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Πληθὺν δ ̓ οὐκ ἂν μυθήσομαι οὐδ ̓ ὀνομήνω,
Εἰ μὴ Ὀλυμπιάδες Μοῦσαι, Διός αιγιόχοιο
Θυγατέρες, μνησαία-

And Virgil, Æn. vii.

Et meministis enim, divæ, et memorare potestis: Ad nos vix tenuis famæ perlabitur aura. But our poet had yet another reason for putting this task upon the muse, that, all besides being asleep, she only could relate what passed.-Scribl.

Ver. 624. The venal quiet, and, &c.] It were a problem worthy the solution of Mr. Ralph and his patron, who had lights that we know nothing of-which required the greatest effort of our goddess's power, to intrance the dull, or to quiet the venal. For though the venal may be more unruly than the dull. yet, on the other hand, it demands a much greater expense of her virtue to intrance than barely to quiet.-Scribl.


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Ver. 643. in the former edit. it stood thus:

Philosophy, that reach'd the Heavens before, Shrinks to her hidden cause, and is no more. And this was intended as a censure of the Newto nian philosophy. For the poet had been misled by the prejudices of foreigners, as if that philosophy had recurred to the occult qualities of Ari'stotle. This was the idea he received of it from a man educate;! much abroad, who had read every thing, but every thing superficially. Had his excellent friend Dr. A. been consulted in this matter, it is certain that so unjust a reflection had never discredited so noble a satire. binted to him how he had been imposed upon, he changed the lines with great pleasure into a comnius, and a satire on the folly by which he the pliment (as they now stand) on that divine ge

poet himself had been misled.


When I

Ver. 641. Truth to her old cavern fled.] Alluding to the saying of Democritus, that "Truth lay at the bottom of a deep well, from whence he had drawn her:" though Butler says, "He first put her in, before he drew her out."

in the present; of which it would be endless to recount the particulars. However, amidst the extinction of all other lights, she is said only to withdraw hers! as hers alone in its own nature is unextinguishable and eternal.

Ver. 649. Religion blushing veils her sacred fires,] Blushing as well at the memory of the past overflow of Dulness, when the barbarous learning of so many ages was wholly employed in corrupting the simplicity, and defiling the purity of reVer. 629. She comes! she comes! &c.] Hereligion, as at the view of these her false supports the Muse, like Jove's eagle, after a sudden stoop at ignoble game, soareth again to the skies. prophecy hath ever been one of the chief provinces of poesy, our poet here foretells from what we feel, what we are to fear; and in the style of other prophets, bath used the future tense for the preterit: since what he says shall be, is already to be seen, in the writings of some even of our most adored authors, in divinity, philosophy, physics, metaphysics, &c. who are too good indeed to be named in such company.

Ibid. The sable throne behold] The sable thrones of Night and Chaos, here represented as advancing to extinguish the light of the sciences, in the first place, blot out the colours of fancy, and damp the fire of wit, before they proceed to their work.

Ver. 650, And unawares morality expires.] It appears from hence that our poet was of very different sentiments from the author of the Characteristics, who has written a formal treatise on virtue, to prove it not only real but durable, without the support of religion. The word unawares alludes to the confidence of those men, who suppose that morality would flourish best without it, and consequently to the surprise such would be in (if any such these are) who indeed love virtue, yet do all they can to root out the religion of their country.




WHEREAS certain haberdashers of points and particles, being instigated by the spirit of pride, and assuming to themselves the name of critics and restorers, have taken upon them to adulterate the common and current sense of our glorious ancestors, poets of this realm, by clipping, coining, defacing the images, mixing their own base alloy, or otherwise falsifying the same; which they publish, utter, and vend as genuine: The said haberdashers having no right thereto, as neither heirs, executors, administrators, assigns, or in any sort related to such poets, to all or any of them: Now, we having carefully revised this our Dunciad', beginning with the words "The mighty Mother," and ending with the words "buries all," containing the entire sum of one thousand seven hundred and fifty-four verses, declare every word, figure, point, and comma of this impression to be authentic: And do therefore strictly enjoin and forbid any person or persons whatsoever, to erase, reverse, put between hooks, or by any other means, directly or indirectly, change or exhort all our brethren to follow this our example, mangle any of them. And we do hereby earnestly which we heartily wish our great predecessors had heretofore set, as a remedy and prevention of all such abuses. Provided always, that nothing in this declaration shall be construed to limit the lawful and undoubted right of every subject of this realm, to judge, censure, or condemn, in the whole or in part, any poem or poet whatso


Given under our hands at London, this third day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred thirty and two.

Declarat' cor' me, John Barber, mayor.



