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save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen. 8. And she weaned Lo-Ruhamah; and she conceived, and bare a son. 9. And God said, Call his name Lo-Ammi (not a people of mine), for ye are no people of mine, and I will not be yours. 10. Nevertheless the number of the children of Israel * shall be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured, and cannot be counted; and it shall be, that, in the place where it was said unto them, No people of mine are ye, there it shall be said unto them, Children of the living God. 11. And the children of Judah shall be collected ‡, and the children of Israel shall be united, and they shall appoint themselves one head, and come up from the earth. For great shall be the day of Jezrael §.
visited with severe judgments, continued however to be cherished with God's love, till they rejected our Lord. Then Judah became Lo-Ammi; but still continues to be visibly an object of God's love, preserved as a distinct race for gracious purposes of mercy. Perhaps in the last ages the converts of the house of Judah will be the principal objects of Antichrist's malice. Their deliverance may be first wrought, and through them the blessing may be extended to their brethren of the ten tribes, and ultimately to the whole world. This order of things the subsequent prophecy seems to point out." (Bp. Horsley in loc.) Other prophecies teach us, that the deliverance of the converted of Judah will be first wrought. In fact, the ten tribes will have no share in the deliverance from Antichrist. His wrath will be directed exclusively against Judah and the ten tribes will not be restored until after his final overthrow between the seas in the land of Palestine.
*The number of the children of Israel.] "I think this is to be understood of the mystical Israel; their numbers, consisting of myriads of converts, both of the natural Israel, and their adopted brethren of the Gentiles, shall be immeasurably great." (Bp. Horsley in loc.). It may however relate, with perhaps equal propriety, to the literal Israel. See Ezek. xxxvii. 2, 10. and Isaiah xlix. 19, 20, 21.
† In the place.] "That is at Jerusalem, or at least in Judea, where this prophecy was delivered, and where the execution of the sentence took place. There, in that very place, they, to whom it was said, Ye are no people of mine, shall be called children of the living God. This must relate to the natural Israel of the house of Judah, for to them it was said, Ye are no people of mine. And, since they are to be acknowledged again as the children of the living God in the same place where this sentence was pronounced and executed, the prophecy clearly promises their restoration to their own land." Bp. Horsley in loc.
The children of Judah shall be collected.] "When converts of the house of Judah shall have obtained a re-settlement in the Holy Land, then a general conversion shall take place of the race of Judah, and the race of the ten tribes. They shall unite in one confession, and in one polity, under one king, Christ the Saviour." Bp. Horsley in loc.
Great shall be the day of Jezrael.] "Great and happy shall be the day, when the holy seed of both branches of the natural Israel shall be publicly acknowledged of their God; united under one head, their king Messiah; and restored to the possession of the promised land, and to a situation of high pre-eminence among the kingdoms of the earth." (Bp. Horsley in loc.)
ii. 21. And it shall be in that day, I will perform my part, saith the Lord. I will perform my part upon the heavens; and they shall perform their part upon the earth; 22. And the earth shall perform her part upon the corn, and the wine, and the oil; and they shall perform their part upon the Jezrael (the seed of God). 23. And I will sow her* as a seed, for my own-self, in the earth; and with tenderness I will cherish her, that had been Lo-Ruhamah (the not beloved); and I will say to Lo-Ammi (no people of mine), Ammi (my own people) art thou; and he shall say, My God.
iii. 1. And the Lord said unto me again, Go, love the woman addicted to wickedness and an adultress; after the manner of the Lord's love for the children of Israel, although they look to other gods, and are addicted to goblets of wine. 2. So I owned her as my own by fifteen pieces of silver, and a homer and a half of barley. 3. And I said unto her, Many days shalt thou tarry for me†; thou shalt not play the wanton, and thou shalt not have to do with a husband, neither will I with thee.
4. For many days shall the children of Israel tarry, without king, and without ruler ‡, and without sacrifice, and without statue, and without ephod and teraphim . 5. Afterward shall the children of Israel return,
Great likewise will this day be, as a day of judgment upon the Antichristian faction.
*I will sow her.] "The myriads of the natural Israel, converted by the preaching of the Apostles, were the first seed of the Universal Church. And there is reason to believe, that the restoration of the converted Jews will be the occasion and means of a prodigious influx of new converts from the Gentiles in the latter ages. (Rom. xi. 12, 15.) Thus the Jezrael of the natural Israel from the first have been, and to the last will prove, a seed sown of God for himself in the earth." Bp. Horsley in loc.
Many days shalt thou tarry for me.] "The condition of the woman, restrained from licentious courses, owned as a wife, but without restitution of conjugal rites, admirably represents the present state of the Jews, manifestly owned as a peculiar people, withheld form idolatry, but as yet without access to God through the Saviour." Bp. Horsley in loc.
Without king and without ruler.] "Without a monarch, and without any government of their own. Bp. Horsley in loc.
§ Without sacrifice.] "Deprived of the means of offering the typical sacrifices of the law, and having as yet no share in the true sacrifice of Christ." Bp. Horsley in loc.
Without statue, ephod, and teraphim.] "After much consideration of the passage, and of much that has been written upon it by expositors, I rest in the opinion strenuously maintained by the learned Pocock; in which he agrees with many that went before him, and has the concurrence of many
and seek the Lord their God, and David their king, and seek the Lord and his goodness, in the end of days.
