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one must be, with certain modifications and with some exceptions, pretty much the same as those used in the other ; the main distinction being that in the one they may be somewhat inferior in quality, as they have to do less accurate work, and cannot be used long enough to bring their work to that degree of perfection, which they are able to attain in the other. The conclusion at which we have arrived, and which concerns immediately our present purpose, is, that in the education of both the middle and upper classes of society the same subjects of study and the same course of instruction should, with certain modifications and under certain limitations, be adopted; the leading exception being, that in the case of those who have the opportunity of pursuing their studies to a more advanced age, some subjects which are unsuitable for immature minds, or less developed faculties, may be added, while those which are being pursued in common by all, can by them be studied more deeply, widely, and thoroughly.

So, then, taking into account intellectual education onlyfor it is with this alone we are at present concerned — we shall have to consider what subject, or subjects, of study are best calculated to educe and supply healthful exercise to the various mental faculties, and to secure the harmonious development and perfect culture of the mind of man. No doubt that, if the human intellect were sufficiently vigorous and capacious to comprehend and retain it, this would be best effected by the study of the whole cycle of human knowledge; but as the acquisition of all that can be known by man is plainly impossible, even to the highest and most vigorous intellect, and we have to form an educational system which will suit minds of average grasp

it is quite plain that we must make a selection from among the various branches of human learning; and while we take into our course as many of these as can be fairly acquired by the student, not as a mere possession of the memory, but as part of his mental furniture, and in such a way as to expand and invigorate his mental powers, we must lay chief stress upon those which are most likely to promote the object which, in education, we have in view.

and power,

Now, the subject which first presses its claims for selection upon our attention is that of Language. Language is the expression of thought, and if not actually coextensive with it, yet it is the only medium by which thought can be embodied in a definite form in our own minds, and by which it can be conveyed to others. In studying language, then, we are to a considerable extent contemplating those mental processes of which it is the expression; in investigating its laws, we are investigating at the same time in no small degree the laws of thought; and therefore it is that Grammar may be regarded as to use the words of Her Majesty's Public School Commissioners (Report, p, 28), “the logic of common speech.” There must be a mutual action and reaction always going on between the inward process and its outward exponent; what calls forth and disciplines our faculty of language must also develop and train in no small degree our faculties of thought; vigour and clearness of verbal expression must be the counterpart of a certain force and lucidity of mind, corresponding in kind, if not coextensive in degree. Thus it is clear, from a priori considerations, that the study of language, in some form or other, is of essential importance as an intellectual discipline; and it follows, as a natural corollary, that the more perfect the language studied, the more perfect will be the discipline resulting therefrom.

When we speak of Language as a subject of study, we cannot exclude from our idea the subject matter which it conveys; the thought conveyed, as well as the mode of conveying it, the “matter,". as well as the “form,” must

come under consideration. With language, then, literature must ever be closely allied; for, though we may in idea dwell more sometimes on the one, and sometimes on the other, yet in fact they are indissolubly connected. And the study of literature commends itself to our notice independently, on its own merits, as "the study of the intellectual and moral world we live in(Report of Public School Commissioners, p. 28), and therefore suitable for the culture of the intellectual and moral beings who inhabit that world.

We have arrived, then, at this point in our inquiry ;language and literature seem to have a primary claim for a leading position among our subjects of study. We shall have hereafter to examine more fully how far this claim is tenable, by a comparison between the classical languages and literatures and other leading branches of learning, in respect of their educational value. We say the classical languages and literatures, because we shall show that, whereas we cannot possibly study all, or even any considerable number of languages, and their accompanying literatures, but must make a selection from among them of those most suitable for the discipline and culture of the mind, these are plainly entitled to this preeminence.


Now in whatever we may say in favour of the Classics occupying a prominent place in our educational course, we must carefully guard against being supposed to suggest that they ought to hold that exclusive position therein which they for so many generations have maintained. We shall not attempt for one moment to defend the untenable opinion, which has been fostered by the system so long, and even still to a considerable extent pursued in our public schools, that they are the only subjects suitable for mental discipline. On the contrary, it will be at once acknowledged that the languages and literatures of Greece and Rome form colThe only

lectively but one among many subjects suitable for the development and training of the mind of man. point proposed for discussion is, - whether they are the best adapted instruments for this purpose; whether they ought to occupy in our educational system the central position around which all other subjects should be arranged; whether, in other words, the place which these other subjects ought to take be one of equality with, or one (as Her Majesty's Public School Commissioners recommend) of subordination to, the Classics, as the foundation of the educational superstructure. Mr. Gladstone puts the matter at once on a right issue, when, in his letter to one of the Commissioners, he requires that the question whether “the classical training is the proper basis of a liberal education” should receive "a distinct affirmative, or a substantial negative,” and expresses a wish that “the relation of pure science, natural science, modern languages, modern history, and the rest to the old classical training ought to be founded on a principle;” denying, at the same time, on his part, “their right to a parallel or equal position," and maintaining that “their true position is ancillary, and, as ancillary, it ought to be limited and restrained without scruple, as much as a regard to the paramount matter of education may dictate.”(Report of Public School Commissioners, vol. ii.

pp. 42, 43.)

Whether it may be desirable, indeed, to have a principal subject of study at all is a matter which may at first sight admit of considerable doubt. It cannot be denied that true mental culture is the result of the blending together of many studies, each filling its own proper position, and each harmonising with every other. But it must be remembered that, for the purpose of effecting this harmonious blending, there should be some central study around which all should be gathered, and with reference to which each one should be


placed, instead of all being left to pursue, as it were, their own ways, and follow erratic orbits—a course likely to lead to intellectual chaos and confusion, rather than to harmonious composition and action of the intellectual elements. And further, it would appear that, in order to bring out the mental powers in their full vigour and development, they ought, in consequence of their limited nature and capacity, to be exercised in a limited sphere-a sphere not so narrow indeed as to impede their full expansion and free action, and yet not so wide as to render their energies aimless and discursive. And this seems to indicate the desirableness of selecting some one leading branch of study to which all others should be subordinated.

This point, then, having been ascertained, the question immediately arises, Ought the Classics to be this principal subject, which is to form the centre of our educational course? It must be at once admitted that classical studies cannot discipline and expand all our mental faculties, and therefore that they can only effect a part of our mental culture; yet, if it can be shown that they train a larger number of faculties in a more effective way, and that they are, in short, more potent instruments of culture than any other class of studies; if it can be ascertained that they form a real centre, about which a large number of branches of learning can naturally be arranged, their right to fill the leading, central position spoken of will have been satisfactorily established.

The course of our inquiry, then, has brought us now to the consideration of the influence of the study of the Classics in the exercise, expansion, and cultivation of the faculties of the intellect.

(1.) The study of the Classics exercises and strengthens the memory. The learning of grammatical paradigms and

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