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1. 247. fünftigen Zeiten, for coming years.

11. 250-55. The pastor's apparent ignorance of Dorothea's former engagement has led some critics to see in VI, 186-90 a later interpolation, to which the present passage was not conformed. Such inconsistencies are not unknown in Goethe's works, notably in Faust.

ῥεῖ.

1. 259. der Freiheit, objective gen.; in prose, zur Freiheit.

1. 262. alles bewegt sich, everything is in an unsettled state, núvτа

Page 112.

line 264. The cæsura falls after the word auf.

1. 269. Cf. Psalm cxix, 19, and Paul Gerhardt's well-known hymn:

Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden

Und hab' hier keinen Stand;

Der Himmel soll mir werden
Da ist mein Vaterland.

1. 272. The allusion is doubtless to the performances of Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy in the year 1796, at which time he melted down into coin the silver statues belonging to the Cathedral of Milan. Cf. P. Lanfrey, History of Napoleon the First, I, 74, ch. iii.

1. 273. die Welt, die gestaltete, organized creation. 1. 278. fesselte, preterit subjunctive.

1. 279. soll es nicht sein, if it is not destined to be (“dis aliter visum"), cf. Scheffel, Trompeter von Säkkingen :

Behüet dich Gott! es wär' zu schön gewesen,

Behüet dich Gott, es hat nicht sollen sein!

1. 285. dem Guten, personal.

1. 286. sebe nur leicht den beweglichen Fuß auf, plant your roving foot but lightly.

1. 288. der Tag, the light of day, i.e. das Leben; an imitation of the use of huépa by the Greek poets.

11. 288-89. W. compares the two last lines of Schiller's Braut von Messina:

Das Leben ist der Güter höchstes nicht,
Der Übel größtes aber ist die Schuld.

Page 113. lines 295-96. H. quotes from Goethe's Vorspiel,

1807:

Ist dies der Erde fefter Boden?, . .

Im Schiffe steh' ich, wogend schwankt es hin und her.

1. 295. endlich, at last!

1. 304. wer fest auf dem Sinne beharrt, cf. Horace, Odes III, 3, 1:

Justum et tenacem propositi virum.

The just man who holds to his purpose.

- bildet die Welt sich, shapes the world to his own ends.
1. 305. die fürchterliche Bewegung, i.e. the Revolution.
1. 307. Dies, this land, this heritage (H.).

1. 311. meiner, more mine; a bold comparative, "coined for the occasion" (W.). H. quotes also from Arndt's Gesicht (1838): Und den allerschönsten Kleinen,

Ihn, den Traum und Wachen spinnen,

Ihn, den allermeinsten Meinen

Seh' ich funkeln mitten drinnen.

1. 312. Kummer, fear of loss (H.).

1. 314. so rüste mich selbst und reiche die Waffen. So in Seidl, Hans Euler:

Den Säbel, Marthe, weißt du, womit ich ihn erschlug ;
Und soll' ich nimmer kommen: :- - Tirol ist groß genug!

1. 316. sicher, fearless of peril.

1. 318. des friedens. Like Schiller's Lay of the Bell, our poem reaches its harmonious conclusion in the notes of "Peace on earth."

After the epic introduction, the canto shows humorous digression in the presence of the very height of the dramatic climax, somewhat as Shakespeare introduces the churchyard scene at the beginning of the fifth act in Hamlet. The noble and eloquent words of the pastor serve as overture to the entrance of the stately pair. An unanticipated and serious obstacle appears in the misunderstood words of the father, in which the height and strength of Dorothea's womanly spirit are developed, the situation being heightened by the action of the pastor, and still more by Dorothea's own confession of inclination for Hermann. His shyness, as well as the father's vehemence, stands in the way of relieving the intensely strained situation. Here it is that the enlightened wisdom of the cultivated and tactful man serves to accomplish the happy solution; just as this is brought about, a possible obstruction appears in the motive of Dorothea's first ring, but this only apparent

obstacle serves the important purpose of bringing in again at the close of the work the large political view, and thereby a solution, not only of the personal problem of the destiny of the young lovers, but also that of the fate of the German nation. The call for political union is sounded: in spite of the humiliation of the land, the sufferings of the people, and the power of the foe, the poem ends with a prophetic trumpet-call to hope and courage and victory, appealing to the essential soundness and manliness of the German character - as was anticipated in the introductory elegy:

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Aber es siege der Mut in dem gesunden Geschlecht!

