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RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.
Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor and Industry for 1905. W. L. A. John
son, Commissioner. 156 pp.
The subjects presented in this report are considered under five titles, as follows: Manufacturing industries, 57 pages; labor organization statistics and analysis, 15 pages; strikes and labor difficulties, 18 pages; enforcement of labor laws, 16 pages, and proceedings of the Eighth Annual Convention, State Society of Labor, 40 pages.
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.—This chapter consists of statistics for the manufacturing industries, as reported for 1900 and 1905 by the United States Census Bureau, supplemented by data secured by and analysis based on investigations made by the State bureau, arranged in comparative summary tables.
LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.—Under this title the returns from 119 labor organizations are presented in tabular form. The information furnished shows the date of organization, membership and affiliation of the various organizations, average months of employment, daily hours of labor, percentage of members unemployed, average wages, and changes in rates of wages; strikes, with duration, members involved, days lost, wage loss, and result; and number of fatal and nonfatal accidents. On June 30, 1905, the membership of the 111 organizations making returns was 8,127. Increase in wages was reported by 18, and decrease in wages by 9 organizations. There were 42 fatal accidents and 169 nonfatal accidents during the year.
STRIKES AND LABOR DIFFICULTIES.-The data reported relative to strikes show that 20 organizations engaged in 22 strikes, involving 1,285 members. The number of days lost as reported by 10 organizations was 11,780, and the wage loss reported by 13 organizations was $68,732.81. The total amount of strike benefits paid out by 16 organizations reporting was $15,034.62. Of the strikes 10 were successful, 7 were partly successful, 3 were lost, and 2 were still pending at the time of the investigation.
Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor for the State of Louisiana,
1904-1905. Robert E. Lee, Commissioner. 139, xliv pp.
This is the third biennial report of statistics for the State. The subject-matter is treated of in 8 chapters, as follows: Labor laws of 1904, 4 pages; child labor, 34 pages; extending the powers of the commissioner to factory, mill, workshop, and store inspection, 5 pages; labor organizations, 9 pages; strikes and lockouts, and trade agreements, 64 pages; statistical tables of wages, etc., 13 pages; legal decisions affecting labor, 14 pages, and immigration, 32 pages.
LABOR LAWS.—Under this caption the laws enacted by the Louisiana general assembly during the session of 1904, affecting labor, are reproduced.
CHILD LABOR.-A discussion of child labor in regard to its effect on adult labor, the child, and the State is given under this title. Statistics are presented showing for each State the number of adult workers employed to every child under the age of 16 years employed in the manufacturing and mechanical industries. An address on “Child Labor in the United States and its Great Attendant Evils,” and one on “Child Labor Legislation in the South,” both made at a meeting of the National Child Labor Committee, held in New York in February, 1905; and an article on “What Constitute Effective Child-labor Laws,” prepared for the Consumers' League, are reproduced.
EXTENDING THE POWERS OF THE COMMISSIONER TO FACTORY, MILL, WORKSHOP, AND STORE INSPECTION.—This chapter consists of an argument favoring the extension of the powers of the commissioner so as to include the inspection of sanitary and hygienic conditions of factories, workshops, etc., providing for boiler inspection, and requiring safeguards on dangerous machinery.
LABOR ORGANIZATIONS OF LOUISIANA.-In this chapter is given the name and location of labor unions, central labor bodies and departmental councils, and federal labor unions in the State.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS AND TRADE AGREEMENTS, 1904-5.—This is a record of industrial disputes occurring in the State during the period covered by this report. The text of several trade agreements and contracts is published. In nearly every instance the dispute was settled by trade agreement or contract for terms varying from three and one-half years to five years.
STATISTICAL TABLES OF WAGES, ETC.—This chapter consists of a series of tables showing by industries the number of establishments reporting, and by occupation and sex the number of persons for whom data are reported, earnings per week for day workers and for pieceworkers, normal hours of daily and weekly labor, and the advance in wages.
LEGAL DECISIONS AFFECTING LABOR.—Under this head a number of decisions of various courts in the United States, in England, and in Canada are given.
MARYLAND. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information
of Maryland, 1905. Charles J. Fox, Chief. 369 pp.
The subjects presented in this report are as follows: Maryland, its resources and manufactures, 10 pages; Baltimore city, 12 pages; the counties of Maryland, 136 pages; free employment agency, 8 pages; employment of women and children, 17 pages; inspection of clothing manufacture, 18 påges; industrial disturbances, 24 pages; labor organizations, 12 pages; cost of living, 11 pages; idle workingmen, 4 pages; agricultural statistics, 1905, 3 pages; chattel and salary loaning concerns, 5 pages; negro census and negro property owners, 3 pages; new incorporations, 1905, 25 pages; conventions and conferences, 6 pages; immigration, 5 pages; labor laws, 51 pages.
MARYLAND, ITS RESOURCES AND MANUFACTURES.—This is a presentation of the natural advantages of the State resulting from its geographical position, climatic conditions, physical features, and mineral and other resources.
Under manufactures is shown, for 1905, by counties, statistics of all manufacturing industries in the State, as compiled by the United States Census Bureau. The following summarized statement gives for the State the number of establishments, capital invested, number of officials, clerks, etc., and salaries paid, average number of wage-earners, and total wages paid, expenses, cost of material, and value of product: Number of establishments..
3, 852 Capital invested.....
