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Sitting-Baths. The dimensions of the vessel should be about the following. hight of the pedestal, four to six incbes; the inner depth of the vessel from pine to ten inches; height of the back, six to eight inches; whole breadth of the vessel, twenty-two to twenty-four inches. These baths are made of woo or tin. The vessel in which the bath is taken should be filled with water, until it reaches the navel of the patient, when in the sitting posture. In especial cases, a greater or less height of water may be requisite During the bath, the upper part of the body is to remain covered, the shirt shoula be turned up, and the legs and feet are to be enveloped in a woolen coverlet. Whilst the person is in the bath, he may rub the abdomen with a woolen cloth, to increase the action of the skin, and to facilitate the passage of flatulent collections. The action of sitting-baths varies. Where they are desired to have a tonic action, the temperature should be from 50 to 60 degrees of Fah., and they should be continued from ten to fifteen minutes. To act as a stimulant, and to produce more powerful reaction, they must de continued for the same length of time; but their temperature must not exceed 40 to 45 degrees of Fah.
Where the sitting-baths are to act as derivatives, determinnig the blood from parts which suffer from congestion, the patient must remain twenty minutes to half an bour in the bath. It is sometimes neces. bary, during the bath, to adapt cold applications to the parts affected; this is the more necessary, if the congestion increase during the bath.
If the sitting-baths be intended to produce a solvent effect, a moderate temperature of 60 to 70 degrees of Fah., and rather a lengthened continuation of them, say from half an hour to an hour or more, will be required. It is advisable, that patients suffering from obstructions or hæmorrhoids should sit in deeper water ; it may, in this case, ex. lend beyond the umbilicus.
These baths should not, as a rule, be taken immediately after eating, as they will be liable to derange the digestion, and produce irregularities in the evacuations. The best time is an hour before dinner, or before going to bed. In the latter case they offer the advantage of securing a night's rest to the patient. Generally speaking, two sitUng-baths a day will suffice; in particular cases, especially if not persevered in for a long time, five to six-may be taken during the day: Exercise in the open air is to be strictly recommended both before and after these baths.
Leg-Bath. The thighs and legs, when afflicted with ulcers, ring-worms, wounds. or fixed rheumatic pains, ought to be put into a bath so as to cover the parts afflicted. The object of these baths is for them to act as stimuiants. They may be taken for an hour, and sometimes longer : they always determine abscesses, and where they already exist, they cause an abundant suppuration. They are also applicable to app cher mom bons aflicted in a like inanner.
Shower - Bath. In this kind of bath very weakly or irritable people may begin with Lepid water, and they will soon accustom themselves to cold, as these. batns produce a very grateful impression. Those who cannot obtain a proper machine may stand in an empty bathing vat, or other vessel, sufficiently large, whilst an assistant standing on a chair pours water over them froin a common watering-pot, which answer the purpose perfec:!y.
The action of these baths consists in a general shock to the nervous system, and to the skin; in consequence of which, the secretion and excretion is promoted, and the whole economy benefited. As the action of shower-baths is closely allied to that of ablutions, they are justly preferred to these by inany people, because their effect is milder and more grateful, and the water, in the form of rain_ is brought in contact with all parts of the body at the same time. They are to be recommended in diseases requiring repeated sweatings for their cure; of patients who, in consequence of congestions, and diseases of the chest, cannot bear the full baths after the process of sweating. These baths deserve recommendation to families. Children may be best accustomed to cold water in these baths where the temperature can at tirst be raised, and then gradually decreased.
The Douche. This description of bath is prepared with the aid of mechanical con. trivances, by means of wbich a stream of water is made to fall upon the body with more or less force. In some respects it is more advantageous to make use of a natural fall of water for this purpose; we can then conduct the water simply into a channel, giving it a fall of twelve to twenty feet, and to the stream a calibre of half an inch to five înches. Douche rooms, admitting by their construction of the access of air from above, produce an agreeable sensation, especially in summer, and are very beneficial in their action. After the first time of using these baths, the dreadful ideas which many patients preconceive of them quickly disappear.
