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well-founded lamentation over the final Green Autumnal Narcissus. Narcissus dissolution of his church; his call upon viridiflorus
me could not be declined. I did not get Dedicated to St. Narcissus, Bp. his note till the very hour that the service
was commencing, and hurried from LudOctober 30.
gate-hill to the ancient “collegiate church
of St. Katharine's by the Tower," where I St. Marcellus, the Ce turion, A. D. 298. arrived just before the conclusion of St. Germanus, Bp. of Capua, a D. 540.
prayers. Numbers unable to get accomSt. Asterius, Bp. of Amasea in Pontus, modation among the crowd within, were A. D. 400.
coming from the place; but “where there's ST. KATHARINE'S BY THE TOWER. a will there's a way," and I contrived to
gain a passage to the chancel, and was To the Editor of the Every-Day Book. ultimately conducted to seat in a Sir,
Oct. 29, 1825. pew just as the rev. R. R. Bailey, resident The ancient and beautiful collegiate chaplain of the tower, ascended the cuchurch of St. Katharine finally closes to. rious old pulpit of this remarkable strucmorrow, previous to its demolition by ture. This gentleman, whose “ History the St. Katharine's dock company,
The of the Tower" is well known to topogradestruction of an edifice of such antiquity, phers and antiquaries, appropriately seone of the very few that escaped the lected for his text, “ Go to now, ye that great fire of 1666, has excited much pub- say, to-day or to-morrow we will go
into lic attention. I hope, therefore, that the such a city, and continue there a year, subject will not be lost sight of in your and buy and seil and get gain.” (James Every-Day Book. Numbers of the no- iv. 13.) He discoursed of the frailty of bility and gentry, who, notwithstanding man's purpose, and the insecurity of his an earnest appeal was made to them, left institutions, and enjoined hope and relithe sacred pile to its fate, have lately vi- ance on Him whose order ordained and sited it. In fact, for the beauty and sim- preserves the world in its mutations. He plicity of its architecture, it has scarcely spoke of the “unfeeling and encroaching a rival in London, excepting the Temple hand of commerce,” which had rudely church : the interior is ornamented with seized on the venerable fabric, wherein no various specimens of ancient carving; a more shall be said costly monument of the duke of Exeter,
Lord, how delightful 'tis to see, and various others of an interesting kind.
A whole assembly worship thee." This interesting fabric has been sacrificed by the present chapter, consisting of To some of the many present the buildthe master, sir Herbert Taylor, three bre- ing was endeared by locality, and its buthren chaplains, and three sisters, to a rial ground was sacred earth. Yet from new dock company, who have no doubt thence the bones of their kindred were to paid them handsomely for sanctioning the be expelled, and the foundations of the pulling down of the church, the violation edifice swept away. For eight centuries of the graves, and the turning of hundreds the site had been undisturbed, save for of poor deserving people out of their the reception of the departed from the homes; their plea is, that they have paid world—for him whose friends claimed the chapter. I hope, sir, you will pardon that there “the servant should be free the liberty I have taken in troubling you from his master," or for the opulent, who, with these particulars; and that you will in his end, was needy as the needy, and not forget poor Old Kate, deserted as she required only “ a little, little grave.” Yet is by those whose duty it was to have the very chambers of the dead were to be supported her.
razed, and the remains of mortality disI remain,
persed, and a standing water was to be in Your obedient servant, their stead. The preacher, in sad remem
A Native OF THE Precinct. brance, briefly, but strongly, touched on P.S. There is no more occasion for the coming demolition of the fane, and these docks than for one at the foot of there were those among the congregation Ludgate-hill.
