« السابقةمتابعة »
Spitzbergen,” made during a recent visit to that country.-A Report was read by Dr. Günther on the Reptiles and Fishes collected during Mr. Tristram's recent expedition in Palestine. The most interesting part of Mr. Tristram's collection was perhaps the series of Fishes from the Lake of Galilee, of which the greater part proved to be new to science. Amongst the most remarkable of these were several species of the African genera Chromis and Hemichromis.-Dr. Günther also described some new species of Batrachians from Western Africa, - Four Papers were read by Dr. Gray. The first of these was entitled “ Notes on a Revision of the Specimens of Viverrine Animals in the collection of the British Museum, with descriptions of some new genera and species,” by which it appeared that about 102 species of this family were known to science, of which upwards of eighty were represented in the British Museum. Dr. Gray's second Paper was a notice of a new variety of Galago from Quillimane, proposed to be called Otagale crassicaudata var. Kirkii. The third was a note on the Clawed Toads (Dactylethra) of Africa, and the fourth a general revision of the genera and species of the Lizards of the family Chameleonide.--Mr. Sclater pointed out the characters of the new Duck from Madagascar, proposed to be called after its dis. coverer, Dr. Meller, Anas melleri.--A Paper was read by Mr. E. Blyth, entitled “Notes on sundry Mammalia.”—Mr. O. Salvin characterised nineteen new species of Birds lately received from Costa Rica, amongst which was a new form of the family Cotingide, proposed to be called Carpodectes nitidus.—A communication was read from Dr. J. C. Cox, of Sydney, New South Wales, describing two new species of Land Shells, proposed to be called Helix Mackleayi and Succinea eucalypti.-Extracts were read from some Letters addressed by Mr. R. Swinhoe, H.M. Consul in Formosa, to Dr. Gray, describing several recent additions to the Mammal-fauna of Formosa,
November 22nd, 1864. The Secretary called the attention of the meeting to some recent important additions to the Society's Menagerie, amongst which was a young female Chimpanzee, just received from West Africa.—A Paper was read by Dr. P. P. Carpenter, entitled “ Contributions towards a Monograph of the Pandoridæ.”—Mr. St. George Mivart read a Communication“ On the Crania and Dentition of the Lemurida," giving the results of his investigations of the specimens of this group of animals contained in the British Museum, and the
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. According to the author's views the Lemuridæ were divisable into four natural subfamilies, the Indrisina, Lemurinæ, Nycticebina, and Galaginina.A Communication was read from Dr. J. C. Cox, of Sydney, New South Wales, giving the descriptions of four new species of Australian Land Shells, lately received from Port Clarence.—Mr. P. L. Sclater pointed out the characters of some new species of Birds discovered in Brazil by the late Dr. John Natterer, of which he had lately obtained duplicate specimens from the Imperial Collection of Vienna. The most noticeable of these was a new species of the genus Granatellus, proposed to be called G. pelzelnii, and a new Tanager, the Tanagra olivina of Natterer's MS.-A Communication was read from Dr. L. Pfeiffer describing seven new species of Land Shells from the Cumingian collection.-Dr. J. E. Gray communicated a notice of the atlas and cervical vertebræ of a Right Whale in the Sydney Museum, New South Wales, which appeared to indicate the existence of a new form of this group distinguished by the complete separation of the atlas from the other vertebræ, and by other characters. Dr. Gray proposed for this Whale the name of Macleayius australiensis.
December 13th, 1864. Professor Owen, F.R S., read a further Memoir on Dinornis, being the ninth of a Series of Contributions to the Society's “ Transactions” on this subject. The present section contained the description of the skull, atlas, and scapulo-coracoid bone of Dinornis robustus Owen. It was founded partly on materials submitted to his examination by Dr. D. S. Price, consisting of a mutilated cranium, and other bones, which had been obtained from the bottom of a crevice, about 50 feet deep, in a limestone rock, situated a few miles south of Timarn, in the Middle Island of New Zealand, and partly on a skull found with a skeleton, almost entire, in the valley of Manuherikia, Otago. The skeleton last referred to had been disinterred by gold-miners from one of the large basins of ancient tertiary date, which characterise the auriferous region of the interior of the province of Otago, and had been transmitted to the Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society at York, the Council of which had placed it at Professor Owen’s disposition for the purpose of description.- Mr. Gould exhibited and described the egg of Parra gallinacea, from Eastern Australia, of which he had lately received two specimens from Mr. Hills, to whom they had been forwarded by his
relative, Sir Daniel Cooper.-A Paper was read by Mr. C. Spence Bate and Mr. J. K. Lord, containing descriptions of new species of crustaceans discovered by the latter gentleman on the coasts of Vancouver's Island.-A Communication was read fron Mr. W. Harpur Pease, containing remarks on the species of genus Succinea, inhabiting the Tahitian Archipelago, with description of a new species.-A second Communication was likewise read from Mr. Harpur Pease, entitled “ Descriptions of new species of Land Shells from the islands of the Central Pacific.”-A Paper was read by Dr. J. E. Gray, entitled “A revision of the genera and species of Ursine animals, (Ursida) founded on the specimens contained in the collection of the British Museum." This family, as arranged by Dr. Gray, was stated to embrace ten genera and twenty-two species-nine of which were inhabitants of the Old, and twelve of the New World, while one was common to the arctic portions of both hemispheres.—Dr. John Kirk communicated a list of mammalia met with in the Zambezi region of Eastern Tropical Africa. The total number of mammals enumerated by Dr. Kirk was sixty-seven. Amongst these were a bat and an antelope considered to be new to science, and proposed to be called respectively Nycticejus nidicola and Nesotragus Livingstonianus.Mr. P. L. Sclater read a list of the collection of monkeys living in the Society's menagerie. The series now exhibited in the lately erected monkey-house was stated to consist of seventy-four individuals, belonging to forty-three different species, amongst which were several of great rarity.–Mr. Bartlett exhibited a curious variety of the common partridge, Perdix cinerea, from the collection of Mr. J. Gatcombe. The specimen was stated to be one of three similar individuals lately obtained, in a wild state, in the neighbourhood of Paris.
