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covering what monies had been received, in every County, by the Sheriffs, &c. This was effected by Itinerant Justices, who were dispatched over the whole Kingdom; and, among other articles contained in their general commission, they were directed to inquire—" concerning the A.id to marry the King's Daughter, what was received in every hundred, in every township, and of every man, and who received it*." This took place in the year 1170, in the sixteenth year of the King's Reign.

With regard to this King's transfretations, as I have called them, he was not contented with mere feudal contributions in lieu of personal service; but, upon a rupture with France, respecting settlements upon an intended marriage between two Sons of Henry (Henry, the then eldest, and Richard, the then second Son) with two Daughters of France; the King commanded all his Tenants in capite, Earls, Barons, and Knights, to attend him in person, properly prepared with horse and arms, who were to serve a whole year in Normandy at their own charge *.

* From Brady's History, p. 309, who cites Geryas. Dorob. col. 1410.

To conclude all I have to observe upon the subject of exactions towards the King's expences in foreign wars, when he passed outre-mer; I can but remark one, which fell not a little heavy on the subject, imputable indeed to the religious frenzy of the times, which was occasioned by a joint resolution of Henry of England and Philip of France to go to the relief of Jerusalem, in what is known by the name of the Holy JVar. These levies were made in the most oppressive manner; every one who did not go in person being taxed to the extent of his property real and personal; and this was not called an Aid, a Subsidy, or a Tallage, but (forsooth!) an Alms f. It ought not to be forgotten that those who did go, whether Clerk orLayman, were to have a free pardon of all sins repented of; and their securities were God, St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Pope J. RICHARD I.

* Brady, 330; A. D. 1177.

t Consult Brady, who gives authorities, p.

X Ibid.

344.

The following Reign is too full of the business of the Holy War, with which Richard was, above all men, most infatuated, to afford much matter for our purpose. Henry had, by the good government and direction of his revenues, left behind him great treasures; but these, or ten times as much, would not answer the purpose of his Successor, who ransacked every corner of his Kingdom for money to carry on this work of zeal, which had seized all Christendom, whereby Richard, on the Throne of a great and opulent Kingdom, thought he saw so fair a prospect of reaping honour and renown.

Henry left in his treasury at Winchester more than nine hundred thousand pounds *, besides jewels, and other valuable things -j-; but this would go but a very little way towards recovering Jerusalem, which had been taken, and was now in the hands of the Saracens. Before the death of Henry, Richard had bound himself in a vow to Philip of France, to join in this undertaking; .and every one, ad Regis exemplum, strove either to go in person, or to supply money towards the expence of the expedition. Nothing, however sacred, could withstand Richard, in his schemes to raise money for this purpose. Most of the Crown lands which Henrv had, with so much prudence and address, but a few years before, recovered out of private hands, and annexed to the State, were again put up to public sale, to be purchased by such as were able. Every expedient was devised, to create a fund for this enterprize; and among the rest, he obtained of the Pope a power to dispense with the vows of such who had rashly engaged in the Crusade, by which he raised very large sums. The Bishop of Norwich paid him 1000 marks, to be excused. Where he could, he borrowed; and where he could not borrow, he compelled. The people murmured at his oppression, and the alienation of the estates of the Crown; but

* "Numero et Pondere." Brompton. t "Praeter Utensilia, et Jocalia, et Lapides pretiosos." Matthew Paris.

Richard told them, he would sell London itself, if he could meet with a purchaser. So great, however, was the general infatuation, that he had less difficulty in raising men than money. The Clergy laboured as zealously to procure him soldiers, as he himself had been active in raising subsidies; his army soon became very numerous, and at a cheap rate, for every officer and private soldier provided himself with necessaries. One would think the great wealth that Richard had amassed would have answered all his purposes; but in a few years after, he had occasion for fresh supplies, to carry on a war with Philip of France; not to mention the ransom which was paid for his release, on his being taken prisoner by the Emperor Henry, amounting to 150,000 marks, which were raised for the occasion by his subjects in England. Philip of France had so maltreated Richard, by leaguing himself with his Brother John, and bribing the Emperor to detain him prisoner, that, as soon as Richard returned home, he could no longer deny himself the satisfaction of revenge. His King

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