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A summary of improvements of this character is presented for the 10 years 1896 to 1905:

FACTORIES, MILLS, AND SHOPS BUILT OR ENLARGED), ETC., DURING THE YEARS

1896 TO 1905.

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LABOR UNIONS.--Under this title is given a list of all federations and unions reporting, together with the addresses of the secretaries. There were 2 State and 9 central federations and 212 local unions in 50 cities, towns, and plantations. Of the local unions known to exist in 1905, 7 failed to report membership and 11 sent no report. The reports give, by cities and towns, membership, qualifications for membership, initiation fees, benefits allowed, hours of labor, wages, etc. The 194 local unions reporting comprised a membership of 13,798.

There were 100 labor unions, with 6,924 members, which reported for the year as to average days worked and lost and average daily and annual earnings. A summary of these returns is presented in the following table:

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Under this chapter is also a history of the strikes occurring during the year, together with a discussion of the trade agreement as a method for the settlement of industrial disputes.

LOCKOUTS IN MAINE, 1881 to 1900.--- This chapter is compiled from the Sixteenth Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Labor.

MANUFACTURE OF CLOTHING.---This investigation, made in 1905, covered 30 establishments, located in 18 cities and towns, engaged in the manufacture of clothing for men and boys, women's clothing, knit goods, and horse nets. In the 30 establishments 1,312 working people were employed (234 men and 1,078 women), while over 1,000 persons were employed more or less of the time in their homes. In 19 establishments all the work was done in the factory, and in 11 more or less of the work was given out to be done in homes. The hours of labor were 10 in 15 of the establishments, 91 in 2, 9 in 11, and 2 did not report as to hours. The average weekly wages of men were $10.82 and of women $6.78. The total value of product for the year was estimated at about $2,200,000. Of the total establishments, 18 manufactured on their own account, while in 12 work was done for parties outside of the State.

Poultry INDUSTRY.-As indicated by the title, this chapter relates to poultry products. Returns were received from 54 poultry raisers of the State. Information as to poultry houses, feed, care, and other requirements, as well as production and prices, are given for several localities.

RAILROADS.-For the year ending June 30, 1905, there were 8,773 persons, including general officers, in the service of the 20 steam railroads operating in the State. The aggregate amount of wages, including salaries, paid during the year was $4,789,393.20. The number of employees, excluding general officers, was 8,710, an increase of 403 over 1904. The total number of days worked by employees, other than general officers, was 2,452,083, and the total amount paid this class of employees in wages was $4,619,639.07. The average daily wages of the same class was $1.88, an increase from $1.86 for the year 1904. A statement is presented showing for the years 1903 and 1904 the total mileage, gross earnings, passengers carried, freight hauled, passengers per mile, freight miles, etc.

Accidents on steam railroads for the year ending June 30, 1905, resulted in 42 persons being killed and 176 injured by the movement of trains. Of those killed, 19 were employees and 23 were other persons, no passengers being killed. Of those injured, 91 were employees, 31 were passengers, and 54 were other persons. On the street railways accidents resulted in 8 persons being killed and 79 persons injured

Cup LABOR.-In the report on factory inspection a table is presented in which it is shown that the number of children working under certificate during the year in certain manufacturing establishments of the State was 813. The following table shows for the years 1902, 1903, and 1904 the average number of children under 16, between 16 and 15, and under 15 years of age employed in 16 cotton and woolen mills:

CHILDREN UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE EMPLOYED IN COTTON AND WOOLEN MILLS,

1902 TO 1901.

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Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor and Printing of the

State of North Carolina, for the year 1905. II. B. Varner, Commissioner.

382 pp.

This report consists of 8 chapters, as follows: Progress of agriculture, 86 pages; trades, 45 pages; miscellaneous factories, 66 pages; cotton, woolen, and knitting mills, 55 pages; furniture factories, 18 pages; newspapers, 39 pages; railroad employees, 9 pages; the health and pleasure resorts of the State, 29 pages; appendix, 23 pages.

PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURE.-The report on this subject was compiled from returns secured by correspondence with representative farmers residing in different sections of the State. It is presented in 6 tables, as follows: Condition of land and labor; wages of men, women, and children; cost of production; market price; profit on principal commodities, and the educational, moral, and financial condition of farm laborers. From the summary the following data are taken: Labor was reported scarce in all (97) counties; 95 counties reported that negro labor was unreliable, 1 that it was reliable, and 1 that there was no negro labor; 54 counties reported that employment was regular and 43 that it was irregular; cost of living was reported as having increased in 95 counties and in 2 no increase was reported. The highest and lowest monthly wages paid farm laborers in each county were reported, and for men the average of the highest wages so reported was $19.84 and of the lowest $12.19; for women like averages were $12.42 and $8.28, and the average wages of children were $7.45. An increase of wages for all classes of farm labor was reported.