who deeply sorrowed. On the features of
an elderly inhabitant opposite to me, The purpose of this correspondent may there was a convulsive twitching, while, be answered, perhaps, by publishing his with his head thrown back, he watched the preacher's lips, and the big tear those who wish its destruction—that its sprung from his eyes; and the partner of obscure location may not cause its conhis long life leaned forward and wept; demnation unseen—that no one will pass the bosoms of their daughters rose sentence who has not visited the spot, and and fell in grief; matrons and virgins that, having so done, he will suffer the sobbed; manly hearts were swollen, and unbiassed dictates of his own heart to strong men were bowed.
decide." After the sermon “sixty poor children of the precinct,” for whose benefit it was
FLORAL DIRECTORY. preached—it was the last office that could be celebrated there in their behalf-sung Mixen Agaric. Agaricus fimetarius. a hymn to the magnificent organ, which, Dedicated to St. Marcellus. on the morrow, was to be pulled down. They choralled in tender tones* Great God, O! hear our humble song,
Ortober 31. An off’ring to thy praise, 0! guard our tender youth from wrong, St. Quintin, A. D. 287. St. Wolfgang, And keep us in thy ways !"
Bp. of Ratisbon, A. D. 994. si, FoilThese were the offspring of a neigh- lan, A. D. 655. hourhood of ill fame, whence, by liberal hands, they had been plucked and pre
ALLHALLOW EVEN; served as brands from the burning fire.
or, It seemed as though they were about to
HALLOW E'EN. be scattered from the fold wherein they had been folded and kept.
Respecting this, which is the vigil of While the destruction of this edifice All Saints-day, Mr. Brand has collected was contemplated, the purpose gave rise many notices of customs; to him thereto remonstrance; but resistance was quell fore we are indebted for the following ed by the applications, which are usu- particulars : ally successful in such cases. “An Earn- On this night young people in the est Appeal to the Lords and Commons in north of England dive for apples, or catch Parliament, by a Clergyman," was inef- at them, when stuck upon one end of a fectually printed and circulated with the kind of hanging beam, at the other exhope of preventing the act. This little tremity of which is fixed a lighted candle.
This they do with their mouths only, “ The collegiate body to whom the their hands being tied behind their backs. church and precinct pertain, and who From the custom of flinging nuts into the have not always been so insensible to the fire, or cracking them with their teeth, it nobler principles they now. abandon, has likewise obtained the name of nutowe their origin to Maud, wife of king crack night. In an ancient illuminated Stephen—their present constitution to missal in Mr. Douce's collection, a perEleanor, wife of king Henry III.—and son is represented balancing himself upon their exemption from the general dissolu- a pole laid across two stools ; at the end tion in the time of Henry VIII. to the at- of the pole is a lighted candle, from tractions (it is said) of Anne Boleyn. which he is endeavouring to light another The queens' consort have from the first in his hand, at the risk of tumbling into a been patronesses, and on a vacancy of tub of water placed under him. A writer, the crown matrimonial, the kings of Eng- about a century ago, says, “This is the land. The fabric for which, in default of its last day of October, and the birth of this retained advocates, I have ventured now packet is partly owing to the affair of this to plead, is of the age of king Edward III., night. I am alone ; but the servants lofty and well-proportioned, rich in an- having demanded apples, ale, and nuts, I cient carving, adorned with effigies of a took the opportunity of running back my Holland, a Stafford, a Montacute, all allied own annals of Alhallows Eve; for you to the blood royal, and in spite of succes- are to know, my lord, that I have been a sive mutilations is well able to plead for it- mere adept, a most famous artist, both in self: surely then, for its own sake, as well the college and country, on occasion of as for the general interests involved in its this anile, chimerical solemnity."* preservation, it is not too much to ask, that it may, at least, be confronted with
* Life of Harvey, the conjuror, 8vo, 172.
