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of c, d. You may now, at preasure, slice from either side. As the fat lies deeper on the left, those who like fat, as most venison eaters do, may be helped to the best flavored and fattest slices on the left of the line a d.
Ham may be carved three different ways. Usually, commencing by long, delicate pieces, cut to the bone through the thick fat, in the line a, b. A second way is, to cut a small round hole on the top, as at c, taking thin, circular pieces. The most saving orav is on begin at the knuckle.
147.) A Fowl.
It will be more convenient carving this to take it on your plate, re: placing the joints, as separated, neatly on the dish. Place the fork in he middle of the breast, and remove the wing in the direction of a, b, separating the joint at a, and lifting up the pinion with the fork, and drawing the entire wing towards the leg. This drawing will separate the fleshy part more naturally than cutting. Cut between the leg and the body at c, to the joint b. By giving the blade a sudden turn, the joint will break. Repeat the same operation for the other wing and seg. Next, take off the merry-thought by drawing the knife acrose he breast and turning the joint back; and then remove the two neck bones. Divide the breast from the back, by cutting through all the ribs, close to the breast. Turn the back up ; half between the extreme ends press the point of the knife, and on raising the rump end the bone will part. Take off the sidesmen, having turned the rump from you :-and done.
The wings should be made as handsome as possible These, with the breast, are the most delicate parts of the fowl; the legs are more juicy.
(18.) A Goose.
With the neck end toward you, to take off the wing, put the furb into the small end of the pinion, and press it close to the body, dividing the joint at a, and carrying the knife along as far as b. Take off the leg by an incision from b to c, and separate the drumstick. Part the wing and leg from the other side, and between the line 1 and 2, cut long slices from each side of the breast. The apron must be removed by cutting from d to e, by c, to get at the stuffing. The merry-thought being removed, the neck bones and all other parts are to be divided as in a fowl. A Duck
(19.) Turkey. To carve, without withdrawing the fork, place your fork firmly in the lower part of the breast, so as to have the turkey at perfect com. mand. It is not difficult to complete the entire carving of this fow] without extracting the fork till done—the whole back, of course, making one joint. Proceed to remove the wing; the leg; another wing and leg. (This may be done either before or after slicing the breast). Next, remove the merry-thought, the neck bones, the neck itself; then, cutting through the ribs, the job is done.
(20.) Partridge. Carved as a fowl. Wings, breast, and merry-thought, are the best parts. The two latter not often divided. The wing the best joint: the tip the very
(21.) Pigeons. Halve them, dividing lengthwise ; or, so as to make the breast and wings form one division. The lower division generally preferred.
Woodcocks, Grouse, foc., are carved like fowls, if not too small; when they must be cut in quarters. Snipes should only be halved.
(22.) Tongue. Cut perpendicular thin slices, commencing a little nearer the roor than the tip. The fat lies underside, at the root.
(23.) Leg of Pork—[See Ham.] The stuffing in a roast leg, will be found under the skin, at the thick end.
General Directions. The seat for the carver should be somewhat elevated above the ather chairs: it is extremely ungraceful to carve standing, and it ie arely done by any person accustomed to the businesh. Carving de.
pends more on skill than on strength. We have seen very small women carve admirably sitting down; and very tall men who know not how to cut a piece of beef-steak without rising on their feet to do it.
The carving-knife should be very skarp, and not heavy; and it should be held firmly in the hand : also the dish should be not too far from the carver. It is customary to help the fish with a fish-trowel and not with a knife. The middle part of a fish is generally considered the best. In helping it, avoid breaking the flakes, as that wik give it a mangled appearance.
In helping any one to gravy, or to melted butter, do not pour it over their meat, fowl, or fish, but put it to one side, on a vacant part of the plate, that they may use just as much of it as they like. În filling a plate, never heap one thing on another.
In helping vegetables, do not plunge the spoon down to the bottom of the dish, in case they should not have been perfectly well drained, and the water should have settled there.
ON WARTS AND CORNS, AND HOW TO CURE
THEM. SUCH persons (and who have not) as have been troubled with these afflicting annoyances, will no doubt feel gratified to see a scientific exposition of the nature of their enemy, and of the proper and ready means of exterminating him. The essay which follows is from one of our most enlightened surgeons, and his prescriptions may be inplicitly relied on.
(1.) How Warts are formed. The papilla of the sensitive skin are covered and protected by the scarf-skin, and the thickness of the scarf-skin bears an exact relation to the size of the papillæ. It may therefore be inferred, that if the papillæ grow to an extraordinary size, they, in their turn, will occasion the production of a proportionate quantity of scarf-skin, which will form a rounded prominence on the surface of the body. Such is the reality, and the little prominence so produced is termed a wart. The wart may be regarded as the effect of an excitation acting generally from within ; but instances are not wanting, in medicine, to prove that they may also be dependent on an obvious external cause of irri. tation.
