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average daily wages paid by all railroads. The following is a summary of the data presented:
AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES, 1904, AND INCREASE IN WAGES
Railroad accidents in the State during 1904 resulted in the death of 84 employees, 24 passengers, and 146 other persons, and in the injury of 2,180 employees, 119 passengers, and 228 other persons. The following table shows the number of persons killed and the number injured in railroad accidents in 1904:
EMPLOYEES, PASSENGERS, AND OTHERS KILLED AND INJURED IN RAILROAD
Killed. Injured. Killed. , Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured.
Statistics for gas works show ownership, capacity, private and municipal consumption, price to consumers, number and wages of employees; and those for waterworks, ownership, cost of works, capacity, consumption, cost of pumping per million gallons, price to consumers, source of supply, number of employees, and wages.
COURT DECISIONS RELATING TO LABOR.- Under this heading are reproduced the decisions of courts relating to labor, as reported by the United States Bureau of Labor.
RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.
Arbetsstatistik. I. Undersökning af Tobaksindustrin i Finland. 1903.
xiii, 214, 116, 48* pp. II. Undersökning af Textilindustrin i Finland. 1904.
1904. xii, 238, 183, 123* pp. III. Undersökning af Bagareyrket i Finland. 1905. viii, 125, 106, 18* pp. På uppdrag af Industristyrelsen och under dess öfverinseende värkstäld af G. R. Snellman.
These volumes are the first three of a series prepared at the instance of the ministry of industry, embodying the results of special inquiries into the conditions of labor in certain industries in Finland. The volumes discuss, respectively, the manufacture of tobacco, of textiles, and of bakery and confectionery products. The first volume also gives some account of the development of statistical inquiry into labor conditions in various countries and of the beginning of such work in Finland. The investigation involved the filling of schedules by both employers and employees.
The method of presentation involves text statement and tables in separate sections. There are also appendixes containing detailed lists of employees by occupations, showing the number of days worked in one year and total annual and average weekly earnings. These are shown in Volumes I and II by establishments, and in Volume III by localities.
THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY.—The points covered by the employers' schedules included for each establishment the number of employees; the hours of labor and rest; overtime, night, and Sunday work; the giving out of home work; the labor contract and its termination; shop rules; fines; weekly earnings; times of payment; compensation for overtime and home work; wage advances; deductions for sick funds, etc.; premiums and gratuities; requirements as to medical examinations of applicants for employment and provisions for cost of same; free homes, or allowances on rentals; allowance of tobacco; free medical or hospital attendance; old-age benefits; accident insurance, and cost of same during 1901, and strikes and lockouts within the past ten years. The inquiries made of employees were equally detailed, and related to employment, social conditions, health, etc. Data were procured as to the sanitation of workrooms, provisions for lunch rooms, toilet rooms, etc.; statistics of sickness and death were also obtained. The number of establishments in which the manufacture of tobacco was carried on, the number of employees, and the value of products are shown in the following table for the ten-year period, 1892 to 1901:
TOBACCO FACTORIES, NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AND VALUE OF
PRODUCTS, 1892 TO 1901.
While the number of establishments was but one greater at the close of the period than at the beginning, the number of employees had increased 74.4 per cent, and the value of products 133.8 per cent.
The different classes of products for the year are reported as follows: Cigarettes, 481,084,000; cigars, 68,854,550; smoking tobacco, 1,362,392 kilograms (3,003,529 pounds); chewing tobacco, 84,204 kilograms (185,636 pounds); snuff, 252,681 kilograms (557,061 pounds). Ten establishments were devoted entirely to the manufacture of cigarettes, 11 to that of cigars, 1 to the manufacture of smoking tobacco, and 2 to that of chewing tobacco. In each of the remaining establishments two or more classes of products were manufactured. Seven of the establishments reported were operated entirely as home industries, employing but 1 or 2 persons each, or a total of 11 employees; 14 factories employed from 3 to 25 persons each, 12 from 26 to 100, and 5 employed 101 or more. The largest factory employed 887 persons, while 4 factories, each having more than 200 work people, gave employment to slightly more than twothirds of the total number of employees. Engines and motors in use furnished 531.5 horsepower.
As the investigation was carried on in the summer of 1902, all data for a complete year cover nothing later than 1901. Detailed statistics of employees, however, relate only to those in employment at the date when the schedules were made up, at which time a number of work people were furloughed or, for other reasons, were absent for the summer. The following table shows for each class of products the number of employees engaged in the tobacco industry in the summer of 1902, by sex and age groups:
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF EACII ('LASS OF
PRODUCT, BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS, 1902.
The proportion of females is much greater than that of males, being largest in the manufacture of cigarettes. Children under 18 years of age form 11.2 per cent of the whole number of employees. Almost 22.0 per cent of the males are under 18 years of age, while scarcely 8.8 per cent of the females are under 18 years of
age. The hours of labor per week in the tobacco industry are shown in the next table. Nine home workers, 5 men and 4 women, are omitted from this table, as their hours were not reported. In one locality 7 males and 167 females worked 56 hours per week in summer and 60 hours in winter. These were distributed in the table, 3 males and 84 females being reported as working 56 hours and 4 males and 83 females as working 60 hours per week.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY WORKING
A SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK, BY SEX, 1901.
The number of piece workers reported far exceeds the number of employees paid by the day or hour, the percentage being 71.0 for the former as against 26.8 for the latter. For 2.2 per cent the method varies or is not reported. Time work predominates among male employees, however, 345, or 67.7 per cent, being so employed, while but 141, or 27.6 per cent, were piece workers. Among females 392, or 17.5 per cent, were time workers and 1,810, or 80.9 per cent, were piece workers.
Rates of earnings were obtained for but 247 males and 1,316 females a total of 1,563 employees, or but 56.9 per cent of the number considered in the other tables. The following table shows by sex the number of employees in the various branches of the tobacco industry whose weekly earnings are reported as equal to the amounts indicated:
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN TIIE TOBACCO INDUSTRY WITII SPECIFIED WEEKLY
EARNINGS, BY SEX AND CLASS OF PRODUCT, 1901.
Under 6 marks ($1.158).
2 12 31 24 28 24 31 31 30 21 31 17 3 1
1 1 9 11 12
2 1 4
Under 6 marks ($1.158)...
76 105 127 152 187 195 112 180 35
More than half (51.2 per cent) of the females reporting receive from 12 to 17.99 marks ($2.316 to $3.472) per week; while of the employees reported as receiving 18 marks ($3.474) weekly or over, 119 are males and 55 are females; these numbers representing 48.2 per cent and 4.2 per cent of the two classes, respectively.