The chief consideration in the use of the douche should be to guard against applying it to the body when quite cold, or when in a state of perspiration after active exercise. The patient, after undressing in a moderate temperature, steps below the falling stream, attempting to receive it in the palms of his hands, that the whole force and volume of the water may not all upon his body immediately, which is not, to say the least, at all times agreeable. After having thus prepared himself for the more potent shock, he must expose himself to the full stream, and, in such a manner, that the whole column of water falls chiefly on the neck and spine. From time to time he must equally expose the other members of the body to the stream; but the affected parts chiefly, and for a greater length of time. He should be careful not to allow the stream to fall perpendicularly on the head, chest, or the region of the viver, especially if these parts be weak or affected with disease.
The duration of the douche must be regulated by the constitution of
the patient, and the effect we wish to produce; it should never be con tinued for less than one, nor inore than twelve minutes.
It is only to be taken fasting, or immediately after sweating, and never on a full stomach, nor oftener than once or twice daily. It is, moreover, not advisable to drink cold water immediately after the douche, because a rapid generation of heat is thus impeded, and in. flammation of the stomach and bowels might be caused.
THE ART OF CONVERSATION. The art of conversation, so essential to every one who wishes to mingle ir society, can only be perfected by frequent intercourse with the polite ; yet great assistance may be derived by an intelligent person from the observations below, and no important blunders can possi. bly be made if the rules here given be attended to.
Under favorable circumstances, and among persons who know how lo train a conversation, there are few if any amusements more grateful to the human mind. Every one knows something which he is willing to tell, and which any other that he is in company with wishes to know, or which, if known to him, would be amusing or useful.
To be a skillful conversationist, one's eyes and ears should be busy, nothing should escape his observation. His memory should be a good one, and he should have a good-natured willingness to please and to be pleased.
It follows that all matter of offence in conversation should be avoid. ed. The self-love of others is to be respected. Therefore, no one is wlerated who makes himself the subject of his own commendation, nor who disregards the feelings of those whom he addresses.
There is as much demand for politeness and civility in conversation us in any other department of social intercourse. One who rudely interrupts another, does much the same thing as though he should, when walking with another, impertinently thrust himself before his companion, and stops his progress.
It was one of the maxims of a French philosopher, that “in conversation, confidence has a greater share than wit.” The maxim is erroneous, although it is true that a fashionable fool may attain to the small talk of which much of the conversation of society is composed, and his glib confidence may so far impose upon the superficial as to make this pass for wit; but it will not be received as such by that portion of society whose esteem is desirable. Good sense, sound and varied information, are as necessary as confidence, to enable a man to converse well.
In addition, then, to the ordinary routine of education, make your self acquainted with the passing circumstances of the day-its politics, its parties, its amusements, its foibles, its customs, its literature. and at the present time, I must alsn say its science. Some of these suojects may be the parent of much gossip and scandal; still, a mar moving in society as a gentleman, must be ignorant of nothing which relates thereto, or if he is, he must not appear to be.
Avoid a loud tone, particu arly if speaking to ladies. By observing men of the world, you will perceive that their voices, as it were, in. coluntarily, assume a softness as they address the sex; this is one of the most obvious proofs of an intimacy with good society.
Never attempt to occupy the attention of a company for a long time; unless your conversation be very brilliant, it must become tiresome.
Never tell long stories, or retail well-known anecdotes.
Be not partial to theorizing, or your conversation will assume the style of speech-making, which is intolerable.
Badinage is pleasant, but it may be dangerous; stupid people may imagine you are ridiculing them, and the stupid are the most assidnous enemies.
Abjure punning; it has been aptly designated “ the wit of fools.” A man of talent rarely condescends to be an habitual punster; a gentleman, never. Punning is a sort of pot-house wit, which is quite incompatible with good manners. Be not over anxious to be considered a wit ; recollect that, except in the society of wits, the wit of the company is likely to become the butt of the company.