God, having foretold by the mouth of Hosea the subversion of the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel, declares, with reference to the first restoration from Babylon, that he will no more cherish with tenderness the house of Israel, but that the house of Judah he will cherish with tenderness. Afterwards, with reference to the second restoration, he promises that the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea; that the children of Judah shall be collected, and that the children of Israel shall be united with them; and that they shall appoint themselves one head, even Christ the Lord. For, although they shall continue many days without any independent polity, without availing themselves of the great mediatorial sacrifice, and yet without relapsing into the idolatry of their fathers; they shall nevertheless, at the end of the days,-after the termination of the 1260 years, and throughout the whole period of the Millennium,-return from their captivity, and seek the Lord their God and the mystical David their king.
that came after, Luther, Calvin, Vatablus, Drusius, Livelye, Houbigant, and Abp. Newcome, with many others of inferior note: I rest, I say, after much consideration in the opinion, that statue, ephod, and teraphim, are mentioned as principal implements of idolatrous rites. And the sum of the 4th verse is this that for many ages the Jews would not be their own masters; would be deprived of the exercise of their own religion, in its most essential parts; not embracing the Christian, they would have no share in the true, service; and yet would be restrained from idolatry, to which their forefathers had been so prone. It is to be observed, that this 4th verse is the exposition of the type of the prophet's dealing with his wife. If the restriction of the Jews from idolatry is not mentioned, we have nothing in the exposition answering to that article of the typical contract with the woman, Thou shalt not play the wanton. And certainly the restriction from idolatry is not mentioned in this 4th verse at all, if it be not represented by tarrying without statue, without ephod, and teraphim." Bp. Horsley in loc.
The exposition of Vitringa is to the same purpose. "Quæso jam, respice sortem hujus gentis in præsenti exilio. Est per divortium separata a Deo, nec tamen facta alteri viro. Non transiit ad alias nuptias. Abstinet idololatria, et vult etiamnum censeri populus Dei, expectans gratiam sibi foedere condictam, ut clarissimè præcinerat Hoseas." Vitring. in Isai. 1. 2.
The captivity of Judah and Israel-The application of some of their members to the mystic Assyrian to effect their restoration-Their distress Their final political revival.
Hosea v. 8. Blow ye the cornet in Gibeah, the trumpet in Ramah; sound an alarm at Bethaven. Look behind thee, O Benjamin. 9. Ephraim shall be given up to desolation, in the day of rebuke, among the tribes of Israel: I have declared what shall surely be. 10. The rulers of Judah have been as those that remove the bounds*. Upon them like a flood I will pour out my fury. 11. Ephraim is hard pressed, ruined in judgment †; because he is self-willed, walking after a commandment. 12. Therefore am I as a moth in the garment to Ephraim, and as a worm in the flesh to the house of Judah. 13. When Ephraim perceives his holes, and Judah his corrupted sore, then Ephraim will betake him to the Assyrian, and send to the king who takes up all quarrels. But he shall not be able to repair the damage for you, nor shall he make a cure of your corrupted sore. 14. For, I will be as a lion unto Ephraim, and as a young lion to the house of Judah. I, I will seize the prey, and begone; I will carry off, and none shall rescue. 15. I
* Those that remove the bounds.] "That is, they have confounded the distinctions of right and wrong. They have turned upside down all political order, and all manner of religion. English Geneva." Bp. Horsley in loc.
† Ephraim is-ruined in judgment.] "That is, he has no defence to set up against the accusation brought against him; he has nothing to say for himself." Bp. Horsley in loc.
Self-willed, walking after a commandment.] "That is, although he has a commandment to walk after, namely the divine law, yet he will take his own way; and this he does, notwithstanding he pretends to acknowledge the authority of the commandment. The ten tribes pretended to be worshippers of Jehovah; but they worshipped him in the calves at Dan and Bethel; and they appointed a priesthood of their own, in prejudice of the prerogative of the sons of Levi." Bp. Horsley in loc.
$ The king who takes up all quarrels.] "This describes some powerful monarch, who took upon him to interfere in all quarrels between inferior powers; to arbitrate between them, and compel them to make up their differences, upon such terms as he thought proper to dictate whose alliance was of course anxiously courted by weaker states. Such was the Assyrian monarch in the times, to which the prophecy relates" primarily; and such will be his antitype, the last head of the Roman Babylon, in the times, to which it relates secondarily and ultimately. Bp. Horsley in loc.
will begone, I will return unto my place*; till what time they acknowledge their guilt, and seek my face. When distress is upon them, they will rise early to seek me.
vi. 1. Come, and let us return unto the Lord. For he hath torn, but he will make us whole: he hath inflicted the wound, but he will apply the bandage. 2. He will bring us to life after two days; in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his presence. 3. Then we shall know, we shall pursue after the knowledge of the Lord. His coming forth is fixed as the morning; and he shall come upon us as the pouring shower, as the harvest rain, as the rain of seed-time upon the earth -10-I have seen a horrible thing: fornications in Ephraim! Israel polluted! 11. Moreover, O Judah, harvest-work is appointed for thee, when I bring back the captivity of my people.
The prophet begins with foretelling the captivity of Judah and Israel; and declares, that in consequence of their sins, they shall be deprived of their former greatness and prosperity. Sensibly feeling their degraded situation, they shall at length endeavour to extricate themselves from it by the undue means of applying to a king, who officiously takes up all quarrels, and of whom the king of Assyria was a type, as the first restoration from Babylon was a type of the second restoration from the mystic Babylon or the Roman empire. Yet this king shall not be able to repair their damages, nor to make a cure of their corrupted sore. For the Lord will arise as a lion in his wrath, and will execute vengeance both upon them and their presumptuous ally.
This king exactly answers to the description of Antichrist, who will then be the last head of the Roman beast, as the Assyrian was the head of the Babylonian beast: and such accordingly I take him to be. Certain of the unconverted Jews will accept his offer to restore them to their
*I will begone, I will return unto my place.] "I will withdraw myself from them, till by a sincere humiliation they implore my favour. The Chaldee paraphrase expresses the sense thus, I will take away my majestic presence or Shechinah from among them, and will return into heaven." Mr. Lowth in loc.