$201, 877,966 Number of salaried officials, clerks, etc.
8, 624 Amount paid in salaries....
$8, 843, 996 Average number of wage-earners.
94, 174 Amount paid in wages....
$36, 144, 244 Male employees 16 years of age or over..
63,492 Wages paid male employees.....
$29, 656, 349 Female employees 16 years of age or over.
25, 149 Wages paid female employees..
$5, 675, 452 Children under 16 years of age,
5, 533 Wages paid children...
$812, 443 Miscellaneous expenses.
$21, 904, 752 Cost of materials used.
$150, 024, 066 Value of products..
$243, 375, 996 BALTIMORE City. This chapter consists of a history of the establishment, growth, and development of the city, and an exposition of its educational facilities, industrial interests, financial condition, commercial activities, etc.
COUNTIES OF MARYLAND.—Under this caption is set forth an account of the resources, opportunities, advantages, manufactures, transportation facilities, natural products, etc., of each county in the State.
FREE EMPLOYMENT AGENCY.—During the year (1905) covered by this report there were 451 applications for positions-377 by males and 74 by females. As regards the vocations of the applicants, 73 were clerks, 39 laborers, 38 drivers, 25 farm hands, the balance being distributed among various occupations. Applications for help numbered 263—for male help, 155; for female help, 108. There were 122
positions filled—78 by males and 44 by females. As to character of positions filled, 34 were laborers, 23 berry pickers, 21 farm hands, 20 general house workers, etc.
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN.-A limited investigation during 1905 of this class of labor in factories, shops, and department stores was conducted for the purpose of securing data as to the extent in which women and children are employed. The facts secured embraced number and age of employees, sex and literacy of children, earnings, occupations, hours of labor, conditions as to sanitation, etc. The following table summarizes the information collected:
STATISTICS OF EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN, 1905.
The hours of labor per day in the places investigated ranged from 8} to 12, and time allowed for luncheon ranged from 30 minutes to 13 hours.
INSPECTION OF CLOTHING MANUFACTURE.—Since the opinion of the State court of appeals declared the factory and workshop inspection law constitutional the work of inspection of factories and sweat shops has practically revolutionized conditions in the garment-making trades in Baltimore.
During the year 1905, after inspection and report thereon, 1,292 permits were issued to contractors and individuals to work and employ 15,271 people in the manufacture of various articles pertaining to the clothing trade. Of the total permits, 697 were issued to factories and workshops and 595 to persons who worked in tenements and dwellings. Of children under 16 years of age there were employed 75 males and 182 females; of those under 14 years of age there were employed 34 males and 29 females. Tables, by inspection districts, give in detail number of employees by age and sex, hours of labor per day, and conditions, sanitary, social, etc., existing in connection with each tenement, dwelling, and workshop inspected.
INDUSTRIAL DISTURBANCES.— There were 10 strikes reported for the year, involving 2,586 persons (2,107 males and 479 females), with an estimated wage loss of $45,320. Of the strikes reported, 8 were ordered by organizations and 2 were not; 3 were for increase of wages, 3 were against nonunion men, 2 related to hours of labor, 1 was for recognition of union, and 1 was for pay for lost time; 5 strikes were successful and 5 failed.
LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.-Returns were received in 1905 from 84 unions, having a membership of 15,998. A list of the unions reporting is given, with name of organization, occupation of members, membership, hours constituting a day's work, wages per day, and names and addresses of officials. The hours of daily labor for 33 unions were reported to be 8; in 23 the hours were 9; in 13 the hours were 10; 2 worked 12 hours, and for the others the hours varied, being as low as 7 in one case and as high as 14 in another. Regarding changes in the wage scale, 25 organizations reported an increase ranging from small increases in individual cases to as high as 20 per cent.
Cost of Living.–Under this title comparative prices of various articles of food in the Baltimore markets are presented for the years 1892, 1895, and 1905. A table is also given showing the average monthly retail prices of the principal articles of food for 1905 compiled from prices quoted in the daily papers of Baltimore.
CHATTEL AND SALARY LOANING CONCERNS.- This chapter reproduces the act of 1902, “Regulating the loan of money, when, as security for such loan, a lien is taken upon household furniture," etc., and gives a list of 32 principal concerns loaning money in the city of Baltimore, together with class of security, amount of loan, legal cost with interest, actual charges for papers, recording, etc., how payable, term of loan, and amount actually paid to cancel the loan.
The charges of the loaning companies for papers, recording, application, etc., for a 6 months' loan of $25 on furniture ranged from $4.25 to $13.85. In the first case the rate of repayment was $5 per month for 6 months, or a total of $30; in the second, a monthly payment of $6.60 for 6 months, or a total of $39.60 was required to cancel the indebtedness.
NEGRO CENSUS AND NEGRO PROPERTY OWNERS.—This is an inquiry into the financial standing of the negro, with the view of ascertaining to what extent he is becoming a property owner. In 1904 there were in the city of Baltimore 81,381 negroes (23,848 male adults, 29,676 female adults, 14,565 male children, and 13,292 female children), and in the same year the real estate in Baltimore on which negroes paid taxes aggregated $617,662. In 1905 the assessable real estate of negro taxpayers in the State, exclusive of Baltimore city, approximated $3,000,000.
LABOR Laws.-Under this caption the various labor laws of the State are reproduced.