Read thus confidently, instead of "beginning with the word books, and ending with the word flies," as formerly it stood: Read also, taining the entire sum of one thousand seven hundred and fifty-four verses," instead of "one thousand and twelve lines;" such being the initial and final words, and such the true and entire contents of this poem.

Thou art to know, reader' that the first edition thereof, like that of Milton, was never seen by the author (though living and not blind). The editor himself confessed as much in his preface: and no two poems were ever published in so arbitrary a manner. The editor of this had as boldly suppressed whole passages, yea the entire last book, as the editor of Paradise Lost added and augmented. Milton himself gave but ten books, his editor twelve; this author gave four books, his editor only three. But we have happily done justice to both; and presume we shall live, in this our last labour, as long as in any of our others.




CIMO, 1727.

Ir will be found a true observation, though some-
what surprising, that when any scandal is vented
against a man of the highest distinction and cha-
racter, either in the state or literature, the public
in general afford it a most quiet reception: and
the larger part accept it as favourably as if it were
some kindness done to themselves: whereas if a
known scoundrel or blockhead but chanced to be
touched upon, a whole legion is up in arms, and
it becomes the common cause of all scriblers, book-
sellers, and printers whatsoever.

THE PUBLISHER' to the reader.


The publisher] Who he was is uncertain; but Edward Ward tells us, in his preface to Durgen, "that most judges are of opinion this preface is not of English extraction, but Hibernian," &c. He means it was written by Dr. Swift, who, wheMr. Pope (for reasons specified in the preface to ther publisher or not, may be said in a sort to be author of the poem. For when he, together with their Miscellanies) determined to own the most trifling pieces in which they had any hand, and to destroy all that remained in their power; the first sketch of this poem was snatched from the fire by Dr. Swift, who persuaded his friend to proceed in it, and to him it was therefore inscribed. But the occasion of printing it was as follows:

There was published in those Miscellanies, a Treatise of the Bathos, or Art of Sinking in Poetry, in which was a chapter, where the species of bad writers were ranged in classes, and initial letters of names prefixed, for the most part at random. But such was the number of poets eminent in that art, that some one or other took every letter to himself. All fell into so violent a fury, that for half a year, or more, the common news-papers (in most of which they had some property, as being hired writers) were filled with the most abusive falsehoods and scurrilities they could possibly devise; a liberty no ways to be wondered at in those people, and in those papers, that, for many years, during the uncontrolled license of the press, had aspersed almost all the great characters of the age; and this with impunity, their own persons and names being utterly secret and obscure. This gave Mr. Pope the thought, that he had now some opportunity of doing good, by detecting and dragging into light these common enemies of mankind; since to invalidate this universal slander, it sufficed to show what contemptible men were the authors of it." He was not without hopes, that by manifesting the dulness of those who had only malice to recommend them; either the booksellers would not find their account in employing them, or the men themselves, when discovered, want courage to proceed in so unlawful an occupation. This it was that gave birth to the Dunciad; and he

Not to search too deeply into the reason hereof, I will only observe as a fact, that every week for these two months past, the town has been per secuted with pamphlets, advertisements, letters, and weekly essays, not only against the wit and writings, but against the character and person of Mr. Pope. And that of all those men who have received pleasure from his works, which by modest computation may be about a hundred thousand in these kingdoms of England and Ireland (not to mention Jersey, Guernsey, the Orcades, those in the new world, and foreigners who have translated him into their languages); of all this number not a man hath stood up to say one word in his defence.

The only exception is the author' of the following poem, who doubtless had either a better insight into the grounds of this clamour, or a better opinion of Mr. Pope's integrity, joined with a greater personal love for him, than any other of his numerous friends and admirers.

Farther, that he was in his peculiar intimacy, appears from the knowledge he manifests of the most private authors of all the anonymous pieces against him, and from his having in this poem attacked no man living, who had not before printed, or published some scandal against this gentleman.

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pity) there is certainly nothing in his style and manner of writing', which can distinguish or discover him: For if it bears any resemblance to that of Mr. Pope, it is not improbable but it might be done on purpose, with a view to have it pass for his. But by the frequency of his allusions to Virgil, and a laboured (not to say affected) shortness in imitation of him, I should think him more an admirer of the Roman poet than of the Grecian, and in that not of the same taste with his friend.

