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speak not of many More: Want of Water ; Want of Wood, Shade, and Shelter; Want of Fruitfulness, and mixture of Grounds of several Natures; Want of Prospect; Want of level Grounds; Want of Places, at some near Distance, for Sports of Hunting, Hawking, and Races; too near the Sea, too remote; having the Commodity of Navigable Rivers, or the Discommodity of their Overãowing; too far off from great Cities, which may hinder Business; or too near them, which lurcheth all Provisions, and maketh every Thing dear : Where a Man hath a great Living laid together, and where he is scanted: All which, as it is impossible, perhaps, to find together, so it is good to know them, and think of them, that a Man may take as many as he can : And if he have several Dwellings, that he sort them so, that what he wanteth in the one, he may find in the other. Lucullus answered Pompey well; who when he saw his Stately Galleries, and Rooms, fo large and lightsome, in one of his Houses, said ; Surely, an excellent Place for Summer, but how do you in Winter? Lucullus answered; Why, do you not think me as wise as some Fowls are, that ever change their Abode towards the Winter ?
To pass from the Seat, to the House itself; we will do as Cicero doth, in the Orator's Art; who writes Books De Oratore, and a Book he entitles Orator : Whereof the Former delivers the Precepts of the Art; and the Latter the Perfection. We will therefore describe a Princely Palace, making a brief Model thereof. For it is strange to see, now in Europe, such huge Buildings, as the Vatican, and Escurial, and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair Room in them.
First therefore, I say, you cannot have a perfect Palace, except you have two several Sides; a Side for the Banquet, as is spoken of in the Book of Hefter; and a Side, for the Household: The one for Feasts and Triumphs, and the other for Dwelling. I understand both these Sides to be not only Returns, but Parts of the Front; and to be uniform without, though severally partitioned within ; and to be on both sides, of a Great and Stately Tower, in the midst of the Front; that as it were, joineth them together, on either Hand. I would have on the Side of the Banquet, in Front, one only goodly Room, above Stairs, of some Forty Foot high ; And under it, a Room, for a dressing or preparing Place, at Times of Triumphs. On the other Side, which is the Household Side, I wish it divided at the first, into a Hall, and a Chapel (with a Partition between); both of good State, and Bignels : And those not to go all the length, but to have, at the further end, a Winter, and a Summer Parlour, both fair. And under these Rooms, a fair and large Cellar, funk under Ground: And likewise, some privy Kitchens, with Butteries, and Pantries, and the like. As for the Tower, I would have it two Stories, of Eighteen Foot high apiece, above the two Wings; and a goodly Leads upon the Top, railed with Statues interposed; and the same Tower to be divided into Rooms, as shall be thought fit. The Stairs likewise, to the upper Rooms, let them be upon a fair open Newel, and finely railed in, with Images of Wood, cast into a Brass Colour : And a very fair Landing Place at the Top. But this to be, if you do not point any of the lower Rooms, for a Dining Place of Servants. For otherwise, you shall have the Servants' Dinner after your own: For the Steam of it will come up as in a Tunnel. And so much for the Front. Only, I understand the Height of the first Stairs, to be Sixteen Foot, which is the Height of the Lower Room.
Beyond this Front, is there to be a fair Court, but three sides of it, of a far Lower building, than the Front. And in all the four Corners of that Court, fair Stair Cases, caft into Turrets, on the Outside, and not within the Row of Buildings themselves. But those Towers are not to be of the Height of the Front; but rather proportionable to the Lower Building. Let the Court not be paved, for that striketh up a great Heat in Summer, and much Cold in Winter. But only fome Side Alleys, with a Crofs, and the Quarters to Graze, being kept Shorn, but not too near Shorn. The Row of Return, on the Banquet Side, let it be all Stately Galleries; in which Galleries, let there be three, or five, fine Cupolas, in the Length of it, placed at equal distance: And fine coloured Windows of several works. On the Household Side, Chambers of Presence, and ordinary Entertainments, with fome Bed-chambers; and let all three Sides, be a double House, without thorough Lights, on the Sides, that you may have Rooms from the Sun, both for Forenoon, and Afternoon. Caft it also, that you may have Rooms, both for Summer, and Winter: Shady for Summer, and Warm for Winter. You shall have sometimes fair Houses, so full of Glass, that one cannot tell, where to become, to be out of the Sun, or Cold: For Inbowed Windows, I hold them of good Use (in Cities indeed, upright do better, in respect of the Uniformity towards the Street); for they be pretty Retiring Places for Conference; and besides, they keep both the Wind, and Sun off: For that which would strike almost through the Room, doth scarce pass the Window. But let them be but few, Four in the Court, on the Sides only.
Beyond this Court, let there be an inward Court of the same Square, and Height; which is to be environed with the Garden, on all Sides: And in the Inside, cloistered on all Sides, upon decent and beautiful Arches, as High as the first Story. On the under Story, towards the Garden, let it be turned to Grotto, or Place of Shade, or Eftivation. And only have opening and Windows towards the Garden; and be level upon the Floor, no whit funk under Ground, to avoid all Dampishness. And let there be a Fountain, or some fair Work of Statues, in the Midst of this Court; and to be paved as the other Court was. These Buildings to be for privy Lodgings, on both sides; and the End, for privy Galleries. Whereof, you must foresee, that one of them be for an Infirmary, if the Prince, or any Special Person should be Sick, with Chambers, Bedchamber, Anti-camera, and Recamera, joining to it. This upon the Second Story. Upon the Ground Story, a fair Gallery, open, upon Pillars : And upon the Third Story likewise, an open Gallery upon Pillars, to take the Prospect, and Freshness of the Garden. At both Corners of the further Side, by way of Return, let there be two delicate or rich Cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline Glass, and a rich Cupola in the Midst; and all other Elegancy that can be thought upon. In the Upper Gallery too, I wish that there may be, if the Place will yield it, fome Fountains running, in divers Places, from the Wall, with some fine Avoidances. And thus much, for the Model of the Palace: Save that, you must have, before you come to the Front, three Courts. A Green Court Plain, with a Wall about it: A Second Court of the fame, but more garnished, with little Turrets, or rather Embellishments, upon the Wall: And a Third Court, to make a Square with the Front, but not to be built, nor yet enclosed with a Naked Wall, but enclosed with Terraces, leaded aloft, and fairly garnished, on the three Sides; and cloistered on the Inside, with Pillars, and not with Arches Below. As for Offices, let them stand at Distance, with some low Galleries, to pass from them, to the Palace itself.