It is a common error, that of adapting your conversation to the occupation of the persons with whom you are conversing, and to soine persons it is exceedingly offensive. Thus, introducing the subject of theology to a clergyman-of law to a barrister, &c. &c., is in fact saying, “ I have chosen the subject with which you are best acquainted-all are alike to me.” This is an assumption of superiority which is highly indecorous, and will ultimately insure punishment. A inan of the world might not be offended, but he would instantly attribute the inadvertence to ignorance; indeed, it generally arises from a de. sire to avoid the awkwardness of silence, and is a bungling way of throwing on another the onus of sustaining the conversation, and of confessing your own incompetence; but where one person will give you the benefit of this apology, a dozen will consider you impertinent.
A tattler is a most contemptible character, uniting in person either excessive ignorance, folly, and vanity, or the extremes of meanness, mischief, and malignity.
Women ordinarily slander more from vanity than vice-men, from jealousy than malignity.
Without intending mischief, many persons do much, by repeating conversations from one house to another. This gossiping is all but as injurious as scandal; for as you can never represent the exact circumstances under which a fact may have been related, your version may give a totally different meaning to that which was intended by the original speaker; as observation proves that, in relating an anecdote or conversation, we give our impression of the meaning of the speaker, not his words: thus a misconception of our own may produce infinite mischief.
A man should never permit himself to lose his temper in society, nor show that he has taken offence at any supposed slight --it plece. him in a disadvantageous position-betraying an absence of self respect, or at the least of self-position.
If a “puppy" adopt a disagreeable tone of voice, or offensive nian ner toward you, never resent it at the time, and, above all, do not adopt the same style in your conversation with him; appear not to notice it, and generally it will be discontinued, as it will be seen that it has failed in its object, besides which--you save your temper.
Avoid a loud tone of voice in conversation, or a “ horse laugh :" buth are exceedingly vulgar; and if practised, strangers may think that you have been cad” to an omnibus. There is a slightly subdued patrician tone of voice, which we fear can only be acquired in good society. Be cautious also how you take the lead in conversation, unless it be forced upon you, lest people reiterate the remark made on a certain occasion upon that “ Brummagem” Johnson, Dr. Parr—that "he was like a great loe in society; the most ignoble part of the body, yel ever thrust foremost."
Be very careful how you “show off” in strange company, unless you be thoroughly conversant with your subject, as you are never sure of the person next to whom you may be seated.
Lounging on sofas, or reclining in chairs, or leaning back in a chair when in society, as if in the privacy of one's own dressing room or study, is always considered indecorous; but in the presence of ladies, is deemed extremely vulgar.
Mothers should be on their guard not to repeat nursery anecdotes or bon-mols, as, however interesting to themselves, they are seldom so to others. Long stories should always be avoided, as, however well lold, they interrupt general conversation, and leave the impression that the narrator thought the circle dull, and consequently endeavored to amuse it.
Never use the term "genteel.” Do not speak of “genteel people ;" it is a low estimate of good breeding, used only by vulgar persons, and from their lips implies that union of finery, flippancy and affectation, uften found in those but one remove from the essentially vulgar. Substitute “ well bred persons,” « manners of a gentlevoman,' or of “ a gentleman," instead.
Never use the initial of a person's name to designate him; as * Mr. P.," " Mrs. C.,"“ Miss W.,” &c. Nothing is more abominable than to hear a woman speak of her husband as “Mr. B.”
It is allowable, in some cases, to conceal our sentiments; but we ought never to do so for the purpose of deceiving others. Make it a rule never to give utterance to a falsehood: in all circumstances, and whatever be the consequences, adhere to truth.
It is not considered good taste for a lady to say “yes, Sir," and " ix, Sir," to a gentleman, or frequently to introduce the word Sir at the end of her sentences, uniess she desires to be exceedingly reserved toward the person with whom she is conversing.
It is not contrary to good breeding to laugh in company, and even to langh heartily, when there is anything amusing going on; this is nothing more than being sociable. To remain prim and precis x uch an occasion, is sheer affectation.