I have been well informed, that this work was the labour of full six years of his life, and that he wholly retired himself from all the avocations and pleasures of the world, to attend diligently to its correction and perfection; and six years more he intended to bestow upon it, as would seem by this verse of Statius, which was cited at the head of his manuscript:

O mihi bissenos multum vigilata per annos,

Hence also we learn the true title of the poem : Homer the Iliad, of Virgil the Eneid, of Camoens which with the same certainty as we call that of the Lusiad, we may pronounce, could have been, and can be, no other than


It is styled heroic, as being doubly so; not only with respect to its nature, which according to the the moderns, is critically such; but also with rebest rules of the ancients, and strictest ideas of

How I came possest of it, is no concern to the reader: but it would have been a wrong to him had I detained the publication; since those names which are its chief ornaments die off daily so fast, as must render it too soon unintelligible. If it provoke the author to give us a more perfect edi-gard to the heroical disposition and high courage of the writer, who dared to stir up such a formition, I have my end. tals. dable, irritable, and implacable race of mor

Who he is I cannot say, and (which is a great

thought it an happiness, that by the late flood of slander on himself, he had acquired such a peculiar right ever their names as was necessary to his design.

1 Pamphlets, advertisements, &c.] See the List of those anonymous papers, with their dates and authors annexed, inserted before the poem.

2 About a hundred thousand] It is surprizing with what stupidity this preface, which is almost a continued irony, was taken by those authors. All such passages as these were understood by Carll, Cook, Cibber, and others, to be serious. Hear the laureate (Letter to Mr. Pope, p. 9.) "Though I grant the Dunciad a better poem of its kind than ever was writ; yet, when I read it with those vain-glorious encumbrances of Notes and Remarks upon it, &c.-it is amazing, that you, who have writ with such masterly spirit upon the ruling passion, should be so blind a slave to your own, as not to see how far a low avarice of praise," &c. (taking it for granted that the notes of Scriblerus and others, were the author's own.)

3 The author of the following poem, &c.] A very plain irony, speaking of Mr. Pope himself.

The publisher in these words went a little too far; but it is certain, whatever names the reader finds that are unknown to him, are of such; and the exception is only of two or three, whose dulness, impudent scurrility, or self-conceit, all man kind agreed to have justly entitled them to a place in the Dunciad.

There may arise some obscurity in chronology from the names in the poein, by the inevitable removal of some authors, and insertion of others in their niches. For whoever will consider the unity of the whole design, will be sensible, that the poem was not made for these authors, but these

'There is certainly nothing in his style, &c.] This irony had small effect in concealing the author. The Dunciad, imperfect as it was, had not been published two days, but the whole town gave it to Mr. Pope.

The labour of full six years, &c.] This also was honestly and seriously believed by divers J. Ralph, pref. to gentlemen of the Dunciad. Sawney. "We are told it was the labour of six years, with the utmost assiduity and application: It is no great compliment to the author's sense, to have employed so large a part of his life, &c." So also Ward, pref to Durgen, "The Dunciad, as the publisher very wisely confesses, cost the author six years retirement from all the pleasures of life; though it is somewhat difficult to conceive, from either its bulk or beauty, that it could be so long in batching, &c. But the length of time and closeness of application were mentioned, to prepossess the reader with a good opinion of it."

They just as well understood what Scriblerus said of the poem.

The prefacer to Curll's Key, p. 3. took this word to be really in Statius: By a quibble on the word Duncia, the Dunciad is formed." Mr. Ward alse follows him in the same opinion.

uthors for the poem. I should judge that they were clapped in as they rose, fresh, and fresh, and changed from day to day; in like manner as when the old boughs wither, we thrust new ones into a chimney.

I would not have the reader too much troubled, or anxious, if he cannot decypher them: since when he shall have found them out, he will probably know no more of the persons than before.

The Battle of Poets, an heroic poem. By Tho. Cooke, printed for J. Roberts. Folio, 1725. Memoirs of Lilliput. Anon. [Eliz. Haywood] octavo, printed in 1727.

An Essay on Criticism, in prose. By the author of the Critical History of England [J. Oldinixon} octavo, printed 1728.

Gulliveriana and Alexandriana; with an ample preface and critique on Swift and Pope's Miscellanies. By Jonathan Smedley, printed by J. Roberts, octavo, 1728.

Characters of the Times; or an account of the

Yet we judged it better to preserve them as they are, than to change them for fictitious names; by which the satire would only be multi-writings, characters, &c. of several gentlemen liplied, and applied to many instead of one. Had belled, by S― and P-, in a late Miscellany, octavo, the hero, for instance, been called Codrus, how 1728. many would have affirmed him to have been Mr. T. Mr. E. Sir R. B. &c. But now all that unjust scandal is saved by calling him by a name, which by good luck happens to be that of a real person.

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REFLECTIONS critical and satirical on a late
Rhapsody, called, An Essay on Criticism. By
Mr. Dennis, printed by B. Lintot, price 6d.