THE TRADES.---The data from which the tables presented under this title were compiled were secured by correspondence with representative men engaged in the various trades. These reports of wageearners show the daily wages, hours of labor, method and time of payment, and change in wages of each person reporting. Of the wageearners making returns, 37 per cent reported an increase of wages, 4 per cent a decrease, and 59 per cent no change; 66 per cent made full time and 34 per cent part time; 72 per cent reported cost of living increased, 4 per cent decreased, and 24 per cent no change; 25 per cent favored an 8-hour day, 12 per cent a 9-hour day, 58 per cent a 10-hour day, 2 per cent an 11-hour day, 2 per cent a 12-hour day, and 1 per cent a 14-hour day; 83 per cent favored fixing a day's work by law and 17 per cent opposed it; 91 per cent favored compulsory education and 9 per cent opposed it. The following table gives the average daily wages of persons engaged in the various trades:

AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN VARIOUS TRADES, 1905.

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MISCELLANEOUS FACTORIES.- Under this classification the number of factories reporting was 428, of which 312 reported an invested capital amounting to $13,182,210, 413 the number of employees as 15,809, and 367 the number of persons dependent on them for a livelihood as 37,415. An 8-hour day was reported by 4 factories, 5 reported a 9-hour day, 299 a 10-hour day, 46 an 11-hour day, 52 a 12-hour day, while 22 did not report as to hours. An increase of wages was reported by 70 per cent of the factories, a decrease by 1 per cent, and no change by 29 per cent. Of the adult employees 82 per cent were able to read and write and of the children 88 per cent. The highest daily wages paid was $2.16, and the lowest $0.78. In 66 per cent of the factories wages were paid weekly, in 18 per cent semimonthly, in 15 per cent monthly, and in 1 per cent daily. The tables presented show for each establishment the product manufactured, capital stock, horsepower, days of operation, hours of labor, number of employees, and highest and lowest wages.

COTTON, WOOLEN, AND KNITTING Mills.--The number of mills covered by this presentation is 287. Their aggregate invested capital amounted to $37,494,625. The number of spindles in operation was 2,267,625, of looms 45,663, of knitting machines 3,933, together requiring 107,058 horsepower. The number of employees reported by 85 per cent of the mills was 19,793 adult males, 16,847 adult females, and 7,582 children, a total of 44,222. The number of persons dependent upon the mills was 113,363. Of the adult employees 86 per cent, and of the children 79 per cent, were able to read and write. The average hours constituting a day's work were 10.8; the average of the highest daily wages, based on the highest wages paid to any employee by each establishment, was $2.67, lowest $0.68, for men; for women the average highest wages were $0.99, lowest $0.51, and for children the average wages were about $0.43. An increase of wages was reported by 69 per cent of the establishments, by 22 per cent no change was reported, and 9 per cent made no report. Relative to the employment of children under 12 years of

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in the factories 76 per cent of the manufacturers opposed it, while the remainder favored it or expressed no opinion; 61 per cent of the manufacturers favored compulsory education, 18 per cent opposed it, and 21 per cent expressed no opinion.

FURNITURE FACTORIES.—There were 100 furniture factories which reported capital stock, power, articles manufactured, wages, hours of labor, times of wage payments, percentage of employees able to read and write, etc. From the returns the following issummarized: Aggregate capital stock reported, $2,535,398; horsepower used, 9,424; number of employees, 6,800; average highest daily wages paid adults $2.15, lowest $0.67; average daily wages of children $0.45; 91 per cent of the adults and 89 per cent of the children employed were able to read and write; 75 per cent of the factories paid their employees semimonthly, 18 per cent weekly, and 7 per cent monthly; 83 per cent of the factories reported an increase of wages and 17 per cent no increase; 82 per cent of the manufacturers opposed the employment of children under 14 years of age and 18 per cent favored it; 94 per cent favored compulsory education and 6 per cent opposed it.

RAILROAD EMPLOYEES.- In this chapter tables are presented showing the number of employees and average wages, by occupations, for each road reporting. A separate presentation is made concerning the operation of each of nine street railways, giving mileage, capital stock, funded debt, gross earnings, operating expenses, income from operation, and from other sources, number of passengers carried, and passengers carried per mile of track.

During the year 5 passengers, 35 employees, and 74 other persons were killed, and 143 passengers, 492 employees, 13 postal clerks, express messengers, and Pullman employees, and 139 other persons were injured by the movement of trains, and 4 persons were killed and 541 injured by other causes.

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