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but none in the main Garden. I wish also, in the very middle, a fair Mount, with three Ascents and Alleys, enough for Four to walk abreast; which I would have to be perfect Circles, without any Bulwarks, or Imbossments; and the whole Mount, to be Thirty Foot high ; and some fine Banquetting House, with some Chimneys neatly cast, and without too much Glass.
For Fountains, they are a great Beauty, and Refreshment; but Pools mar all, and make the Garden unwholesome, and full of Flies, and Frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two Natures : The One, that sprinkleth or spouteth Water; the other, a fair Receipt of Water, of some Thirty or Forty Foot Square, but without Fish, or Slime, or Mud. For the first, the Ornaments of Images gilt, or of Marble, which are in use, do well: But the main Matter is, so to convey the Water, as it never Stay, either in the Bowls, or in the Cistern; that the Water be never by Rest discoloured, green, or red, or the like; or gather any Mosiness Putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the Hand. Also some Steps up to it, and some fine Pavement about it, doth well. As for the other kind of Fountain, which we may call a Bathing Pool, it may admit much Curiosity, and Beauty; wherewith we will not trouble ourselves : As, that the Bottom be finely paved, and with Images: The fides likewise; and withal embellished with coloured Glass, and such things of lustre; encompassed also, with fine Rails of low Statues. But the main Point is the fame, which we mentioned, in the former kind of Fountain; which is, that the Water be in Perpetual Motion, fed by a Water higher than the Pool, and delivered into it by fair Spouts, and then discharged away under Ground, by some equality of Bores, that it stay little. And for fine Devices, of arching water without Spilling, and Making it rise in several Forms (of Feathers, Drinking Glasses, Canopies, and the like), they be pretty things to look, but nothing to Health and Sweetness.
For the Heath, which was the Third Part of our Plot, I wish it to be framed, as much as may be, to a natural Wildness. Trees I would have none in it; but some Thickets, made only of Sweetbriar, and Honeysuckle, and some Wild Vine amongst; and the Ground set with Violets, Strawberries, and Primroses. For these are sweet, and prosper in the Shade. And these to be in the Heath, here and there, not in any Order. I like also little Heaps, in the Nature of Molehills, (such as are in Wild Heaths) to be set, some with Wild Thyme; some with Pinks ; fome with Germander, that gives a good Flower to the Eye; some with Periwinkle ; some with Violets; some with Strawberries; some with Cowslips; some with Daisies; some with red Roses; fome with Lilium Convallium ; fome with Sweet-Williams red; some with Bearsfoot; and the like low Flowers, being withal sweet, and sightly. Part of which Heaps, to be with Standards of little Bushes, pricked upon their Top, and Part without. The Standards to be Roses; Juniper ; Holly; Barberries (but here and there, because of the Smell of their Blossom); Red Currants; Goose-berries; Rosemary; Bays; Sweetbriar; and such like. But these Standards, to be kept with Cutting, that they grow not out of Course.
For the Side Grounds, you are to fill them with Variety of Alleys, Private, to give a full Shade ; some of them, wheresoever the Sun be. You are to frame fome of them likewise for Shelter, that when the Wind blows sharp, you may walk, as in a Gallery. And those Alleys must be likewise hedged, at both Ends, to keep out the Wind; and these closer Alleys, must be ever finely gravelled, and no Grass, because of going wet. In many of these Alleys likewise, you are to set Fruit Trees of all Sorts; as well upon the Walls, as in Ranges. And this would be generally observed, that the Borders, wherein you plant your Fruit Trees, be fair and large, and low, and not steep; and set with fine Flowers, but thin and sparingly, left they deceive the Trees. At the End of both the Side Grounds, I would have a Mount of some pretty Height, leaving the Wall of the Enclosure breast high, to look abroad into the fields.
For the Main Garden, I do not deny, but there should be some fair Alleys, ranged on both Sides, with Fruit Trees; and some pretty Tufts of Fruit Trees, and Arbours with Seats, set in some decent Order ; but these to be, by no Means, set too thick; but to leave the Main Garden, so as it be not close, but the Air open and free. For as for Shade, I would have you rest, upon the Alleys of
Side Grounds, there to walk, if you be disposed, in the Heat of the Year, or Day; but to make account, that the Main Garden, is for the more temperate parts of the Year; and in the Heat of Summer, for the Morning, and the Evening, or Overcast Days.
For Aviaries, I like them not, except they be of that Largeness, as they may be Turfed, and have living Plants, and Bushes, fet in them; that the Birds may have more Scope, and natural Nestling, and that no Foulness appear in the Floor of the Aviary. So I have made a Platform of a princely Garden, partly by Precept, partly by Drawing, not a Model, but some general lines of it; and in this I have spared for no Cost. But it is nothing for great Princes, that for the most Part, taking advice with Workmen, with no less Cost, set their Things together; and sometimes add Statues, and such Things, for State and Magnificence, but nothing to the true Pleasure of a Garden.
XLVII. Of Negotiating.
T is generally better to deal by Speech,
than by Letter; and by the Mediation of a Third, than by a Man's Self.
Letters are good, when a Man would draw an answer by Letter back again; or when it may serve, for a Man's Justification, afterwards to produce his own Letter ; or where it may be Dan
ger to be interrupted, or heard by Pieces. To deal in Person is good, when a Man's Face breedeth Regard, as commonly with Inferiors; or in tender Cases, where a Man's Eye, upon the Countenance of him with whom he speaketh, may give him a Direction, how far to go: And generally, where a Man will reserve to himself Liberty, either to difavow, or to expound. In choice of Instruments, it is better to choose Men of a plainer Sort, that are like to do that, that is committed to them, and to report back again faithfully the Success; than those, that are cunning to contrive out of other Men's Business, somewhat to grace themselves ; and will help the Matter, in Report, for Satisfaction’ sake. Use also such Persons, as affect the Business, wherein they are employed; for that quickeneth much; and such, as are Fit for the Matter, as bold Men for Expoftulation, fair spoken Men for Persuasion, crafty Men for Enquiry and Observation, froward and absurd Men for Business that doth not well bear out itself. Use also such, as have been lucky, and prevailed before in Things wherein you have employed them; for that breeds Confidence, and they will strive to maintain their Prescription. It is better, to sound a Person, with whom one deals, afar off, than to fall upon the point at First; except you mean to surprise him by some short Question. It is better dealing with Men in Appetite, than with those that are where they would be. If a Man deal with another upon Conditions, the Start or First Performance is all ; which a Man cannot reasonably demand, except