A new Rehearsal, or Bays the younger: containing an Examen of Mr. Rowe's plays, and a word or two on Mr. Pope's Rape of the Lock, Anon. [by Charles Gildon] printed for J. Roberts, 1714. price 1s.

Homerides, or a Letter to Mr. Pope, occasioned by his intended translation of Homer. By Sir Iliad Doggrel. [Tho. Burnet and G. Ducket esquires] printed for W. Wilkins, 1715, price


Æsop at the Bear-garden; a Vision, in imitation of the Temple of Fame, by Mr. Preston. Sold by John Morphew, 1715, price 6d.

The Catholic Poet, or Protestant Barnaby's Sorrowful Lamentation; a Ballad about Homer's Iliad. By Mrs. Centlivre and others, 1715, price


An Epilogue to a Puppet-show at Bath, concerning the said Iliad. By George Ducket, esq., printed by E. Curll.

A complete Key to the What-d'ye-call it. Anon. [by Griffin a player, supervised by Mr. Th-] printed by J. Roberts, 1715.

A true character of Mr. P. and his writings, in a letter to a friend. Anon. [Dennis] printed for S. Popping, 1716, price 3d.

The Confederates, a Farce. By Joseph Gay, [J. D. Breval] printed for R. Burleigh, 1717, price 1s.

Remarks upon Mr. Pope's translation of Homer; with two letters concerning the Windsor Forest, and the Temple of Fame. By Mr. Dennis, printed for E. Curll, 1717, price 1s. 6d.

Satires on the Translators of Homer, Mr. P. and Mr. T. Anon. [Bez. Morris] 1717, price


The Triumvirate: or a Letter from Palæmon to Celia at Bath. Anon. [Leonard Welsted] 1711, folio, price 1s.



Remarks on Mr. Pope's Rape of the Lock, in letters to a friend. By Mr. Dennis; written in 1724, though not printed till 1728, octavo.


British Journal, Nov. 25, 1727.
A letter on
Swift and Pope's Miscellanies. [Writ by M. Con-

Daily Journal, March 18, 1728. A letter by.
Philomauri. James-Moore Smith.

Daily Journal, March 29. A letter about Thersites, accusing the author of disaffection to the government. By James-Moore Smith.

Mist's Weekly Journal, March 30. An Essay on the Arts of a Poet's sinking in reputation; or, a Supplement to the Art of sinking in Poetry. [Supposed by Mr. Theobald.]

Daily Journal, April 3. A Letter under the name of Philo-ditto. By James-Moore Smith. Flying Post, April 4. A letter against Gulliver and Mr. P. [By Mr. Oldmixon.]

Daily Journal, April 5. An Auction of Goods at Twickenham. By James-Moore Smith.

The Flying Post, April 6. A Fragment of a Treatise upon Swift and Pope. By Mr. Oldmixon. The Senator, April 9. On the same. By Edward Roome.

Daily Journal, April 8. Advertisement. By JamesMoore Smith.

Flying Fost, April 13. Verses against Dr. Swift, and against Mr. P-'s Homer. By J. Oldmixon.

Daily Journal, April 23. Letter about the translation of the character of Thersites in Homer. By Thomas Cooke, &c.

Mist's Weekly Journal, April 27. A Letter of Lewis Theobald.

Daily Journal, May 11. A Letter against Mr. P. at large. Anon. [John Dennis.]

All these were afterwards reprinted in a pamphlet, entitled, A Collection of all the Verses, Essays, Letters, and Advertisements occasioned by Mr. Pope and Swift's Miscellanies, prefaced by Concanen, Anonymous, octavo, and printed for A. Moore, 1728, price 1s. Others of an elder date, having lain as waste paper many years, were, upon the publication of the Dunciad, brought out, and their authors betrayed by the mercenary booksellers (in hopes of some possibility of vending a few) by advertising them in this manner.→ "The Confederates, a Farce. By Capt. Breval (for which he was put into the Dunciad). An Epilogue to Powell's Puppet-show. By Col. Ducket (for which he was put into the Dunciad). A a

Essays, &c. By Sir Richard Blackmore. (N. B. It was for a passage of this Book that sir Richard was put into the Dunciad.") And so of others.


An Essay on the Dunciad. Octavo, printed for J. Roberts [In this book, p. 9. it was formally declared, "That the complaint of the aforesaid libels and advertisements was forged and untrue : that all mouths had been silent, except in Mr. Pope's praise; and nothing against him published, but by Mr Theobald."]

Sawney, in blank verse, occasioned by the Dunciad; with a Critique on that poem. By J. Ralph [a person never mentioned in it at first, but inserted after], printed for J. Roberts, octavo.

