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THE text of Virgil has been remarkably well preserved. In the large number of Virgilian manuscripts there are as many as seven that can safely be assigned to an age as early as the fourth or fifth century. These are the following, all written in capital letters, square or rustic :
A. Fragmentum Augusteum, or Schedae Berolinenses, partly in Rome and partly in Berlin; containing portions of Georg. I and II, with Aen. IV, 302-305.
F. Schedae Vaticanae, in Rome; containing
G. Schedae Sangallenses, at St. Gall, Switzerland.
P. Codex Palatinus, in the Vatican Library,
EDITIONS AND COMMENTARIES
The Berne Scholia are edited by Hagen (1867). An account of all the ancient Virgilian commentators is given by Ribbeck in his Prolegomena, and by Conington, vol. i. The latest Index to Virgil's works is Wetmore's Index Verborum Vergilianus (1911).
Henry's Aeneidea (1873–92) is a valuable work on the interpretation of the Aeneid; so is Heinze's Virgils Epische Technik (1903). Glover's Studies in Virgil (1904) illuminates all of the poet's work. Other important books on Virgil are Sainte-Beuve's Etude sur Virgile (1859); Comparetti's Vergil in the Middle Ages (translated by Benecke, 1895); Nettleship's Virgil (1879); and Boissier's Nouvelles Promenades Archéologiques (1886), translated as The Country of Horace and Virgil, by Fisher (1895).
Noteworthy essays on Virgil are in Green's Stray Studies (1876); Sellar's Roman Poets of the Augustan Age: Virgil (2nd ed. 1883); F. W. H. Myers, Classical Essays (1883); Patin, Essais sur la Poésie latine (4th ed. 1900); Tyrrell, Latin Poetry (1898); Mackail, Latin Literature (3rd ed. 1899); Woodberry's Great Writers (New York, 1907).
R. Codex Romanus, in the Vatican Library. Out
V. Schedae Veronenses, a palimpsest at Verona.
Of the many cursive manuscripts, the most important are the Codex Gudianus (y) of the ninth century, and three codices Bernenses (a, b, c) of the same century.
For a full account of the MSS., see Henry, Aeneidea, vol. i, and Ribbeck, Prolegomena ad Vergilium, vol. iv.1
1 How far the capital MSS. are available is indicated at the side of the text by the several capital letters employed. The cursive MSS. are referred to only in the registry of variant readings at the foot of the page. When a MS. reading has been corrected by a later hand, the original and the correction are indicated respectively by the Arabic numerals 1 and 2.
EDITIONS AND COMMENTARIES
THE editio princeps appeared in Rome (probably 1469). Of subsequent editions the most important are those of Heinsius (1664-88), Heyne (1767-75, 4th ed. by Wagner, 1830-41), Ribbeck (1859-68), Forbiger (1872-75), Benoist (1876), Thilo (1886), Hirtzel (Clarendon Press, 1900). Complete annotated editions in English are by Kennedy (1879), Conington (completed and revised by Nettleship, 1st vol. reedited by Haverfield, 1881-83), Papillon (1882), Sidgwick (1890), Page (1900-2), and, in America, Greenough and Kittredge (with a complete vocabulary, 1899). Partial editions in various languages are very numerous, the most conspicuous of recent years being E. Norden's Aeneid, Book vi, with German commentary and translation (1903).1
The ancient commentary of Servius (fourth century) was printed as early as 1471, and is given in several editions of Virgil.2 It is edited separately by Lion (1826) and by Thilo and Hagen (1878 sqq.).
1 Certain disputed passages are discussed by the translator in the Fairclough-Brown edition of the Aeneid, Books I-VI (Sanborn and Co., Boston: latest reprint 1913), and in the Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association for 1907, vol. 38, pp. xxxvi ff.
2 Besides Servius, occasional references are made in the notes to the grammarians, Nonius, Charisius, Donatus, and Philargyrius.