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to the Manner, in which our Organs of Sense CH A P.
them. Both are in a like Way Instruments of our receiving such Ideas from external Objects, as the Author of Nature appointed those external Objects to be the Occasions of exciting in us. However, Glasses are evidently Instances of this; namely of Matter which is no Part of our Body, preparing Objects for and conveying them towards the perceiving Power, in like Manner as our bodily Organs do. And if we see with our Eyes only in the same Manner as we do with Glasses, the like may justly be concluded, from Analogy, of all our other Senses. It is not intended, by any thing here said, to affirm, that the whole Apparatus of Vision, or of Perception by any other of our Senses, can be traced, through all its Steps, quite up to the living Power of seeing, or perceiving: But that so far as it can be traced by experimental Observations, so far it appears, that our Organs of Sense prepare and convey on Objects, in order to their being perceived, in like Manner as foreign Matter does, without affording any Shadow of Appearance, that they themselves perceive. And that we have no Reason to think our Organs of Sense Percipients, is confirmed by Instances of Persons losing some of them, the living Beings Themselves, their former Occupiers, remaining unimpaired. It is confirmed
PAR T also by the Experience of Dreams; by which
I. we find we are at present poffeffed of a latent, mand, what would otherwise be, an unima
gined unknown Power of perceiving sensible Objects, in as strong and lively a Manner without our external Organs of Sense as with them.
So also with regard to our Power of moving, or directing Motion by Will and Choice: upon the Destruction of a Limb, this active Power remains, as it evidently seems, unlessened; so as that the living Being, who has suffered this Loss, would be capable of moving as before, if it had another Limb to move with. It can walk by the Help of an artificial Leg; just as it can make use of a Pole or a Leaver, to reach towards itself and to move Things, beyond the Length and the Power of its natural 'Arm: And this last it does in the same manner as it reaches and moves, with its natural Arm, Things nearer and of less Weight. Nor is there so much as any Appearance of our Limbs being endued with a Power of moving or directing themselves; though they are adapted, like the several Parts of a Machine, to be the Instruments of Motion to each other; and some Parts of the same Limb, to be Instruments of Motion to other parts of it.
Thus a Man determines, that he will look CHAP. at such an Object through a Microscope ; or being lame suppose, that he will walk to such a Place with a Staff a Week hence. His Eyes and his Feet no more determine in these Cases, than the Microscope and the Staff. Nor is there any Ground to think they any more put the Determination in Practice; or that his Eyes are the Seers or his Feet the Movers, in any other Sense than as the Microscope and the Staff are. Upon the whole then, our Organs of Sense and our Limbs are certainly Instruments, which the living Persons ourselves make use of to perceive and move with: There is not any Probability, that they are any more ; nor consequently, that we have any other Kind of Relation to them, than what we may have to any other foreign Matter formed into Instruments of Perception and Motion, suppose into a Microscope or a Staff; (I say any other Kind of Relation, for I am not speaking of the Degree of it) nor consequently is there any Probability, that the Alienation or Dislolution of these Instruments is the Destruction of the perceiving and moving Agent.
And thus our finding, that the Diffolution of Matter, in which living beings were most nearly interested, is not their Dissolution; and
PART that the Destruction of several of the Organs
I. and Instruments of Perception and of Momtion belonging to them, is not their Destruc
tion; shows demonstratively, that there is no Ground to think that the Diffolution of any other Matter, or Destruction of any other Organs and Instruments, will be the Diffolution or Destruction of living Agents, from the like Kind of Relation. And we have no Rea. son to think we stand in any other Kind of Relation to any thing which we find diffolved by Death.
But it is said these Observations are equally applicable to Brutes : and it is thought an insuperable Difficulty, that they should be immortal, and by consequence capable of everlasting Happiness
. Now this Manner of Expression is both invidious and weak : but the thing intended by it, is really no Difficulty at all, either in the way of natural or moral Consideration. For ift. Suppose the invidious thing, designed in such a Manner of Expression, were really implied, as it is not in the least in the natural Immortality of Brutes ; namely, that they must arrive at great Attainments, and become rational and moral Agents ; even this would be no Difficulty : since we know not what latent Powers and Capacities they may be endued with. There was once, prior to Experience, as great Pre
sumption against human Creatures, as there is Chap.
. But then 2dly.