A complete Key to the Dunciad. By E. Curll. 12mo, price 6d.

A second and third edition of the same, with additions, 12mo.

The Popiad. By E. Curll, extracted from J. Dennis, sir Richard Blackmore, &c. 12mo. price 6d

The Curliad. By the same E. Curll.

The Female Dunciad. Collected by the same Mr. Curll, 12mo. price 6d. With the Metamorphosis of P. into a stinging Nettle. By Mr. Foxton,


The Metamorphosis of Scriblerus into Snarlerus. By J. Smedley, printed for A. Moore, folio, price

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An Essay on the Taste and Writings of the present Times. Said to be writ by a Gentleman of C. C. C. Oxon, printed for J. Roberts, octavo.

The Arts of Logic and Rhetoric, partly taken from Bouhours, with new Reflections, &c. By John Oldmixon, octavo.

Remarks on the Dunciad. dedicated to Theobald, octavo. A Supplement to the Profund. thew Concanen, octavo.

By Mr. Dennis,

Anon. by Mat

Mist's Weekly Journal, June 8. A long letter, signed W. A. Writ by some or other of the club of Theobald, Dennis, Moore, Concanen, Cooke, who for some time held constant weekly meetings for those kind of performances.

A Letter signed PhiDaily Journal, June 11. loscriblerus, on the name of Pope.-Letter to Mr. Theobald in verse, signed B. M. [Bezaleel Morris] against Mr. P. Many other little epigrams about this time in the same papers, by James Moore, and others.

Mist's Journal, June 22. A Letter by Lewis


Flying Post, August 8. Letter on Pope and Swift. Daily Journal, August 8. Letter charging the author of the Dunciad with treason.

Durgen: A plain satire on a pompous satirist, by Edward Ward, with a little of James Moore. Apollo's Maggot in his cups. By E. Ward. Gulliveriana secunda. Being a Collection of many of the Libels in the news-papers, like the former volume, under the same title, by Smed ley. Advertised in the Craftsman, Nov. 9, 1728, with this remarkable promise, that " any thing which any body should send as Mr. Pope's or Dr. Swift's should be inserted and published as theirs."

Pope Alexander's supremacy and infallibility examined, &c. By George Ďucket, and John Dennis, quarto.

Dean Jonathan's Paraphrase on the fourth chapter of Genesis. Writ by E. Roome, folio, 1729.

Labeo. A paper of verses by Leonard Welsted, which after came into one Epistle, and was published by James Moore, quarto, 1730. Another part of it came out in Welsted's own name, under the just title of Dulness and Scandal, folio, 1731.

THERE HAVE BEEN SINCE PUBLISHED, Verses on the Imitator of Horace. By a Lady [or between a Lady, a Lord, and a Court-Squire] Printed for J. Roberts, folio.

An Epistle from a Nobleman to a Doctor of Divinity, from Hampton-court [Lord H-y]. Printed for J. Roberts also, folio.

A Letter from Mr. Cibber to Mr. Pope. Printed for W. Lewis, in Covent-garden, octavo.




IT will be sufficient to say of this edition, that the reader has here a much more correct and complete copy of the Dunciad, than bas hitherto appeared. I cannot answer but some mistakes may have slipt into it, but a vast number of others will be prevented by the names being now not only set at length, but justified by the authorities and reasons given. I make no doubt, the author's own motive to use real rather than feigned names, was his care to preserve the innocent from any false application; whereas in the former editions, which had no more than the initial letters, he was made, by keys printed here, to hurt the inoffensive, and (what was worse) to abuse his friends, by an impression at Dublin.

The commentary which attends this poem was sent me from several hands, and consequently must be unequally written; yet will have one advantage over most commentaries, that it is not made upon conjectures, or at a remote distance of time: and the reader cannot but derive one pleasure from the very obscurity of the person it treats of, that it partakes of the nature of a secret, which most people love to be let into, though the men or the things be ever so inconsiderable or trivial.

Of the persons it was judged proper to give some account: for since it is only in this monument that they must expect to survive (and here survive they will, as long as the English tongue shall remain such as it was in the reigns of queen Anne and king George), it seemed but humanity to bestow a word or two upon each, just to tell what he was, what he writ, when he lived, and when he died.

If a word or two more are added upon the chief offenders, it is only as a paper pinued upon the breast, to mark the enormities for which they suffered; lest the correction only should be rememLered, and the crime forgotten.

In some articles it was thought sufficient, barely to transcribe from Jacob, Curl, and other writers of their own rank, who were much better acquainted with them than any of the authors of this comment can pretend to be. Most of them

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