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1. 71. gehaltene, self-restrained; cf. gehaltenen Schmerz, IX, 109. Page 96.-line 74. wir verändern (intransitive), we are making alterations.

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1. 75. fie reifen, they are getting ripe.· morgenden, to-morrow's. 1. 76. Cf. IV, 57.

1. 78. rückt... herüber, is moving this way across the sky.

1. 79. wetterleuchtend, with gleams of heat-lightning.

11. 80-81. This passage sounds like a reminiscence of the moonlight walk through the fields at Sesenheim, as told in D. und W., Buch X.

11. 83-90. In Goethe's novel, Elective Affinities (I, 7), there is a very similar situation (H.).'

1. 85. die Hände, acc. absolute.

1. 88. Notice the acc. in ihn.

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1. 89. roheren, cf. I, 160–62 n. 1. 90. fehlte tretend trat fehl, a classicism. Cf. 2a0ε áπε20úv. Notice three independent verbs in one verse, with epic asyndeton; knackte, made a snapping sound, “cracked.” It is not meant that any part was broken.

1. 91. gewandt, probably in the literal sense, having turned (toward her).- sinnige, thoughtful, ready-minded.

1. 95. die Schwere, the weight.

Page 97.-line 100. bedenkliche, apprehensive.

1. 104. der hinkenden Magd, a servant who limps.

The romantic element reaches its culmination. The vague charm of the summer landscape and of the moonlight,- so well interpreted by Longfellow in Evangeline-floods the poet's lines with tender senti

ment.

Even here the master shows self-restraint. The adored maiden faces very sensibly the facts of life; she reveals a high grade of refinement, and recognizes the value of conventional form; she makes revelation of that very promising element, a sense of humor. Hermann, holding himself in hand like a man, leads with strong arm his future bride who, while by no means devoid of personal initiative and self-reliance, accepts his guidance, thus typifying the secret of a happy wedded future. His sensitiveness in regard to the respect due to his father's dignity in the family is an ingratiating trait.

CANTO IX.

Title. Urania. Urania (literally, "the heavenly one") the muse of astronomy. Aussicht, the outlook into the future.

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Page 101. — lines 1-6. The direct invocation of the Muse is frequent at the opening of epics, as in the first lines of the Iliad and Odyssey, and Eneid, I, 8. So in Paradise Lost, I, 6:

Sing, heav'nly Muse.

Klopstock begins the Messias with an invocation to the immortal soul, and also invokes the divine creative spirit to consecrate the art of poetry. 11. 5-6. heraufziehn ... geschiehet. The historical present is not a feature of the epic style, and no other examples occur in the poem. 1. 8. erst soeben; cf. I, 182.

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1. 10. Nächte, cf. VIII, 56 n.

1. 14. ja (emphatic),

Page 102.

66

our own selves."

line 19. der Weisen, the philosophers.

1. 24. For the very free sentence-order cf. IX, 219 and I, 94–95 n. The objective point of the holiday-outing is that described at V, 151–58. 1. 25. dahin und dorthin. The accent is irregularly placed upon the first syllable of these compound adverbs when thus associated, in order to emphasize the contrast and alliteration.

1. 26. Treppen hinauf und hinab. Cf. note to I, 105-106.

11. 29-30. als ich es endlich gar zu thöricht betrieb, when, at length, I carried my foolishness altogether too far.

1. 32. The verse contains five dactyls, and expresses the sharp quickness of the father's reprimand.

1. 34. die fleißigen Stunden, acc. of duration of time.

11. 38-40. H. cites Longfellow's translation of the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Grave.

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1. 40. ein drückendes Dach. Cf. the frequent abbreviation on ancient Roman tombstones, S. T. T. L. Sit tibi terra levis! and Tibullus, II, iv, 50:

Terraque securæ sit super ossa levis !

Light be the earth upon thy lovèd clay! —

Page 103.

Cranstoun.

line 43. harrete ruhig der Kutsche. The usual

idiom is auf etwas (acc.) harren. The gen. is common in the older language, as in Psalm xxxi, 25.

11. 46-54. Des Todes... vollende! These beautiful lines, in letters of gold, were placed above the curtains which separated Goethe's coffin from those viewing his remains as they lay in state in the entrancehall of his house in Weimar, 1832. (Goethe-Jahrbuch, VI, 174.) The idea underlying the passage is that the thought of death should not act as a paralyzing terror, but as a tonic. The philosopher regards it as a call to "work, for the night is coming when man works no more." (There is perhaps some influence here of Spinoza's Ethics, lxvii: Homo liber de nulla re minus quam de morte cogitat et ejus sapientia non mortis sed vitæ meditatio est.) The religious man thinks of death as the gate-way to the happiness of heaven, and resolutely endures the cross for the joy that is set before him.

1. 49. zu künftigem Heil, depends directly upon Hoffnung.

11. 52-54. The dignity of human life is seen in both youth and age; the wise man draws inspiration from the contemplation of each.