Pennant says, that the young women There are some lines by Charles Grayin Scotland determine the figure and size don, Esq.—“On Nuts burning, Alibalof their husbands by drawing cabbages lows Eve.” blind-fold on Allhallow Even, and, like
“ These glowing nuts are emblems true the English, Aling nuts into the fire. It is
Of what in human life we view; mentioned by Burns, in a note to his
The ill-match'd couple fret and fume, poem on “Hallow E'en," that “ The first
And thus, in strife themselves consume; ceremony Hallow E'en is pulling each a Or, from each other wildly start, stock or plant of kail. They must go And with a noise for ever part, out, hand in hand, with eyes shut, and But see the happy happy pair, pull the first they meet with. Its being Of genuine love and truth sincere ; big or little, straight or crooked, is
With mutual fondness, while they burn, phetic of the size and shape of the grand
Still to each other kindly turn : object of all their spells—the husband or
And as the vital sparks decay
Together gently sink away: wife. If any yird, or earth, stick to the
Till life's fierce ordeal being past, root, that is tocher, or fortune; and the
Their mingled ashes rest at last." taste of the custoc, that is the heart of the stem, is indicative of the natural temper Burns says," the passion of prying into and disposition. Lastly, the stems, or, to futurity makes a striking part of the hisgive them their ordinary appellation, the tory of human nature, in its rude state, in runts, are placed somewhere above the all ages and nations; and it may be some head of the door; and the christian names entertainment to a philosophic mind to of the people whom chance brings into see the remains of it among the more unthe house, are, according to the priority of enlightened in our own.
He gives, placing the runts, the names in question.” therefore, the principal charms and spells It appears that the Welsh have“ a play of this night among the peasantry in the in which the youth of both sexes seek for west of Scotland. One of these by an even-leaved sprig of the ash : and the young women, is, by pulling stalks of first of either sex that finds one, calls out corn. “They go to the barn yard, and Cyniver, and is answered by the first of pull, each, at three several times, a stalk the other that succeeds; and these two, if of oats. If the third stalk wants the topthe omen fails not, are to be joined in pickle, that is, the grain at the top of the wedlock.”.
stalk, the party in question will come 10 Burns says, that “ Burning the nuts is the marriage bed any thing but a maid.” a favourite charm. They name the lad Another is by the blue clue. “Whoever and lass to each particular nut, as they would, with success, try this spell, must lay them in the fire; and accordingly as strictly observe these directions : steal they burn quietly together, or start from out, all alone, to the kiln, and, darkling, beside one another, the course and issue throw into the pot a clew of blue yarn; of the courtship will be.”. It is to be noted, wind it in a new clew off the old one; that in Ireland, when the young women and, towards the latter end, something would know if their lovers are faithful, will hold the thread ; demand, whà they put three nuts upon the bars of thé hauds ? i. e. who holds ? and answer will grates, naming the nuts after the lovers. be returned from the kiln-pot, by naming If a nut cracks or jumps, the lover will the christian and surname of your future prove unfaithful; if it begins to blaze or spouse." A third charm is by eating an burn, he has a regard for the person mak- apple at a glass. “Take a candle and go ing the trial. If the nuts, named after alone to a looking-glass; eat an apple bethe girl and her lover, burn together, they fore it, and some traditions say, you should will be married. This sort of divination comb your hair all the time; the face of is also in some parts of England at this your conjugal companion to be, will be time. Gay mentions it in his “Spell : seen in the glass, as if peeping over your
shoulder." “Two hazel nuts I threw into the flame,
In an appendix to the late Mr. “PenAnd to each nut I gave a sweet-heart's name: This with the loudest bounce me sore amaz’d, able and perfectly new customs of divina
nant's Tour,” several other very observThat in a flame of brightest colour blaz'd; As blaz'd the nut, so may thy passion grow,
tion on this night are enumerated. One For t’was thy nut that did so brightly glow!" is to “steal out unperceived, and sow a
* Graydon's Collection of Poems, Svo., Dublin, * Owen's Welsh Dictionary.
