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her Husband, and Disimulation of her son: attributing Arts or Policy to Augustus, and Disimulation to Tiberius. And again, when Mucianus encourageth Vespasian to take Arms against Vitellius, he saith, We rise not against the Piercing Judgement of Augustus, nor the Extreme Caution or Closeness of Tiberius. These Properties of Arts or Policy, and Disimulation or Closeness, are indeed Habits and Faculties several, and to be distinguished. For if a Man have that Penetration of Judgement, as he can discern what Things are to be laid open, and what to be secreted, and what to be shewed at Half-lights, and to whom, and when, (which indeed are Arts of State, and Arts of Life, as Tacitus well calleth them) to him a Habit of Diffimulation is a Hinderance, and a Poorness. But if a Man cannot obtain to that Judgement, then it is left to him, generally, to be Close, and a Dissembler. For where a Man cannot choose, or vary in Particulars, there it is good to take the safest and wariest Way in general ; like the Going softly by one that cannot well fee. Certainly the ablest Men, that ever were, have had all an Openness; and Frankness of dealing ; and a name of Certainty, and Veracity ; but then they were like Horses, well managed; for they could tell paffing well, when to stop, or turn: And at such times, when they thought the Case indeed required Diffimulation, if then they used it, it came to pass, that the former Opinion, spread abroad of their good Faith, and Clearness of dealing, made them almost invisible.

There be three degrees, of this Hiding, and Vailing of a Man's Self. The first Closeness, Reservation, and Secrecy; when a Man leaveth himself without Observation, or without Hold to be taken, what he is. The second Diffimulation, in the Negative; when a Man lets fall Signs, and Arguments, that he is not, that he is. And the third Simulation, in the Affirmative; when a Man industriously, and exprefly, feigns, and pretends to be, that he is not.

For the first of these, Secrecy : It is indeed, the Virtue of a Confessor; and assuredly, the Secret Man heareth many Confeffions; for who will open himself to a Blab or a Babbler? But if a Man be thought Secret, it inviteth Discovery; as the more Close Air sucketh in the more Open: And as in Confession, the Revealing is not for worldly Use, but for the Ease of a Man's Heart; so Secret Men come to the Knowledge of many Things, in that Kind; while Men rather discharge their Minds, than impart their Minds. In few words, Mysteries are due to Secrecy. Besides (to say Truth) Nakedness is uncomely, as well in Mind, as Body; and it addeth no small Reverence to Men's Manners and Actions, if they be not altogether Open. As for Talkers and Futile Persons, they are commonly vain, and credulous withal. For he that talketh what he knoweth, will also talk what he knoweth not. Therefore set it down, That an Habit of Secrecy is both Por litic, and Moral. And in this part, it is good, that a Man's Face give his Tongue leave to Speak. For the Discovery of a Man's Self, by the Tracts of his Countenance, is a great Weakness, and Betraying: By how much, it is many times, more marked and believed, than a Man's words.

For the second, which is Dissimulation : It followeth many times upon Secrecy, by a necessity : So that he that will be Secret, must be a Disembler, in some degree. For Men are too cunning, to suffer a Man to keep an indifferent carriage between both, and to be Secret, without Swaying the Balance, on either side. They will so beset a Man with Questions, and draw him on, and pick it out of him, that without an absurd Silence, he must show an Inclination, one way: Or if he do not, they will gather as much by his Silence, as by his Speech. As for Equivocations, or Oraculous Speeches, they cannot hold out long. So that no man can be secret, except he give himself a little Scope of Disimulation ; which is, as it were, but the Skirts or Train of Secrecy.

But for the third Degree, which is Simulation, and false Profession; That I hold more culpable, and less politic ; except it be in great and rare Matters. And therefore a general Custom of Simulation (which is this last Degree) is a Vice, rising, either of a natural Falseness, or Fearfulness ; Or of a mind, that hath some main Faults: which, because a Man must needs disguise, it maketh him practise Simulation, in other things, left his Hand Ihould be out of use.

The Advantages of Simulation and Disimulation, are three. First to lay asleep Opposition, and to

Surprise. For where a Man's Intentions are published, it is an Alarum, to call up all that are against them. The second is, to reserve to a Man's Self a fair Retreat : For if a man engage himself, by a manifest Declaration, he must go through, or take a Fall. The third is, the better to discover the Mind of another. For to him that opens himself, Men will hardly show themselves adverse; but will (fair) let him go on, and turn their Freedom of Speech to Freedom of Thought. And therefore, it is a good shrewd Proverb of the Spaniard ; Tell a Lie and find a Truth. As if there were no way of Discovery, but by Simulation. There be also three Disadvantages, to set it even. The first, That Simulation and Dissimulation, commonly carry with them, a Show of Fearfulness, which in any Business, doth spoil the Feathers, of round Aying up to the Mark. The second, that it puzzleth and perplexeth the Conceits of many, that perhaps would otherwise co-operate with him; and makes a Man walk, almost alone, to his own Ends. The third and greatest is, that it depriveth a Man of one of the most principal Instruments for Action; which is Trust and Belief. The best Composition, and Temperature is, to have Openness in Fame and Opinion ; Secrecy in Habit; Disimulation in seasonable use; and a Power to feign, if there be no Remedy.

VII. Of Parents and Children.

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HE Joys of Parents are secret; and so are their Griefs, and Fears: They cannot utter the one ; nor they will

not utter the other. Children sweeten Labours ; but they make Misfortunes more bitter : They increase the Cares of Life; but they mitigate the Remembrance of Death. The Perpetuity by Generation is common to Beasts; but Memory, Merit, and noble Works, are proper to Men: And surely a Man shall see the noblest Works, and Foundations, have proceeded from Childless Men; which have fought to express the Images of their Minds, where those of their Bodies have failed : So the care of Posterity, is most in them, that have no Posterity. They that are the first Raisers of their Houses, are most indulgent towards their Children; beholding them as the Continuance, not only of their kind, but of their Work: And so both Children, and Greatures.

The difference in Affection, of Parents, towards their several Children, is many times unequal, and sometimes unworthy; especially in the Mother : As Solomon faith ; A wise Son rejoiceth the Father ; but an ungracious Son Mames the Mother. A Man shall fee, where there is a House full of Children, one or two of the Eldest respected, and the Youngest made wantons : But in the midst, some

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