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النشر الإلكتروني

REPRESENTATIONS OF ALL VOWEL SOUNDS. ā: āte, äid, māy, breāk, ġāuge, gãol, āye. ă: åt, plăid, guărăntēe. ä: ärm, äunt, heärt, guärd, bazäar. â : dâre, fair, beâr, prâyer, Aâron. å : åsk (when followed by the smooth r, it becomes â). ą: fall, awe, fraud, awl. a : Was. à : senáte, ravåge (long à in unaccented syllables).

a: (unmarked =ě) many, said, says; (a = û) liar; as in final (marked by Worcester as obscure ; left unmarked by Webster).

ē: mē, ēat, bēef, thief, decēit, kēy, pēople, Portuguēse, Aēgis, oēsophagus.

ě: mět, hěad, diaěresis, héifer, jeopardy, friend, Oědipus, guěst.

e: they, veil, mêlee.
ê: there, their, mêlee.
é: hér, hčard, guěrdon.
e: event, create (long e in unaccented syllables).

e: (unmarked = i) pretty, been ; (= ä) sergeant; rēcent (marked by Worcester as obscure ; left unmarked by Webster).

i: ice, die, guide, height, aisle.
ỉ: fir.
ỉ: t, duties, built, captain, foreign, carriage, tortoise.
1 : fdēą (long i in unaccented syllables).
ï: police.
ō: nõ, oats, blow, four, hõe, door, yeoman, õwe.
Ď: on, knowledge, lough.
o: do, bloom (or 00), shoe.
ô: bôrn, bought, broad, Geôrge, extraordinary
.: wolf, brook (or vo).
õ : work.

X

Sounds

of

macron

wave

+

a

e

i

TABLES. VOWEL SOUNDS.

a = ě; e, o,

circumbreve dots dot

and u=1; flex

u=ě; o = wă;

^ u= w;y=ē.
äre ask
māy băg

câre any(ë)
Wallwas
mē, they běg

hér thêre pretty(i)
mine big police ssr
mów

swon
bog do

Sone(wū)
work côrn
wolf

women(1)

quit(w) müse big rude

fûr busy(i)

(burylė) hymn

myrrh

quay(6) moon book

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Used by the International to indicate a long vowel unaccented, as sěndte, idea.

ն

pụll

у | mӯ

00

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The sounds of these vowels (if
indeed they have any sound) are
80 united with the sound of r fol.
lowing as to be practically lost; e
in sergeant is either é or .

OU = OW

COW

2. EQUIVALENT VOWEL SOUNDS. a = o wąs, not

น wolf, pull a=ě) many, said, mět

o rụde, do ā they, veil, māy

moon, do à thêre, thếir, căre

book, pull ï = ē police, mē

out, Ô = - a fôr, fall

oy

oi boy, oil són, són ỹ - 1 mỹ, mine

ē = 1 = Õ

ỹ = û
i hỹmn, hîm hér, fir, work, mỹrrh, ûrge

3. CONSONANTS. REGULAR SOUNDS. ç soft, like s (merçy); € hard, like k (eat); ch, unmarked, as in child; çh soft, like sh (chaise); g (or unmarked) hard (go); ģ soft, like j (age); th sharp, unmarked (thin); th flat, or vocal (thee); ng, unmarked (sing); n (sink); y, like ĝz (exact); x, unmarked, like ks (extreme); ș, like z (is); qu, unmarked, like kw (quite); wh, unmarked, like hw (when).

4. CONSONANTS. EQUIVALENTS. gh =p (hiccough); gh = f (cough); d = t (looked); di =j (soldier); ph = f (Philip);c, ce, or ci =sh (ocean); s, se, or si = sh (nauseous, mission, sure); t or ti = sh (nation, partial, patient); sc or sci = sh (conscience); ph = v (Stephen); x = z (Xenophon); x = ksh (noxious, luxury); s or si = zh (vision); z or zi = zh (azure, glazier); t or ti = zh (transition); g = zh (rouge); f = v (of); sc = zz (discern); c= z (suffice); ss =zz (lussa:).

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VOWELS. (SOUNDS, NOT LETTERS.) māy, dāy, sāy, gay

a, a, a, a (long) mē, hē, bē, wē

ē, ē, ē, ē (long) pie, high, tie, lie

i, ī, i, i (long) lo, no, so, go

. 5, 7, 7, 7 (long) ūse, cūe, hūe, dūe

.ū, ū, ū, ū (long)

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*ā, ē, i, o, ū. mā, mē, mī, mo, mū. m-ā må m-ē mē m-i mi m-7 mo

m-ū mū

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ăm, ăm .
în, în
ip, úp .

