (quite); wh, unmarked, like hw (when).
4. CONSONANTS. EQUIVALENTS. gh = p (hiccough); gh = f (cough); d = t (looked); di =j (soldier); ph = f (Philip); c, ce, or ci =sh (ocean); s, se, or si = sh (nauseous, mission, sure); t or ti = sh (nation, partial, patient); sc or sci = sh (conscience); ph = v (Stephen); x = z (Xenophon); x = ksh (noxious, luxury); 8 or si = zh (vision); z or zi = zh (azure, glazier); t or ti = zh (transition); g = zh (rouge); f = v (of); sc = zz (discern); c= z (suffice); ss =zz (lussa:').
VOWELS. (SOUNDS, NOT LETTERS.) mã, dãy, sẵn, gãy
ā, ā, ā, ā (long) mē, hē, bē, wē
ē, ē, ē, ē (long) pie, high, tie, lie
i, i, i, i (long) lo, no, so, go
o, 7, 7, (long) ūse, cūe, hūe, due
ū, ū, ū, ū (long)
*ā, ē, i, ā, ū. mā, mē, mī, mē, mū. m-ā mă m-ē mē m-i mi m-Ō mo
* Use other consonants with these sounds in the same way as m is used in the above lines ; e.g., instead of m-ā mā, m-ē mē, etc., give the line, b-ā bā, b-ē bē, etc. Every vowel sound in our language is given on this page. There are many equivalents, but no other vowel sounds. + These combinations are given to teach the proper discriminations, and to develop the vocal organs. It is a good exercise to sing them to the scale, with one, two, or more ntterances of each sound to each tone of the scale.
CONSONANTS. (SOUNDS, NOT LETTERS.)
bābe, eåt, tăek day, båd. fåt, off go, hē, joy, āġe. Kāte, tāke. důll, lŭll māy, āim. fèn, năn. pipe, pip. råt, tär săp, påss . tă€k, eặt . vălve, wē, will . yės, yět. zest, bŭzz sing, ring thin, north then, with church, lurch sēizure, āzure she, wash
P, P, P, r, r, r,
ě-bb. e-à-t, t-a-ek. d-āy,
b-à-d. fă-t, 6-f.
-, h-à-t, h-ē. j-oy, ā-ġe. K-a-te, t-a-ke. l-t-ll, d-t-il. m-ay, āi-m. n-i-n, f-t-n. p-i-p, p-i-pe. r-a-t, t-ä-r. s-à-p, p-å-ss. tă-ek, €-ă-t. V-ă-l-ve, €-ā-ve. w-ē, w-1-11. y-ě-8, y-ě-t. z-ě-8-t, b-ń-zz. s-i-ng, r-1-ng. th-i-n, n-ô-r-th. th-e-n,
W-1-th. ch-ll-r-ch, l-0-r-ch. s-ēi-z-u-re, ā-z-u-re. sh-ē, W-a-sh.
NOTE.—Pronounce both words slowly, dwelling on the sound you wish to teach. After giving the word several times, make the word from the sounds. Begin with one easy word, and go very slowly.