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and “moral,” supply the differential words, and read the full contrast thus:
“Not high scholarly' or oratorical endowments, but “high INTELLECTUAL' and MORAL' endowments.?”
Next are stated “the qualities which produce conviction,” and each quality is a distinct, positive idea, and must have its own falling slide to individuate it; as "clearness', force', and earnestness', are the qualities which produce conviction.”
If pupils persist in running these three ideas together without letting the voice fall on each, the best way to secure the right reading is to ask a separate question for each; as, “What is the first quality ?" “ Clearness'.” “The second ?” “Force.” “The third ?” “Earnestness!!"
“True eloquence, indeed, does not consist in speech'. It cannot be taught from far'.” “True" is here distinguished from false eloquence, and “speech” and “far” are emphatic negative ideas (to be read with the rising slide), made distinctive in the strongest way by contrast with the positive ideas (to be read with the falling slide) that follow, in which true eloquence must exist, viz., in the “ man,” in the “subject"," and in the “occasion!.”
The analysis should be studied until the selection can be read correctly without the aid of elocutionary marks. Pupils will thus acquire a better discipline for independent reading, than if aided too much by the mechanical signs of emphasis and expression.
DIRECTIONS TO PUPILS.
This work of analysis (studying the meaning and reading of the separate parts) is to perfect synthesis (the rendering of the whole.)
First, then, read the selection to be analyzed.
Third, re-read the selection as a whole, in accordance with the analysis. This process should be repeated until the pupils master the double lesson of reasoning and reading
XV.—THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS.
1. Harold was crowned king of England on the very day of The Confessor's funeral. He had good need to be quick about it. When the news reached Norman William, hunting in his park at Rouen, he dropped his bow, returned to his palace, called his nobles to council, and presently sent ambassadors to Harold, calling on him to keep his oath, and resign the crown. Harold would do no such thing. The barons of France leagued together round Duke William for the invasion of England. Duke William promised freely to distribute English wealth and English lands among them. The Pope sent to Normandy a consecrated banner, and a ring containing a hair which he warranted to have grown on the head of St. Peter. He blessed the enterprise, and cursed Harold; and requested that the Normans would pay “Peter's-pence"-or a tax to himself of a penny a year on every house—a little more regularly in future, if they could make it convenient.
2. King Harold had a rebel brother in Flanders, who was a vassal of Harold Hardrada, king of Norway. This brother and this Norwegian king, joining their forces against England, with Duke William's help, won a fight, in which the English were commanded by two nobles, and then besieged York. Harold, who was wait
ing for the Normans on the coast at Hastings, with his army, marched to Stamford Bridge, upon the river Derwent, to give them instant battle.
3. He found them drawn up in a hollow circle, marked out by their shining spears. Riding round this circle at a distance, to survey it, he saw a brave figure on horseback, in a blue mantle and a bright helmet, whose horse suddenly stumbled and threw him.
4. “Who is that man who has fallen?” Harold asked of one of his captains.
“ The king of Norway,” he replied.
“He is a tall and stately king," said Harold ; “but his end is near."
5. He added, in a little while, “Go yonder to my brother, and tell him if he withdraw his troops he shall be Earl of Northumberland, and rich and powerful in England.”
The captain rode away and gave the message.
6. “What will he give to my friend, the king of Norway?" asked the brother.
“Seven feet of earth for a grave,” replied the captain.
“No more ?” returned the brother, with a smile.
“The king of Norway being a tall man, perhaps a little more," replied the captain.
“Ride back," said the brother," and tell King Harold to make ready for the fight.” 7. He did so very soon.
And such a fight King Harold led against that force, that his brother, the Norwegian king, and every chief of note in all their host, except the Norwegian king's son Olave, to whom he gave honorable dismissal, were left dead upon the field. The victorious army marched to York. As King Harold sat there at the feast, in the midst of all his company, a stir was heard at the doors, and messengers, all covered with mire from riding far and fast through broken ground, came hurrying in to report that the Normans had landed in England.
8. The intelligence was true. They had been tossed about by contrary winds, and some of their ships had been wrecked. A part of their own shore, to which they had been driven back, was strewn with Norman bodies. But they had once more made sail, led by the duke's own galley, a present from his wife, upon the prow whereof the figure of a golden boy stood pointing toward England. By day, the banner of the three lions of Normandy, the diverse-colored sails, the gilded vanes, the many decorations of this gorgeous ship, had glittered in the sun and sunny water; by night, a light had sparkled like a star at her masthead; and now, encamped near Hastings, with their leader lying in the old Roman castle of Pevensey, the English retiring in all directions, the land for miles around scorched and smoking, fired and pillaged, were the whole Norman power, hopeful and strong on English ground.
9. Harold broke up the feast and hurried to London. Within a week his army was ready. He sent out spies to ascertain the Norman strength.
William took them, caused them to be led through his whole camp, and then dismissed.
“ The Normans,” said these spies to Harold, “ are not bearded on the upper lip as we English are, but are shorn. They are priests.
“My men,” replied Harold, with a laugh, “will find those priests good soldiers.”
10. “ The Saxons,” reported Duke William's outposts of Norman soldiers, who were instructed to retire as King Harold's army advanced,“ rush on us through their pillaged country with the fury of madmen."
“Let them come, and come soon,” said Duke William.
11. Some proposals for reconciliation were made, but were soon abandoned. In the middle of the month of October, in the year one thousand and sixty-six, the Normans and the English came front to front. All night the armies lay encamped before each other in a part of the country then called Senlac, now called (in remembrance of them) Battle. With the first dawn of day they arose.
12. There, in the faint light, were the English on a hill; a wood behind them; in their midst the royal banner, representing a fighting warrior woven in gold thread, adorned with precious stones; beneath the banner, as it rustled in the wind, stood King Harold on foot, with two of his remaining brothers by his side; around them, still and silent as the dead, clustered the whole English army—every soldier covered by his shield, and bearing in his hand his dreaded English battle-axe.
13. On an opposite hill, in three lines-archers, foot soldiers, horsemen—was the Norman force. Of a sudden, a great battle-cry, “ God help us !” burst from the Norman lines. The English answered with their own battle-cry, “God's rood ! holy rood !” The Normans then came sweeping down the hill to attack the English.
14. There was one tall Norman knight who rode before the Norman army on a prancing horse, throwing up his heavy sword and catching it, and singing of the bravery of his countrymen. An English knight, who rode out from the English force to meet him, fell by this