handful of hemp-seed, harrowing it with by chance in the clean water, the future any thing you can conveniently draw husband or wife will come to the bar of after you. Repeat, now and then, 'hemp- matrimony a maid ; if in the foul, a seed I saw thee, hemp-seed I saw thee; widow; if in the empty dish, it foretells and him (or her) that is to be my true, with equal certainty no marriage at all. come after me and pou thee.' Look over It is repeated three times : and every your left shoulder and you will see the time the arrangement of the dishes is al. appearance of the person invoked, in the tered.” Sir Frederick Morton Eden says, attitude of pulling hemp. Some tradi- that “ Sowens, with butter instead of tions say, “come after me and shaw thee, milk, is not only the Hallow E'en supper, that is, show thyself; in which case it but the Christmas and New-year's-day's simply appears. Others omit the harrow- breakfast, in many parts of Scotland.” ing, and say,
come after me and harrow In the province of Moray, in Scotland, thee.'
“ A solemnity was kept on the eve of the Another is, “to winn three wechts first of November as a thanksgiving for o’naething;”. The wecht is the instru- the safe in-gathering of the produce of the ment used in winnowing corn.
« This fields This I am told, but have not seen ; charm must likewise be performed unper- it is observed in Buchan and other counceived and alone. You go to the barn tries, by having Hallow Eve fire kindled and open both doors, taking them off the on some rising ground.”+ hinges, if possible : for there is danger In Ireland fires were anciently lighted that the being, about to appear, may shut up on the four great festivals of the Druids, the doors and do you some mischief. but at this time they have dropped the Then take that instrument used in win- fire of November, and substituted cannowing the corn, which, in our country dles. The Welsh still retain the fire of dialect, we call a wecht, and go through November, but can give no reason for the all the attitudes of letting down corn illumination.I against the wind. Repeat it three times; The minister of Logierait, in Perthand, the third time, an apparition will pass shire, describing that parish, says: “ On through the barn, in at the windy door, the evening of the 31st of October, O.S. and out at the other, having both the among many others, one remarkable cefigure in question, and the appearance or remony is observed. Heath, broom, and retinue marking the employment or sta- dressings of fax, are tied upon a pole. tion in life.”
This faggot is then kindled. One takes Then there is “to fathom the stack it upon his shoulders; and, running, bears three times.” “ Take an opportunity of it round the village. A crowd attend. going unnoticed to a bear stack (barley When the first faggot is burnt out, a sestack), and fathom it three times round. cond is bound to the pole, and kindled in The last fathom of the last time, you will the same manner as before. Numbers of catch in your arms the appearance of your these blazing faggots are often carried future conjugal yokefellow.” Another, about together; and when the night hap“to dip your left shirt sleeve in a burn pens to be dark, they form a splendid ilwhere three lairds land's meet.” “You lumination. This is Halloween, and is a go out, one or more, for this is a social night of great festivity."$ Also at Calspell, to a south-running spring or rivu- lander, in Perthshire: « On All Saints let, where three lairds' lands meet,' and Even they set up bonfires in every vildip your left shirt sleeve. Go to bed in lage. When the bonfire is consumed, the sight of a fire, and hang your wet sleeve ashes are carefully collected into the form before it to dry. Lie awake; and some of a circle. There is a stone put in, near time near midnight, an apparition, hav- the circumference, for every person of the ing the exact figure of the grand object in several families interested in the bonfire; question, will come and turn the sleeve, and whatever stone is moved out of its as if to dry the other side of it.”
place, or injured before next morning, The last is a singular species of divi- the person represented by that stone is pation “with three luggies, or dishes.” deve or fey; and is supposed not to “Take three dishes; put clean water in live twelve months from that day. The one, foul water in another, and leave the third empty: blindfold a person, and lead him to the hearth where the dishes are + Shaw's Hist. of Moray. ranged: he (or she) dips the left hand; if
# Vallancey, Collect. Hibern.
* Eden's State of the Poor.