11. 55-59. Even while the pastor is speaking of the joyous strength and significance of youth, the goodly figures of the hero and heroine come upon the scene, with striking dramatic effect.

1. 57. Bildung, cf. V, 167 n.

11. 62-64. Hermann evinces his embarrassment by calling on his mother to subject Dorothea to a sort of housekeeping-catechization on the spot. In the original story the maiden does narrate all her acquirements. (Hart.)

Page 104.-line 67. vor, at.

1. 70. unwillig (as usually), indignant, with irritation.

1. 77. Mit behaglicher Art, i.e. enjoying the humor of his own observation (W.). — in gutem Sinne, the original reading, is to be preferred to the current one, im guten Sinne.

1. 79. seiner Zeit, adverbial gen., in his day.

1. 83. sich, dat.

11. 86–87. ihm bebten die Glieder innen, his innermost frame shook.

1. 89. getroffen, wounded; similarly in ll. 104, 128, 130, 147, and at IV, 208.

Page 105. -- line 90. die Wange, acc. absolute.

1. 95. dem gebildeten Manne (an educated man) a man of higher station. The innkeeper belonged to the "Honoratioren " of the town.

1. 102. die frohen Bewohner gewiß macht, gives its happy inhabitants the feeling of security.

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1. 112. Cf. Odyssey, IX, 281 : "Nç púto ñɛipášwv, so he spake, tempting. Page 106. — line 116. Cf. VI, 249. Contracts for domestic service are enforced with considerable strictness in Germany, even at the present time.

1. 118. das Schwerste, the hardest thing.

1. 123. der Frauen, archaic gen. sing. showing survival of old declension of feminines in the sing., as in auf Erden, IX, 269. See Behaghel, Historical Grammar, ch. 4, and cf. Goethe's Iphigenie, 1. 24:

Der Frauen Zustand ist beklagenswert.

1. 126. stocken, stop work (W.).

1. 127. geschickt, apt, as at IV, 150-51.

1. 134. der verständige Mann, the man of (mere) intellect. Page 107. — line 140. zeige sich gleich, let that be disclosed at once. The reference is to the confession in ll. 149-50.

1. 141. stillverzehrendes, preying upon its silent victim. Cf. V, 74 n.

1. 142. darf... nicht, indicates a moral impossibility. 1. 144. Cf. Luke x, 42.

1. 155. der Himmlischen einer, an angel from heaven.

1. 158. ihn verdienen, become worthy of gaining him.

1. 161. The verse contains five spondees. Its original reading (dem stille Geliebten) seems theoretically preferable, but the longer form of the adverb led to the unfortunate misprint dem stillen Geliebten in the unauthorized reprints after 1798. Probably for this reason Goethe changed the verse for the edition of 1808.

1. 163. und wenn = wenn auch, even if.

Page 108. line 165. die Besinnung, the coming to my senses. 11. 169-70. It was one of Goethe's fundamental convictions that the surest way to be rid of a troublesome, haunting idea was to make a free expression of it.

1. 171. Aber das sei nur gesagt. A decided Grecism; cf. erodotus καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα μεν ειρήσθω (W.).

11. 174-76. Noticeable is the emphatic position of the thricerepeated Nicht.

1. 177. noch, nor yet.

1. 180. dem Strudel der Zeit, the whirling stream of the times.

1. 181. es ist nun geschehen, all is now over. Cf. Goethe, Der Fischer:

Da war's um ihn geschehn.

1. 186. mir, ethical dat. Cf. I, 207 n. diese vergeblichen Thränen. Cf. Tennyson, The Princess, iv:

Tears, idle tears, I know not what they mean.

Page 109. — line 193. beginnet, " performs," goes through with; cf. Beginnen, 1. 195.

1. 195. wunderliche, about equivalent to the English "remarkable" with the circumflex accent on the antepenult. Cf. III, 62.

1. 197. eilte, zur Kammer zu gehen,

Ouλapov, Odyssey, VI, 15.

1. 204. lieber, rather.

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the Homeric βῆ δ ̓ ἴμεν ἐς

11. 205-06. Hermann's moderation shows itself in his restrained appeal even at the most trying moment in the drama.

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Page 110. — line 225. das refers to Glück. (A different opinion is maintained by Düntzer in the Zeitschrift für den deutschen Unterricht VI, 573). Goethe developed great freedom, through classical influences, in the separation of the relative clause from its antecedent. See Lehmann, Goethe's Sprache und ihr Geist, p. 64 ff. For a striking example in Hermann und Dorothea, cf. VII, 183. Such separation is not unknown in English, as in Hamlet, V, 1: “As if it were Cain's jawbone, that did the first murther."

1. 227. herzlich mit Anmut, lovingly and gracefully (W.).

1. 232. mich ins Glück . . . finden, realize (get used to) my happi

ness.

1. 237. Traulich, cf. note to I. 59.

1. 240. In Germany both husband and wife wear the wedding-ring during life.

Page 111.

lines 247-48. Note the ceremonial solemnity of these lines. Among the Germans betrothal is considered almost as important a contract as marriage.

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