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å, å (short)
mět, mět

ě, ě (short) Î, Î (short) | on, on

, ŏ (short) ú, ů (short) ă, ě, s, 0, ů. mě, mě mi, mi mỏ, mõ mй, mй m-ě mě m-i mi m-o mě m-й mй

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*mă, mă m-ă mă

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tē, à, å,

ă, ä, a, o, o mẽ, mũy, mast, mare, màn,

măn, mỡ, mạw,

mä, mąw, mow, mo ti, 1,

ě,
o, ů,

u,

ū fine, fin, fed, fop, fün, full füme

* Use other consonants with these sounds in the same way as m is used in the above lines ; e.g., instead of m-ā mā, m-ē mē, etc., give the line, b-ā bā, b-ē bē, etc. Every vowel sound in our language is given on this page. There are many equivalents, but no other vowel sounds. + These combinations are given to teach the proper discriminations, and to develop the vocal organs. It is a good exercise to sing them to the scale, with one, two, or more ntterances of each sound to each tone of the scale.

CONSONANTS. (SOUNDS, NOT LETTERS.)

ěbb.

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hăt.

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bābe,
€ăt, tåek
dāy,

băd.
fåt, off.
go, egg
hē,
joy, āģe
Kāte, tāke.
důli, lŭll .
māy, āim.
fún,
pipe, pỉp.
răt,
săp, påss.
tăek, €ăt.
vălve,

€āve. wē,

will . yės, yět. zest, bŭzz sing, ring. thin, north then, with church, larch sēizure, āzure shē, wash

tär.

b, b, b, b. b-a-be, ě-bb.
k, k, k, k. . €-à-t, t-à-ek.
d, d, d, d

d-ay,

b--d.
f, f, f, f f-=-t, 6-ff.

g-o, e-gg.
h, h, h, h. h-ó-t, h-ē.
ġ, ġ, ġ, ġ j-oy, ā-ge.
k, k, k, k K-à-te, t-ā-ke.
1, 1, 1, 1 l-ŭ-11, d-ŭ-11.
m, m, m, m m-ay,

āi-m.
n, n, n,

n-l-n, f-t-n. P, P, P, P p-i-p, p-i-pe. r, r, r,

r--t, t-ä-r. 8, s,

s-à-p, p-å-ss.
t, t, t, t t-ắ-ek, €-=-t.
V, V, V,

V-=-l-ve, €-ā-ve.
W, W, W,

w-ē, W-1-11.
y, y, y, у y-ě-s, y-ě-t.
z, z, z,

z-ě-8-t, b-t-zz. ng, ng, ng, ng s-i-ng, r-1-ng. th, th, th, th

th-i-n, n-ô-r-th. th, t, th, thi th-e-n, W-Y-th. ch, ch, ch, ch ch-ll-r-ch, 1-0-r-ch. Z, 2, 2,

8-7i-z-u-re, a-z-u-re. sh, sh, sh, sh sh-ē, W-a-sh.

r

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NOTE.- Pronounce both words slowly, dwelling on the sound you wish to teach. After giving the word several times, make the word from the sounds. Begin with one easy word, and go very slowly.

REPRESENTATIONS OF ALL VOWEL SOUNDS.

ā: āte, äid, māy, breāk, ġāuge, gāol, āye.
å : åt, plăid, guărăntēe.
ä: ärm, äunt, heärt, guärd, bazäar.
à: dâre, fair, beâr, prayer, Aaron.
å : åsk (when followed by the smooth r, it becomes â).
ą: fall, awe, frąud, awl.
a : was.
à : senate, ravåge (long à in unaccented syllables).

a: (unmarked =ě) many, said, says ; (a = û) liar; as in final (marked by Worcester as obscure ; left unmarked by Webster).

ē: mē, ēat, bēef, thief, decēit, kēy, pēople, Portuguēse, Aēgis, oēsophagus.

$ : mět, head, diaěresis, heifer, jeopardy, friěnd, Oědipus, guěst.

e: they, veil, mêlee.
ê: thêre, thêir, mêlee.
ē : hér, hệard, guěrdon.
e: évent, create (long ē in unaccented syllables).

e: (unmarked = i) pretty, been ; (= ä) sergeant; récent (marked by Worcester as obscure ; left unmarked by Webster).

i: ice, die, guide, height, aisle.
î: fír.
ỉ : it, duties, built, captain, foreign, carriage, tortoise.
1 : fdēą (long i in unaccented syllables).
ï: polïce.
ö: no, oats, blow, four, hõe, door, yeoman, öwe.
Ď: Ďn, knowledge, lõugh.
9: do, bloom (or 00), shoe.
Ô: börn, bôught, brôad, Geôrge, extraordinary
.: wolf, brook (or 00).
Õ: work.

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