people received the consecrated fire from escape from the black short-tailed sow; the Druid priests next morning, the vir- then supping upon parsnips, nuts, and tues of which were supposed to continue apples; catching at an apple suspended for a year."'*
At Kirkmichael, in the by a string with the mouth alone, and the same shire, “ The practice of lighting same by an apple in a tub of water; each bonfires on the first night of winter, ac- throwing a nut into the fire, and those companied with various ceremonies, still that burn bright betoken prosperity to prevails in this and the neighbouring the owners through the following year, highland parishes.”+ So likewise at but those that burn black and cracklé Aberdeen, “ The Midsummer Even fire, denote misfortune. On the following a relict of Druidism, was kindled in some morning the stones are searched for in the parts of this county; the Hallow Even fire, and if any be missing they betide fire, another relict of Druidism, was kin- ill to those that threw them in.” dled in Buchan. Various magic ceremo- At St. Kilda, on Hallow E'en night, nies were then celebrated to counteract they baked “ a large cake in form of a the influence of witches and demons, and triangle, furrowed round, and which was to prognosticate to the young their suc- to be all eaten that night."* In England, cess or disappointment in the matrimonial there are still some parts wherein the lottery. These being devoutly finished, grounds are illuminated upon the eve of the Hallow fire was kindled, and guarded All Souls, by bearing round them straw, by the male part of the family. Societies or other fit materials, kindled into a blaze. were formed, either by pique or humour, The ceremony is called a tinley, and the to scatter certain fires, and the attack and Romish opinion among the common peodefence here often conducted with art ple is, that it represents an emblematical and fury." -“ But now”—“ the Hallow lighting of souls out of purgatory: fire, when kindled, is attended by children “ The inhabitants of the isle of Lewis only; and the country girl, renouncing (one of the western islands of Scotland,) the rites of magic, endeavours to enchant had an antient custom to sacrifice to a her swain by the charms of dress and of sea god, called Shony, at Hallow-tide, in industry."I
the manner following : the inhabitants Pennant records, that in North Wales round the island came to the church of " there is a custom upon All Saints Eve St. Mulvay, having each man his proviof making a great fire called Coel Coeth, sion along with him. Every family furwhen every family about an hour in the nished a peck of malt, and this was night makes a great bonfire in the most brewed into ale. One of their number conspicuous place near the house; and was picked out to wade into the sea up when the fire is almost extinguished, every to the middle; and, carrying a cup of ale one throws a white stone into the ashes, in his hand, standing still in that posture, having first marked it; then, having said cried out with a loud voice, saying, their prayers, turning round the fire, they Shony, I give you this cup of ale, go to bed. In the morning, as soon as hoping that you'll be so kind as to send they are up, they come to search out the us plenty of sea-ware, for enriching our stones; and if any one of them is found ground the ensuing year;' and so threw wanting, they have a notion that the person the cup of ale into the sea. This was who threw it in will die before he sees performed in the night time. At his reanother All Saints Eve." They also dis- turn to land, they all went to church, tribute soul cakes on All Souls-day, at where there was a candle burning upon the receiving of which poor people pray the altar; and then standing silent for a to God to bless the next crop of wheat. little time, one of them gave a signal, at
Mr. Owen's account of the bards, in which the candle was put out, and immesir R. Hoare's “ Itinerary of archbishop diately all of them went to the fields, Baldwin through Wales,” says,“ The au- where they fell a drinking their ale, and tumnal fire is still kindled in North Wales spent the remainder of the night in dancon the eve of the first day of November, ing and singing,” &c. and is attended by many ceremonies; At Blandford Forum, in Dorsetshire, such as running through the fire and “ there was a custom, in the papal times, smoke, each casting a stone into the fire, to ring bells at Allhallow-tide for all and all running off at the conclusion to christian souls.” Bishop Burnet gives a
letter from king Henry the Eighth to * Sinclair's Stat. Acc. of Scotland.
* Martin's Western islands.