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No child should be kept for more than a few minutes at a time ep. gaged in mental study.
(9.) Slammering and Defective Articulation. This defect, with care, may be cured ; or rather, when it is first threatened, it may be prevented. Practise the child in letters or artic ulations where a peculiar defect appears.
(10 ) Squinting. Watch this very common weakness; check it in the infant by holding the hand over the eyes till they are shut; and when opened again, if they have not assumed a proper position, repeat the operation. It may have often to be repeated. Careless nurses are very apt to produce squinting in children.
An ingenious and effectual mode of curing squinting has been discovered, and is now practised by surgeons.
(11.) Teething. The first sign of teething is heat in the mouth of the child-felt by the mother during sucking-flow of saliva-biting and grinding the gums. A piece of India rubber is better than coral, ivory, or any hard substance, for rubbing the gums.
When the child is much distressed, have recourse to medical aid.
When the bowels are confined, give without delay a gentle purgaLive, such as castor-oil, manna, magnesia, or senna. The warın bath at ninety-six degrees soothes the child.
A child's mouth should be often examined, even after three years of age. Wayward temper, cough, and even croup, have been traced to cutting a double tooth. Do not hesitate to allow the child's gums to be lanced.
(12.) Exercise- Walking Alone. Very little motion, and that of the gentlest and most careful kind is all the infant should have for a considerable time after birth.
Avoid the upright posture as much as possible.
Watch the first efforts of the child to walk alone, and interfere sather with eve and hand than by exclamations of caution and alarm : these last do much harm.
Avoid sympathizing too strongly with a child when hurt: assist quietly, and show how the accident happened. Children who are angry when hurt, should see that you do not sympathize with their rage, although you do with their sufferings.
Adjure all leading.strings and go-carts, or other artificial means of teaching the child to walk. Never drag the child by one hand, or lift it by either one or both arins.
When the child walks alone, it should not be permitted to over fatigue itself.
The mother should have her eye both on child and its attendant out of doors, and be as much as she can in her chid's company.
(13.) Moral Government. Anticipate and prevent fretfulness and ill-temper, by keeping ebo child in good health, ease, and comfort. Never quiet with giving to eat, or by bribing in any way, still less by opiates.
For the first few months, avoid loud and harsh sounds in the hear. ing of children, or violent lights in their sight: address them in soft tones; do nothing to frighten them; and never jerk or roughly handle them.
Avoid angry words and violence, both to a child and in its presence; Jy which means a naturally violent child may be trained to gentleness.
Moderate any propensity of a child, such as anger, violence, greediness for food, cunning, &c., which appears too active. Show him no example of these.
Let the mother be, and let her select servants such as she wishes the child to be. The youngest child is affected by the conduct of those in whose arms he lives.
Cultivate and express benevolence and cheerfulness; in such an atmosphere, a child must become benevolent and cheerful.
Let a mother feel as she ought, and she will look as she feels. Much of a child's earliest moral training is by looks and gestures.
When necessary, exhibit firmness and authority, always with perfect temper, composure, and self-possession.
Never give the child that which it cries for; and avoid being too ready in answering children's demands, else they become impatient of refusal, and selfish.
When the child is most violent, the mother should be most calm and silent. Out-screaming a screaming child is as useless as it is mischievous. Steady denial of the object screamed for is the best cure for screaming.
In such contests, witnesses should withdraw, and leave mother and child alone. A child is very dy to look round and attract the aid of foreign sympathy in its little rebellions.
Never promise to give when the child leaves off crying. Let the crying be the reason for not giving.
Never strike a child, and never teach it to strike again. Never tell A child to beat or threaten any animal or object. Corporal correction may be avoided by substitutes.
DISEASES OF THE HAIR. NOTHING contributes so much to personal beauty as a good head of hair. Nevertheless, the hair has diseases like other parts of the human frame. Appended will be found an accurate and scientific description of these diseases, from the highest medical authority, with prescriptions that may be implicitly relied on for their alleviation and cure. Every person who begins to find his hair loosen or prematurely turn gray, should read this essay and practise its precepts. It will savs him from being imposed on by quack nostrums, if nothing e-se.
(1.) To remove superfluous Hair. With many persons it is an important question, now hairs in imprope: situtions are to be disposed of. I wish I could answer this question Antisfactorily, for it is one that I have addressed to me very frequently I know of no specific remedy for such a purpose. Substances are sold by the perfumers, called depilatories, which are represented as having the power of removing hair. But the hair is not destroyed by these means, the root and that part of the shaft implanted within the skin still remain, and are ready to shoot up with increased vigor as socin as the depilatory is withdrawn. The effect of the depilatory je the same in this respect as that of a razor, and the latter is unquestion. ably the better remedy. It must not, however, be imagined that de. pilatories are negative remedies, and that if they do no permaneni good, they are at least harmless ; that is not the fact; they are vio ient irritants, and require to be used with the utmost caution. This will be iinmediately seen when I inform my reader that depilatories are chiefly composed of quicklime, soda, and sulphuret of arsenic, al of which substances act by burning up and dissolving the hair. There could be no objection to this process, if it were conducted with na fety to the skin ; but the depilatory requires to be laid on the skin either in the form of powder or paste, and necessarily destroys the scarf-skin at the saine time that it acts on the hair; for the scarf-skin and hair are identical in composition. After all, the safest depilatorv is a pair of tweezers and patience.