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

IN the introduction (§ IV) is given some account of the history of the printed text. An extensive list of the editions and literature connected with the poem is contained in Goedeke's Grundriss zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung. Zweite Auflage, Bd. IV, S. 689-92. Dresden, 1891. The Bibliography in Hewett's Edition is the most complete, and includes translations, adaptations, dramatizations, and illustrations. Articles appearing in current periodicals are indexed under "Goethe" in the Bibliographie der deutschen Zeitschriften-Litteratur.

No attempt has been made to record in the following list all the editions which are called forth every year by the usefulness of our text for school-instruction. They are duly recorded, along with other editions, under the heading "Goethe" in Hinrichs' Bücherverzeichnis, published semi-annually in Leipzig.

The Jahresberichte für neuere deutsche Litteraturgeschichte (Leipzig, Göschen) contain a short but authoritative estimate of the noteworthy publications upon this subject for each year.

a. GENERAL REFERENCE.

Bernays, M. Ueber Kritik und Geschichte des Goetheschen Textes. Berlin, 1866.

Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe. 4te Auflage. Stuttgart, 1881.

Goethe-Jahrbuch. Herausgegeben von L. Geiger. Frankfort, since 1880. 19 vols. to 1898. Each volume contains an index.

Harnack, 0. Goethe in der Epoche
seiner Vollendung. Leipzig, 1887.
Heinemann, K. Goethe. Leipzig,
1895.

Minor, J. Neuhochdeutsche Metrik.
Strassburg, 1893.

Olbrich, C. Goethes Sprache und
die Antike. Leipzig, 1891.
Schiller. Ueber naive und sentiment-
ale Dichtung. Sämmtliche Schriften,

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Cholevius, L. Aesthetische und historische Einleitung, nebst fortlaufender Erläuterung zu Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea. 3te verbesserte Auflage von G. Klee. Leipzig, 1897.

Chuquet, A. Goethe, Hermann und

Dorothea. Édition nouvelle avec introduction et commentaire. Paris,

1886.

Funke, A.

Hermann und Dorothea mit Erläuterungen. 9te verbesserte Auflage. Paderborn, 1897. Goethe's Werke. Herausgegeben im Auftrage der Grossherzogin Sophie von Sachsen. Weimar, 1887 ff. Abt. 1. Literary works. The volume containing Hermann und Dorothea is under the editorship of Dr. Hermann Schreyer, and is expected to appear in 1899. Goethe's Werke. Nach den vorzüglichsten Quellen, revidirte Ausgabe. Bde. 1-36. Hempel, Berlin (1868-1879).

Goethe's Werke. (Kürschner's Deutsche National-Litteratur, vol. 86.) Goethe's Werke, Fünfter Teil, herausgegeben mit Anmerkungen von H. Düntzer.

Hart, J. M. Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea, edited with an introduction, commentary, etc. New York, 1875. Hewett, W. T. Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea, edited with an introduction and notes. Tenth edition. Boston, 1898.

Levy, B. Hermann et Dorothée de Goethe. Paris, 1864. Nouvelle édition, 1891.

Lichtenheld, A. Hermann und Dorothea. Graeser's Schulausgaben classischer Werke. 15th thousand. Vienna, 1892.

Machold, W. Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea, erläutert für den Schulgebrauch. Gera, 1889. Thomas, C. Hermann und Dorothea, edited with introduction and notes. New York, 1891. Last edition with vocabulary, 1897.

Wagner, W. Goethe's Hermann

and Dorothea with an introduction and notes. New edition revised by J. W. Cartmell. Cambridge, 1889. Last edition, London, 1892. Wychgram, J. Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea. Sammlung deutscher Schulausgaben. Bielefeld, 1895.

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