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in magnd mundi glorid, et diviti apparatu celebravit." Wherever the King kept his Court, or indeed wherever he resided, there was, of course, the general resort of all the great men of the time, who brought with them, no doubt, large retinues; and in so great a concourse it is no wonder there should be many disorderly and abandoned people, in spite of all edicts and penalties.

Hitherto I have met with very little mention of any Officers of the Court or Household. In this Reign, however, we hear of William de Tankerville, whom Lord Lyttelton calls, "Henry's Great Chamberlain." The Annotator on M. Rapin calls him only Chamberlain; and Matthew Paris, Camerarius; but this unquestionably means Treasurer, or High Treasurer, and not the great Officer we now understand by the Chamberlain, or the Great Chamberlain. The Latin term for these is Cambellanus, which Du Cange says, is—"diversus a Camerario, penes quern erat cura Camerce seu Thesauri Regii —Cambellano autem fuit cura Cubiculi*.

* Du Cange, Gloss, in voce Cambellanus.

We have the term Chamberlain, in the sense of Camerarius, still preserved in the City of London, where the Treasurer is called the Chamberlain, and the office the Chamber; and indeed this Officer, of every Corporation, is, for the most part, called the Chamberlain. In the account given by the Saxon Chronicle * of the persons who were so unfortunately drowned with Prince William, King Henry's son, in returning from Normandy, in the year 1120, it is said there perished "quamplurimi de Regis familia, Dispensatoresf, Cubicularii^, Pincernce§, aliique Ministri;" indeed all who were on board perished, except one man. These, it is supposed, were all menial and inferior Officers of the King's Household; those of a higher rank, and who appertained to the King's person, probably being on boa?d the same s.hip with himself,

* P. 222.

t The Dispensatores should seem to be something like our Gentlemen of the Buttery, Pantry, &c.; or such as delivered out provisions of various sorts. in their several provinces.

% The Cubicularii I have already supposed to mean the inferior Officers of the Bed-chamber.

§ The Pincerna, Butlers,— " Pincerna, qui Vinum Convivismiscet;" Du Cangein voce: and Pincernare, he says, is "Vinum praegustare priusquam Principi propinetur;" Idem in voce. So that it seems to be what we call A Yeoman of the Mouth.

STEPHEN.

Stephen, at his accession, found in his Uncle's Treasury upwards of 100,000Z. * besides plate and jewels, the fruits of Henry's rapacity and oppression, As Stephen came in upon a doubtful title, the people were willing to take this opportunity of securing themselves against future usurpations and exactions; and accordingly, after some debate about the succession, when Stephen was placed on the throne, they imposed a new oath upon their new King; which im-r ported, that he should fill the vacant Bishoprics, that he should not seize the Woods which belonged to private persons, upon frivolous pretences, as his Predecessors had done ; but be content with the Forests which belonged to the two Williams, and make restitution of such as Henry had usurped* The Bishops, on the other hand, took a conditional oath, that they would pay allegiance no longer than he should continue to maintain the privileges of the Church. All this, and more, Stephen afterwards confirmed by Charter; but yet it tended only to amuse the people, till he wag fully seated in his Throne, and felt himself a King; for, not many months after the signing the Charter, wherein he particularly covenants not to meddle with vacant Bishoprics, do we find that, upon the death of the Archbishop, he seized the revenues of the See of Canterbury, and kept them in his hands above two years. It is true, he only followed the examples of his Predecessors; but with this aggravation, that Stephen had given the most sacred engagements that can be had between men, that he would not intermeddle with the revenues of the vacant Bishoprics, but that they should be sequestered in the hands of Ecclesiastics till the vacancy was filled. No wonder then that a King, with so little regard to every tie, however sacred, should soon be involved in tumultuous scenes of disaffection and revolt. To heal this wound, and to buy off the reproaches of his subjects (of whose assistance he foresaw he should soon have occasion, in growing ruptures with neighbouringPowers), he not only became lavish of titles and honours, but alienated many of the Crown lands, to secure the interest of such as he thought might be serviceable to him. But this bounty had not the desired effect: some who accepted his favours thought them no more than their due; others, who were passed by, became jealous, and thought themselves neglected, and soon shewed their resentment, which proved the source of the approaching troubles. So difficult is it to regain the lost esteem of a brave and spirited people! One very great error in the politics of the preceding three Kings was, heaping favours and honours on the Normans, to the exclusion of the English; by which the affection

* William of Malmesbury; "iEstimabantur denarii fere ad centum millia libras," p. 179.

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