(2.) Loosening of the Hair. I will not advert to the loosening of the hair, which frequently oca curs to young persons, or in those of the middle period of life, and which, if neglected, would become real baldness. Such a state as I am now describing is not uncommon in women, and generally terminates, in its mildest form, in excessive loosening of the hair. The case, however, is tar from being the hopeless one which is generally imagined ; and if proper treatment be pursued, the hair will grow afresh, and assume all its pristine strength. A useful practice in men, and those of the opposite sex whose hair is short, is to immerse the head in cold water, morning and night, dry the hair thoroughly, and then brush the scalp, until a warm glow is produced. In women with long hair, this plan is objectionable ; and a better one is to brush the scalp until redness and a warm glow are produced, then dab anong the roots of the hair one or other of the following lotions. If the lotion produce smarting or tenderness, the brush may be laid aside, but if no sensation is occasioned, the brushing should be resumed, and a second application of the lotion made. This treatment should be practised once or twice a day, or at intervals of a few days, according to the state of the scalp; namely, if tender, less; if insensible, more frequently. When the baldness happens in patches, the skin should be well brushed with a soft tooth-brush, dipped in distilled vinegar morning and evening, or dipped in one of the following lotions :
Lotion for promoting the growth of the Hair.
Boiling distilled vinegar, half-a-pint.
muslin for use. If either of these lotions should be found too irritating to the skin, use them in smaller quantity, and less frequently. No. 3 may be diluted with more distilled vinegar. If they have the effect of making the hair harsh and dry, this inconvenience may be removed by the use of oil or pomatum after each application of the lotion. Pomatums for Ine growth of the hair are very inferior to the lotions, and the cele. brated pomatum of Dupuytren is both clumsy and inefficient.
(3.) To remedy premature grayness of the Hair. It must be a matter of common observation, that in those instances n which the pigment presents the deepest hue, blanching most frequently occurs, and grayness is most common; while in persons of light hair and light complexion, blanching is comparatively rare There can be no doubt that the production in this climate of a dark pigment is a greater exertion to the economy than one of a lighter kind; and hence, when the power of the nervous system is reduced, the formation of pigment is one of the first actions which suffers. It is wisely ordained that it should be so, for color of the hair is one of the conditions of existence most easily spared, and it is one also that may well serve as a monitor of human decay. When grayness shows itselt in the hair, it is therefore an indication of want of tone in the hair-producing organs; and if this tone can be restored, the hair would cease to change, and, at the same time, further change would be prevented. The lotions for promating the growth of the hair are remedies of this kind, and I know no better local means for checking grayness. They must be used as recommended ir the preceding pai. agraph.
(4.) On Dying the Hair. I have heard of persons who have been led to adopt this artifico under the supposition that the hair being once dyed will grow forever after " that color. If they had reflected in time that the dye acts
only on the hair above the level of the surface, and that the hair continues to grow of the exceptionable color, so as to require a weekly repetition of a disagreeable process, they would, I think, have hesitated before they had offered themselves as willing slaves to a barbarous practice.
(5.) Altered directwn of the Hair. Altered direction of the hair may be discussed in a few words; the only situation in which the hair is known to give rise to inconvenience by irregularity in the direction of its growth, is upon the margin of the eyelids, where the lashes sometimes grow inward, and, by pressing against the front of the eyeball, occasion irritation, and even inflammation. When such a state as this occurs, the erring hair must be removed by means of a pair of fine tweezers, and the inflammation afterwards subdued by cooling and slightly astringent lotions
(6.) Ringworm. In the treatment of ringworm, the first point for attention is rig. orous cleanliness; the head should be washed with a profusion of soap, and the hair carefully combed, to remove all loosened hairs, and overy particle of crust. When this has been done, the whole head, and particularly the disordered parts, should be well rubbed with the following lotion:
Rose-water, six ounces.-Mix well It must be recollected that the yellow matter is not confined to the surface alone, but extends deeply into the hair-tubes; and the friction of the diseased parts with the finger, when well wetted with the lotion, is necessary to introduce the latter into the hair-tubes. Unless attention be paid to this observation, the lotion might be used without ever reaching the seat of the disorder, and of course without avail in respect of the cure of the disease. Another point to be noticed is the necessity of carrying the principle of cleanliness to the sponges, combs, and towels, used by the patient. The sponge and combs should be dipped in a weak solution of chloride of lime, and a clean towol employed at each washing. Unless these precautions he adopted, the sponge, the comb, the brush, the towel, may each convey the seeds of the vegetable growth, and consequently the disease, back to the scalp.
I have said nothing about shaving the head in ringworm, because in private life I know it to be quite unnecessary.