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النشر الإلكتروني

• : son, nation (ti =sh), touch, blood, does, porpoise, cushion, dungeon.

: Obey (long o in unaccented syllables). o: (unmarked = i) women.

ū: ūse, hūe, jūice, lieū, beauty, mantūa-maker, neuter, youth, yūle.

ů: ŭs, nervoŭs.
g: rude, group, true, fruit, manoeuvre.
û : før, scourge.
ụ : fìll, would.

: tnite (long ū in unaccented syllables).
u : (unmarked = i) busy ;(=ě) bury; (=w) quit.
ỹ: mỹ, buỹ, rye, aye, eye (=1).
ý : hým (=1).
ỹ : mỹrtle (= 1).
y: (unmarked = %) quay.

: hyena (long j in unaccented syllables).

DIPHTHONGS.

A real, or proper, diphthong consists of two vowel sounds in one syllable. When two vowels are written together, and one is silent, it is an improper diphthong. All the long vowels but ē are real diphthongs, while most of the apparent diphthongs are improper.

oi (6-1 or a-1) = oy (ô ô-ýỹ) = eoi, boil, boy, bourgeoise. ou (ä-ụ or ä-00) = ow ='eo . out, crowd, Macleod.

.

PECULIAR EQUIVALENTS.
hautboy (au = 7), beau (eau o), sew (ew o).
grew (ew = o = 00), dew (ew = ū), few (ew = ū).
view (iew = ū), ewe = ū, beaufin (eau = i or ).

PUNCTUATION AND DEFINITIONS. The period (.) is used after a statement or a command, and to show that letters are omitted.

The comma (,), semicolon (;), and colon (:) are used between the parts of a sentence to make the meaning plain.

The apostrophe () is used to denote ownership, and to show that letters have been omitted.

The quotation marks (669) are used to denote that the words inclosed by them were spoken exactly as they are printed.

The exclamation point (!) shows surprise, astonishment, or alarm.

The interrogation point (?) is used at the end of a question.

The hyphen (-) connects the syllables of a word, and also the words that form a compound word.

Parentheses () inclose explanations or illustrations of the regular text.

The dash (-) is used to denote an unfinished sentence, a break or sudden change in the sense; to increase the length of a pause, and, instead of stars (**), to show that letters or words are omitted.

1. A name-word (or noun) is the name of anything. (A noun is said to be in the singular number if it means but one, and in the plural number if it means more than one.)

2. An action-word (or verb) is a word that expresses action. 3. A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.

4. A quality-word (or adjective) is any word that tells the quality of any object.

5. A describing-word (or adverb) is a word that tells how, when, why, or where an action is done.

6. Connecting-words (prepositions and conjunctions) are words that connect other words, and show how or why they are joined together.

7. An interjection is a word expressing surprise, alarm, astonishment, or pain.

8. A sentence is the complete expression of a thought in words. (A sentence must always contain at least two words—a noun or pronoun and a verb-expressed or understood, and should always begin with a capital letter.)

9. A question is a sentence used to ask something.
10. A statement is a sentence used to state something.

11. An exclamation is a sentence used to express pain, astonishment, alarm, or surprise.

EXERCISES FOR DRILL ON SOUNDS. Be boys, but be not bad boys. Bravely and blamelessly, before the band of brothers, he bore the bright blue banner blazoned with stars. “Come, countrymen, conquer the coming cohorts, or die doing deeds of dreadful daring." Fast flew the fiend, feeding the fiery flames flashing fearfully forth. The great giant gazed gloomily on the glassy glacier, his haughty head heaved high and his hands held heavenward. How had he hired a horse? King Cole kicked kettles and kites. Low lies the lily lingering in the lane. Man, master, maid, made mad by many mishaps, moved much more mechanically 'mid mud and mire. No, not, none, neat, are not nouns. Only on other oceans Ossian ofttimes ordered obnoxious offerings. Put Peter Pepper's prangly pears in pots and pans. Quite queer and quaint, the queen. Round the rude rock the rugged rascal ran, singing soft, sad, sobbing sounds. To teach tom-tit to talk. Vineyards veil vales with vines.

We want wide ways well wet. Zounds, zealous zouave!

COGNATE LABIALS.

