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No law on this subject exists, but when a strike of railway employees was threatened in January, 1902, the men were notified by the Government that it would regard them, in case of strike, as public officials engaging in prohibited combinations and punishable as such.
An act of April 11, 1903, added three new sections to the penal code, numbered 358a, 358b, and 358c, relative to interference with the operation of railways and to conspiracy by railway employees. It is provided therein that any official or employee on railroads, other than those on which speed is restricted, who, with a purpose of causing or protracting an interruption in traffic, neglects or refuses to perform the duty for which he was expressly or impliedly engaged or to obey orders legally given shall be punished by imprisonment not exceeding 6 months or by a fine of not more than 300 florins ($121). Where two or more persons conspire to commit the offense named, principals and participants are alike subject to punishment by imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years. If the purpose of interference is actually effected, the penalty may be imprisonment for a term not exceeding 4 years in cases where there is conspiracy, or not more than 1 year in other cases.
The industrial conciliation and arbitration act of October 27, 1900, provides for industrial agreements between the minister for Government railways and the “Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants” in all respects as if the management of the Government railways were an industry and the minister were the employer of all workers thereon. Employees on these roads are thus brought within the scope of this law, which provides for compulsory agreements and awards in all cases of labor disputes.
Strikes of railway employees in this State are the subject of a special act passed May 22, 1903. This may be classed as an emergency act, and was to continue only until the close of the following Parliament, unless otherwise determined. The principal features of the act were that every employee, regular or supernumerary, who, on account of the then existing strike, should cease to discharge the duties of his employment should be considered as a striker. He would be no longer considered as an employee and would forfeit any and all rights or claims to any pension, fund, or annuity, as well as all legal privileges of every sort arising from or dependent on his position as an official or employee, except as regards any wages due at the time of his going on strike. Provision was made for restitution of standing and privilege in the discretion of the railway commissioners and with the consent of the governor and council.
Applicants for positions made vacant by strikes were exempted from the requirements as to insurance, examination, etc., but were required to show competency for the work; if permanently appointed they were to conform with the regulations as to insurance within one year from the date of their appointment.
RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.
Twenty-first Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for the
year ending November 30, 1905. William H. Scoville, Commissioner. 278 pp.; appendix, 93 PP.
The subjects of inquiry presented in this report are the following: New factory construction, 33 pages; tenement houses, 8 pages; labor organizations, 19 pages; strikes and lockouts, 23 pages; early organizations of printers, 84 pages; free public employment bureaus, 12 pages; building trades, 27 pages; the National Civic Federation and immigration, 19 pages; inventions of Connecticut citizens, 10 pages; labor laws, 86 pages.
NEW FACTORY CONSTRUCTION.—Under this caption is given a list of buildings and additions erected during the year ending July 1, 1905, to be used for manufacturing purposes. Location, material, dimensions, and cost of construction are given for each new structure; also increase in the number of employees caused by building. towns of the State 136 manufacturing establishments reported having constructed 188 new buildings and additions to existing structures, with a floor space of 1,734,223 square feet, at a total cost of $1,701,730. The additional number of employees provided for by 50 of the 136 establishments was 1,390.
TENEMENT HOUSES.-Section 31, chapter 178, of the public acts of 1905, made it the duty of the commissioner of labor statistics to collect and publish data showing, for the several cities of the State to which the law is applicable, the number of tenement houses for which permits have been asked, the number of plans approved, disapproved, and modified, and any other facts concerning the operation of the law. During the six months ending December 31, 1905, there were 142 buildings, to which the tenement-house act applied, erected in the cities of Hartford, New Haven, Bridgeport, Waterbury, Meriden, and New Britain.
LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.—In 1905 there were 516 organizations (508 local and 8 State) known to have been in existence. During each of the prior six years the number reported to the State bureau was as follows: 214 in 1899, 270 in 1900, 340 in 1901, 510 in 1902, 591 in 1903, and 524 in 1904. The decrease in the number of organizations since 1903 is, in a measure, due to the consolidation of several unions. Organizations were found in 43 towns in 1901, in 48 in 1902, in 49 in 1903, in 47 in 1904, and in 52 in 1905. Following the statistical presentation is a list of the unions, grouped by towns, with the name and address of the secretary of each.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.—Brief accounts are given under this head of the labor troubles in the State for the year ending October 31 1905, and a tabulated statement showing the date, class of labor, name of employer, location, number of employees involved, duration, causes, and results of 45 disputes. The number of employees involved in these disputes was 2,948, with a reported loss of time of 51,682 working days end of wages to the amount of $83,208. These disputes took place in 22 towns of the State, and 24 occupations were represented. In the majority of instances the assigned cause or object related to wages, hours of labor, and the employment of nonunion men.
Of the 45 disputes, the workmen were successful in 10, unsuccessful in 19, and partly successful in 5; 3 were amicably settled, and 8 were unsettled at the time of the report.
FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS. --The operations for the year ending November 30, 1905, of the five free public employment bureaus established on July 1, 1901, are set forth in this chapter. Detailed statements are given, showing by sex the number of applications for employment and for help and the number of situations secured. In another table the sex and nationality of the applicants are shown. A summary of the results for the year covered is given in the following table for the five cities in which the bureaus are located:
OPERATIONS OF FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT BUREAU'S FOR TIE YEAR ENDING
NOVEMBER 30, 1903.
During the 53 months from the date of the establishment of the bureaus there were 57,602 applications for situations--25,600 by males and 32,002 by females. Employers made application for 13,734 male and 31,329 female workers, a total of 45,063 persons. As a result of the operations of the bureaus 35,569 positions were secured--12,469 by males and 23,100 by females.
BUILDING TRADES.-In this chapter a comparison is made between the hours of labor and rates of wages which prevailed in the building trades in the State in 1893 and those which prevailed in 1905. Twenty-nine towns are embraced in the comparison. The table following shows the average percentage of decrease in hours of labor and increase in rates of wages in 1905 as compared with 1893 for each occupation in the building trades:
AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF DECREASE IN HOURS OF LABOR AND INCREASE IN RATES OF WAGES IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN 1905 AS COMPARED WITH 1893.
LABOR LAWS.--In an appendix to the report are presented the labor laws of the State, comprising those contained in the General Statutes, revision of 1902, and amendments, January sessions, 1903 and 1905.
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Industrial and Labor
Statistics for the State of Maine. 1905. Samuel W. Matthews, Commissioner. 219 pp.
The following subjects are presented in this report: Factories, mills, and shops built during 1905, 4 pages; labor unions, 85 pages; lockouts, 1881 to 1900, 2 pages; manufacture of clothing, 9 pages; poultry industry, 35 pages; the Paris Manufacturing Company, 10 pages; the Lakeside Press, 6 pages; chewing gum, 2 pages; railroads, 5 pages; directory of bureaus of labor in America, 4 pages; farewell address of Carroll D. Wright to the members of the Association of Officials of Bureaus of Labor Statistics of America, 11 pages; report of the inspector of factories, workshops, mines, and quarries, 7 pages.
FACTORIES, MILLS, AND SHOPS BUILT.-- Returns show that in 1905 in 93 towns 114 buildings were erected or enlarged, remodeled, etc., at a total cost of $2,303,410. These improvements provided for 3,329 additional employees.