1. DIMORPHISM IN THE GENUS CYNIPS. The Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, for March last, contain an interesting paper by Mr. B. D. Walsh, on Di. morphism in the genus Cynips. His observations relate principally to C. q. spongifica and C. q. aciculata, which have hitherto been regarded as distinct species, but which Mr. Walsh looks upon as merely two forms of one and the same insect.
That the two forms are distinct enough is evident. Mr. Walsh calls attention particularly to nine points of difference.
“1. The fovea at the base of the scutel is twice or thrice as deep in spongifica, and the longitudinal carina which bisects it is twice or thrice as lofty.”
“ 2. In spongifica there are three deep and wide, transversely corrugated, longitudinal striæ or sutures in front of the scutel, one central one extending nearly to the collare, but becoming narrower as it approaches it, and two divergent lateral ones fading out as they approach the humerus. In aciculata, it is only in particular lights that traces of these striæ are discoverable, and they do not extend nearly so far forwards."
“3. In aciculata, on each side of the notum, beginning at the collare and terminating suddenly about half way to the scutel, is an almost invariably conspicuous, obtuse, glabrous carina, each parallel with the other, and distant from the other about as far as the two posterior ocelli are. In spongifica it is only in two or three specimens and in certain lights, that faint traces of these two carinæ are discoverable.”
“4. In aciculata, the mesonotum is very finely aciculate, or covered with fine regularly parallel rugæ before the scutel, except in two or three specimens, where it is somewhat irregularly, but very finely rugose. In spongifica it is very coarsely rugose. There is some little variation in both these two forms, but comparing the most coarsely sculptured aciculata with the most finely sculptured spongifica, the rugosities are at least twice as coarse in the latter, i.e. each rugosity is twice as wide.”
“ 5. The sculpture of the rest of the thorax, and also of the head, is about twice as coarse in spongifica as in aciculata."
“6. The body of aciculata is uniformly black, except that the abdomen is sometimes piceous below. In two spongifica the thorax is almost rust red, (as observed in a single & C. q. coccineæ by Osten Sacken, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. J., p. 244,) and the abdomen piceous red; in another & the thorax is tinged with rust red and the abdomen piceous; and in the fourth & the thorax is black, and the abdomen is piceous red; the remaining & specimen being uniformly black, as are also both 6 . In the closely allied or identical species 9. inanis, however, one of my two 8 g has a piceous red abdomen, and all my 9 9 # have a black thorax and a piceous red abdomen.”
"7. Viewed laterally, the upper edge of the second abdominal joint (counting the peduncle as the first joint) describes a circular are of about 60°, in both forms. Taking the chord of this arc as a definite and permanent basis of measurement, in spongifica ? the lower or ventral edge proceeds straight downwards, exactly at right angles with this chord, for a distance equal to half or one-third the length of the chord, before it curves gradually backwards, to form the ventral arch. In aciculata on the contrary, instead of being at right angles (90°) with the chord, it forms with it an angle of about 110°, so as to exhibit a most extraordinary bulge in front, and it curves much farther downwards from the peduncle, and in a more compressed and knife-edged forin, so that the abdomen is vertically at least as wide as long, and almost always much wider, whereas in spongifica & it is always longer than wide, generally much longer. The above variation in each form is caused by the terminal abdominal joints being more or less telescopically drawn out in different specimens, so that in each form the second abdominal joint sometimes occupies dorsally half the entire length of the abdomen, exclusive of the peduncle, and sometimes almost two-thirds. St. Fargeau has observed the same thing of the genus Megachile, (Hymenopt II., p. 338,) and I only notice it here because Osten Sacken, having only a few specimens of each form on hand, supposes the relative length of the second abdominal joint with regard to the terminal joints to be a terminal character of each (Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. I., p. 246.)"
“8. In consequence of the above bulge on the anterior abdomen in aciculata, (see Appendix, Fig. 1) the distance from the “ventral valve” (Fig. 1, v.) to the “ dorsal valve” (Fig. 1, 7) is proportionately twice as long as in spongifica, and consequently the sheaths of the ovipositor (Fig. 1, s.s.) are also proportionally twice as long, though their proportional breadth in both forms is nearly the same."
“9. With the exception of a single specimen, my 30 8 aciculata are one quarter broader and longer than my 5 ? spongifica and my 9 8 inanis, all 14 of which are remarkably uniform in size, save a single 2 inanis which is a little smaller than the rest."
“ These nine differences are sufficiently remarkable, and, but for “ the evidence of dimorphism, would,” as Mr. Walsh truly observes, "undoubtedly be viewed by every entomologist as of specific value.”
Mr. Walsh's reason for regarding these two forms as belonging to the same species is as follows :-In May and June, 1863, he gathered a number of galls from a black oak (Q. tinctoria), some of