(2.) On the formation of Corns. Whenever a portion of the skin is subjected to long-continned and unequal pressure, the papillæ of the sensitive skin are stimulated, and grow to an unusual size. Associated with this increase of growth of the papillæ, is the increased thickness of the scarf-skin; and this latter being the outward and perceptible effect, is denominated, according to its size, either “callosity” or “ corn.” When the pressure, and con
sequenty the thickening of the scarf-skin, is distributed over an exensive surface, the state is properly a callosity. Where it is limited, occupying, for example, the prominence of a joint, and where, in consequence of this limitation, the effects produced are more severe, the case is one of corn. Callosities may occur on any part of the body where much pressure exists ; on the shoulder, for instance, in persons who are in the habit of carrying burdens ; on the hands in certain crafts ; on the elbows and knees, and on different parts of the body. Corns are usually limited to the feet, and are, in fact, a more severe degree of callosity. The papillæ of the central part of the corn are enlarged to such an extent as to be equal in magnitude to those of a wart. In this state, the papillæ take on the action of producing separate sheaths of scarf-skin in the same manner as warts, and these sheaths, seen on the cut surface of a corn, give the idea of fibres, which popular ignorance magnifies into roots. A corn extracted by its roots is therefore expected never to grow again, because trees, which have roots, when torn up from the ground never re-appear. But the fact is, that these so-called roots are, in reality, branches, and they may be cut off, and torn off, and twisted off
, as long as the possessor lives, without curing the corn, unless the cause, namely, the pressure and friction, be removed. When the cause is taken away, the papillæ return by degrees to their pristine bulk, and the corn dis. appears.
It will be apparent to every one, that if a shoe of a certain size be worn, and if this shoe, by its too small dimensions, and consequent pressure, occasion a corn, the corn, by increasing the size of the injured part of the foot, will necessarily increase the pressure on the already irritated skin. Pain and infiammation follow this injury, and the least mischief that can happen is the enlarged growth of the papillæ, more blood than natural being now habitually sent to them. But, on a particular day, when vanity triumphs over comfort, and the
light fantastic toe” has been more than usually wronged, blood bursts from the pores of the sensitive skin, and the next morning, when the corn is inspected, it has the character of a bruise. The doctor is sent for, a poultice is put on, rest enjoined, and in a few days all is again well; too well, in fact, to allow experience even a whisper. A gay party again does slaughter on the unfortunate corn, but similar means restore it as before. Each section of a corn which has been thus maltreated is precisely that of the geological section of a stratified mountain, stratum following stratum, of various hues, from a delicate yellow to the deep black of dried blood.
(3.) Of Soft Corns. The soft corn occurs between the toes, and is produced in the san.e manner as the common corn; but in consequence of the moisture ex. isting in this situation, the thickened scarf-skin becomes saturated, and remains permanently soft. The soft corn, again, rarely becomes couvex outwardly, but presses severely on the deep textures, and gives little indication, as regards size, of the torment which it occasions. It is no uncommon thing to find a blister formed under the soft com
and its fluid oozing through a small, round aperture in the centre of the latter. Sometimes, also, the soft corn is followed by a deep and painful sore, and inflammation of the foot; and on one occasion ! examined a soft corn which had eaten into the bones, and produced inflammation of a joint. Diseased bone originating in soft corns is no unfrequent occurrence.
(4.) To Cure Warts. The treatment of warts is to pare the hard and dry skin from their tops, and then touch them with the smallest drop of strong acetic acid, taking care that the acid does not run off the wart upon the neighbor. ing skin, for if it do, it will occasion inflammation and much pain. If this practice be continued once or twice daily, with regularily, paring the surface of the wart occasionally, when it gets hard and dry, the wart may soon be effectually cured.
(5.) Sure method of Curing Corns. 'The same treatment will keep corns under, in spite of pressure; but there is a knack in paring them which I will now explain. The end to be gained in cutting a corn is to take off the pressurt of the shoe from the tender papillæ of the sensitive skin; and to effect this object, the summit of the corn must be cut in such a manner as to excavate it, the edges being left to act as a bolster, and still further protect the central part, where the longest, and consequently the most sensitive papillæ are found. The professional chiropodist effects this object very adroitly; he generally works around the centre, and takes out the fibrous portion in a single piece. He digs, as he says, for the root. There is another way of disposing of a corn, which I have beer. in the habit of recommending to my friends ; it is effectual, and obviates the necessity for the use of the knife. Have some common stick. ing-plaster spread on buff leather ; cut a piece sufficiently large to cover the corn and skin around, and have a hole punched in the middle, of exactly the size of the summit of the corn. Now take some common soda of the oil shops, and make it into a paste, with about half its bulk of soap; till the hole in the plaster with this paste, and cover it up with a piece of sticking-plaster. Let this be done at bedtime, and in the morning remove the plaster, and wash the corn with warm water. If this operation be repeated every second, third, or fourth day for a short time, the corn will be removed. The only precaution requiring to be used is to avoid causing pain; and so long as any tenderness occasioned by the remedy lasts, it must be repeated. When the corn is reduced within reasonable hounds by either of the above modes, or when it is only threatening, and þas not yet risen to the height of being a sore annoyance, the best of all remedies is a piece of soft buff leather, spread with soap-plaster, and pierced in the centre with a hole of exactly the size of the summit of the corn. If it can be procured, a better substance still for spreading the plaster upon is “amadou,” or “German tinder, commonly used for lighting cigars, and kept by the tobacconists. This substance is softer than leather, and does not become hard and ruck up, as the latter does. aftes