Two sounds are called Cognate sounds when they are made with the organs of speech in the same position ; for example, p, b. As the sounds of all the Italic letters in this exercise are produced with the lips in the same position, they are called lip-letters, or Labials. The vowel sounds, being produced in the open mouth, are called open sounds, or Vocals (Tonics). When the sound of a letter is made in the throat, it is called a Sub-vocal (Sub-tonic). When a breathing (or aspiration) is formed into sound by the organs of the mouth (tongue, teeth, lips, etc.), the sound is called an Aspirate (Atonic).

pig, big-pale, bale-pet, bet-pug, bug-pond, bond-pip, bib-cup, cubWhig, wigwhey, waywhales, Wales-fail, vale—fain, vane-life, live—fife, fivetart, dart-tied, diedtale, dale-tug, dug--tot, dot-hat, hadsat, sadmat, madfisher, vizierthen, thine-bath, bathe—breath, breathe-gas, gaze-mass, maize-hiss, his—take, tag-lake, lay-lock, logluck, lug—bunch, budge—lunch, judge.

COMBINATIONS. Brag, brags, brag'st, bragged, bragg’d'st. Breed, breeds, breed'st, bred, bred'st. Grab, grabs, grab'st, grabbed, grabb’d'st. Bluff, bluffs, bluff'st, bluffed, bluff’d'st. Nibble, nibbles, nibbl’st, nibbled, nibbl’d'st. Draggle, draggles, draggl'st, draggled, draggl'd'st. Straddle, straddles, straddl'st, straddled, straddl’d'st. Frame, frames, fram'st, framed, fram'd'st. Trifle, trifles, trifl'st, trifled, trifl'd'st. Smooth, smooths, smooth'st, smoothed, smooth’d'st. Quake, quakes, quak'st, quaked, quak’d'st. Crackle, crackles, crackl'st, crackled, crackl'd'st. Thrill, thrills, thrill'st, thrilled, thrill’d'st. Plan, plans, plan’st, planned, plann'd'st. Twirl, twirls, twirl'st, twirled, twirl'd’st. Grasp, grasps, grasp'st, grasped, grasp'd'st. Trundle, trundles, trundl’st, trundled, trundl’d'st. Hang, hangs, hang'st, hanged, hang'd'st. Thank, thanks, thank'st, thanked, thank’d'st. Whittle, whittles, whittl'st, whittled, whittl’d'st. Dwarf, dwarfs, dwarf'st, dwarfed, dwarf'd'st. Thwart, thwarts, thwart'st, thwarted, thwarted'st. Judge, judges, judg’st, judged, judg’d’st. Charge, charges, charg'st, charged, charg'd'st. Scorn, scorns, scorn'st, scorned, scorn'd'st. Dart, darts, dart'st, darted, darted'st. Ask, asks, ask'st, asked, ask'd'st. Curb, curbs, curb'st, curbed, curb’d'st. Swerve, swerves, swerv'st, swerved, swery'd'st. Pinch, pinches, pinchest, pinched, pinch'd'st. Adopt, adopts, adopt'st, adopted, adopted'st. Herd, herds, herd'st, herded, herded'st. Arm, arms, arm'st, armed, arm’d'st.

Dazzle, dazzles, dazzl'st, dazzled, dazzl'd'st.
Harp, harps, harp’st, harped, harp'd’st.
Range, ranges, rang'st, ranged, rang'd'st.
Love, loves, lov’st, loved, lov’d'st.
Circle, circles, circl’st, circled, circl’d'st.
Milk, milks, milk'st, milked, milk'd'st.
Help, helps, help'st, helped, help'd'st.
Indulge, indulges, indulg'st, indulged, indulg'd'st.
Lurk, lurks, lurk'st, lurked, lurk'd'st.

His small eyes seemed drowned in his tears.
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.

With all his care,

His two small legs
Could scarcely bear

The weight of two small eggs.
When asked her age, her rage was too great for utterance.
Her heir smooths her hair, but tries to conceal his acts.
She wished him to row her over in her uncle's old boat.

Washington was skilled in war. Who can know the height, depth, length, width, breadth of eternity ?

In a unit there are three thirds, four fourths, five fifths, six sixths, seven sevenths, eight eighths, nine ninths, ten tenths, eleven elevenths, or twelve twelfths.

The beasts straggled through the thickest forests.
See this, mother! It is our chain. Its links are over our

That lasts till night. That last still night.
Amidst the mists, with wildest boasts,
He thrusts his fists against the posts,

And still insists he sees the ghosts. Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle-sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; now, if Theophilus Thistle,

own arms.

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